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  • 1.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barnes, Michele L.
    McAllister, Ryan R. J.
    Rocha, Juan Carlos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Swedish Royal Academy of Science, Sweden; Princeton University, USA.
    Guerrero, Angela M.
    Social-Ecological Network Approaches in Interdisciplinary Research: A Response to Bohan et al. and Dee et al.2017In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 547-549Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Chapin, F. Stuart, III
    et al.
    Carpenter, Stephen R.
    Kofinas, Gary P.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Abel, Nick
    Clark, William C.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Smith, D. Mark Stafford
    Walker, Brian
    Young, Oran R.
    Berkes, Fikret
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Grove, J. Morgan
    Naylor, Rosamond L.
    Pinkerton, Evelyn
    Steffen, Will
    Swanson, Frederick J.
    Ecosystem stewardship: sustainability strategies for a rapidly changing planet2010In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 241-249Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem stewardship is an action-oriented framework intended to foster the social ecological sustainability of a rapidly changing planet. Recent developments identify three strategies that make optimal use of current understanding in an environment of inevitable uncertainty and abrupt change: reducing the magnitude of, and exposure and sensitivity to, known stresses; focusing on proactive policies that shape change; and avoiding or escaping unsustainable social ecological traps. As we discuss here, all social ecological systems are vulnerable to recent and projected changes but have sources of adaptive capacity and resilience that can sustain ecosystem services and human well-being through active ecosystem stewardship.

  • 3. Cumming, Graeme S.
    et al.
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Unifying Research on Social-Ecological Resilience and Collapse2017In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 32, no 9, p. 695-713Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystems influence human societies, leading people to manage ecosystems for human benefit. Poor environmental management can lead to reduced ecological resilience and social-ecological collapse. We review research on resilience and collapse across different systems and propose a unifying social-ecological framework based on (i) a clear definition of system identity; (ii) the use of quantitative thresholds to define collapse; (iii) relating collapse processes to system structure; and (iv) explicit comparison of alternative hypotheses and models of collapse. Analysis of 17 representative cases identified 14 mechanisms, in five classes, that explain social-ecological collapse. System structure influences the kind of collapse a system may experience. Mechanistic theories of collapse that unite structure and process can make fundamental contributions to solving global environmental problems.

  • 4. Dall, Sasha R. X.
    et al.
    McNamara, John M.
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Genes as cues: phenotypic integration of genetic and epigenetic information from a Darwinian perspective2015In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 327-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of multicellular organisms involves a delicate interplay between genetic and environmental influences. It is often useful to think of developmental systems as integrating available sources of information about current conditions to produce organisms. Genes and inherited physiology provide cues, as does the state of the environment during development. The integration systems themselves are under genetic control and subject to Darwinian selection, so we expect them to evolve to produce organisms that fit well with current ecological (including social) conditions. We argue for the scientific value of this explicitly informational perspective by providing detailed examples of how it can elucidate taxonomically diverse phenomena. We also present a general framework for linking genetic and phenotypic variation from an informational perspective. This application of Darwinian logic at the organismal level can elucidate genetic influences on phenotypic variation in novel and counterintuitive ways.

  • 5. Fischer, Joern
    et al.
    Abson, David J.
    Bergsten, Arvid
    Collier, Neil French
    Dorresteijn, Ine
    Hanspach, Jan
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Schultner, Jannik
    Senbeta, Feyera
    Reframing the Food-Biodiversity Challenge2017In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 335-345Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the serious limitations of production-oriented frameworks, we offer here a new conceptual framework for how to analyze the nexus of food security and biodiversity conservation. We introduce four archetypes of social-ecological system states corresponding to win-win (e.g., agroecology), win-lose (e.g., intensive agriculture), lose-win (e.g., fortress conservation), and lose-lose (e.g., degraded landscapes) outcomes for food security and biodiversity conservation. Each archetype is shaped by characteristic external drivers, exhibits characteristic internal social-ecological features, and has characteristic feedbacks that maintain it. This framework shifts the emphasis from focusing on production only to considering social-ecological dynamics, and enables comparison among landscapes. Moreover, examining drivers and feedbacks facilitates the analysis of possible transitions between system states (e.g., from a lose-lose outcome to a more preferred outcome).

  • 6. Fischer, Joern
    et al.
    Abson, David J.
    Bergsten, Arvid
    Collier, Neil French
    Dorresteijn, Ine
    Hanspach, Jan
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Schultner, Jannik
    Senbeta, Feyera
    We Need Qualitative Progress to Address the Food-Biodiversity Nexus: A Reply to Seppelt et al.2017In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 32, no 9, p. 632-633Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7. Fischer, Joern
    et al.
    Peterson, Garry D
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Gardner, Toby A
    Gordon, Line J
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Fazey, Ioan
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Felton, Adam
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Dovers, Stephen
    Integrating resilience thinking and optimisation for conservation.2009In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 24, no 10, p. 549-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conservation strategies need to be both effective and efficient to be successful. To this end, two bodies of research should be integrated, namely 'resilience thinking' and 'optimisation for conservation,' both of which are highly policy relevant but to date have evolved largely separately. Resilience thinking provides an integrated perspective for analysis, emphasising the potential of nonlinear changes and the interdependency of social and ecological systems. By contrast, optimisation for conservation is an outcome-oriented tool that recognises resource scarcity and the need to make rational and transparent decisions. Here we propose that actively embedding optimisation analyses within a resilience-thinking framework could draw on the complementary strengths of the two bodies of work, thereby promoting cost-effective and enduring conservation outcomes.

  • 8.
    Galaz, Victor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gars, Johan
    Moberg, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Repinski, Cecilia
    Why Ecologists Should Care about Financial Markets2015In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 30, no 10, p. 571-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Financial actors such as international banks and investors play an important role in the global economy. This role is shifting due to financial innovations, increased sustainability ambitions from large financial actors, and changes in international commodity markets. These changes are creating new global connections that potentially make financial markets, actors, and instruments important aspects of global environmental change. Despite this, the way financial markets and actors affect ecosystem change in different parts of the world has seldom been elaborated in the literature. We summarize these financial trends, explore how they connect to ecosystems and ecological change in both direct and indirect ways, and elaborate on crucial research gaps.

  • 9.
    Galaz, Victor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Mouazen, Abdul M.
    'New Wilderness' Requires Algorithmic Transparency: A Response to Cantrell et al.2017In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 32, no 9, p. 628-629Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Gordon, Line J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Bennett, Elena M.
    Agricultural modifications of hydrological flows create ecological surprises2008In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 211-219Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural expansion and intensification have altered the quantity and quality of global water flows. Research suggests that these changes have increased the risk of catastrophic ecosystem regime shifts. We identify and review evidence for agriculture-related regime shifts in three parts of the hydrological cycle: interactions between agriculture and aquatic systems, agriculture and soil, and agriculture and the atmosphere. We describe the processes that shape these regime shifts and the scales at which they operate. As global demands for agriculture and water continue to grow, it is increasingly urgent for ecologists to develop new ways of anticipating, analyzing and managing nonlinear changes across scales in human-dominated landscapes.

  • 11. Hughes, Terry P.
    et al.
    Carpenter, Stephen
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Scheffer, Marten
    Walker, Brian
    Multiscale regime shifts and planetary boundaries2013In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 389-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life on Earth has repeatedly displayed abrupt and massive changes in the past, and there is no reason to expect that comparable planetary-scale regime shifts will not continue in the future. Different lines of evidence indicate that regime shifts occur when the climate or biosphere transgresses a tipping point. Whether human activities will trigger such a global event in the near future is uncertain, due to critical knowledge gaps. In particular, we lack understanding of how regime shifts propagate across scales, and whether local or regional tipping points can lead to global transitions. The ongoing disruption of ecosystems and climate, combined with unprecedented breakdown of isolation by human migration and trade, highlights the need to operate within safe planetary boundaries.

  • 12.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Ehrlen, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    The mechanisms causing extinction debts2013In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 341-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extinction debts can result from many types of habitat changes involving mechanisms other than metapopulation processes. This is a fact that most recent literature on extinction debts pays little attention to. We argue that extinction debts can arise because (i) individuals survive in resistant life-cycle stages long after habitat quality change, (ii) stochastic extinctions of populations that have become small are not immediate, and (iii) metapopulations survive long after that connectivity has decreased if colonization-extinction dynamics is slow. A failure to distinguish between these different mechanisms and to simultaneously consider both the size of the extinction debt and the relaxation time hampers our understanding of how extinction debts arise and our ability to prevent ultimate extinctions.

  • 13. Kuussaari, Mikko
    et al.
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Heikkinen, Risto K.
    Helm, Aveliina
    Krauss, Jochen
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Öckinger, Erik
    Pärtel, Meelis
    Pino, Joan
    Rodà, Ferran
    Stefanescu, Constantí
    Teder, Tiit
    Zobel, Martin
    Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf
    Extinction debt: a challenge for biodiversity conservation2009In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 24, no 10, p. 564-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local extinction of species can occur with a substantial delay following habitat loss or degradation. Accumulating evidence suggests that such extinction debts pose a significant but often unrecognized challenge for biodiversity conservation across a wide range of taxa and ecosystems. Species with long generation times and populations near their extinction threshold are most likely to have an extinction debt. However, as long as a species that is predicted to become extinct still persists, there is time for conservation measures such as habitat restoration and landscape management. Standardized long-term monitoring, more high-quality empirical studies on different taxa and ecosystems and further development of analytical methods will help to better quantify extinction debt and protect biodiversity.

  • 14.
    Laikre, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Schwartz, Michael K.
    Waples, Robin S.
    Ryman, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Compromising genetic diversity in the wild: unmonitored large-scale release of plants and animals2010In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 25, no 9, p. 520-529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale exploitation of wild animals and plants through fishing, hunting and logging often depends on augmentation through releases of translocated or captively raised individuals. Such releases are performed worldwide in vast numbers. Augmentation can be demographically and economically beneficial but can also cause four types of adverse genetic change to wild populations: (1) loss of genetic variation, (2) loss of adaptations, (3) change of population composition, and (4) change of population structure. While adverse genetic impacts are recognized and documented in fisheries, little effort is devoted to actually monitoring them. In forestry and wildlife management, genetic risks associated with releases are largely neglected. We outline key features of programs to effectively monitor consequences of such releases on natural populations.

  • 15.
    Nylin, Sören
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Agosta, Salvatore
    Bensch, Staffan
    Boeger, Walter A.
    P. Braga, Mariana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Brooks, Daniel R.
    Forister, Matthew L.
    Hambäck, Peter A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hoberg, Eric P.
    Nyman, Tommi
    Schäpers, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Stigall, Alycia L.
    Wheat, Christopher W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Österling, Martin
    Janz, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Embracing Colonizations: A New Paradigm for Species Association Dynamics2018In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 4-14Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parasitehost and insectplant research have divergent traditions despite the fact that most phytophagous insects live parasitically on their host plants. In parasitology it is a traditional assumption that parasites are typically highly specialized; cospeciation between parasites and hosts is a frequently expressed default expectation. Insectplant theory has been more concerned with host shifts than with cospeciation, and more with hierarchies among hosts than with extreme specialization. We suggest that the divergent assumptions in the respective fields have hidden a fundamental similarity with an important role for potential as well as actual hosts, and hence for host colonizations via ecological fitting. A common research program is proposed which better prepares us for the challenges from introduced species and global change.

  • 16.
    Palsböll, Per J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Berube, Martine
    Allendorf, Fred W.
    Identification of management units using population genetic data2007In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 11-16Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The identification of management units (MUs) is central to the management of natural populations and is crucial for monitoring the effects of human activity upon species abundance. Here, we propose that the identification of MUs from population genetic data should be based upon the amount of genetic divergence at which populations become demographically independent instead of the current criterion that focuses on rejecting panmixia. MU status should only be assigned when the observed estimate of genetic divergence is significantly greater than a predefined threshold value. We emphasize the need for a demographic interpretation of estimates of genetic divergence given that it is often the dispersal rate of individuals that is the parameter of immediate interest to conservationists rather than the historical amount of gene flow.

  • 17. Ritchie, Euan G.
    et al.
    Elmhagen, Bodil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Glen, Alistair S.
    Letnic, Mike
    Ludwig, Gilbert
    McDonald, Robbie A.
    Ecosystem restoration with teeth: what role for predators?2012In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 265-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances highlight the potential for predators to restore ecosystems and confer resilience against globally threatening processes, including climate change and biological invasions. However, releasing the ecological benefits of predators entails significant challenges. Here, we discuss the economic, environmental and social considerations affecting predator-driven ecological restoration programmes, and suggest approaches for reducing the undesirable impacts of predators. Because the roles of predators are context dependent, we argue for increased emphasis on predator functionality in ecosystems and less on the identities and origins of species and genotypes. We emphasise that insufficient attention is currently given to the importance of variation in the social structures and behaviours of predators in influencing the dynamics of trophic interactions. Lastly, we outline experiments specifically designed to clarify the ecological roles of predators and their potential utility in ecosystem restoration.

  • 18.
    Rockström, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Richardson, Katherine
    Steffen, Will
    Mace, Georgina
    Planetary Boundaries: Separating Fact from Fiction. A Response to Montoya et al.2018In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 232-233Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Schwander, Tanja
    et al.
    University of Groningen.
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Genes as leaders and followers in evolution2011In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 143-151Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major question for the study of phenotypic evolution is whether intra- and interspecific diversity originates directly from genetic variation, or instead, as plastic responses to environmental influences initially, followed later by genetic change. In species with discrete alternative phenotypes, evolutionary sequences can be inferred from transitions between environmental and genetic phenotype control, and from losses of phenotypic alternatives. From the available evidence, sequences appear equally probable to start with genetic polymorphism as with polyphenism, with a possible dominance of one or the other for specific trait types. We argue in this review that to evaluate the prevalence of each route, an investigation of both genetic and environmental cues for phenotype determination in several related rather than in isolated species is required.

  • 20.
    Schwander, Tanja
    et al.
    University of Groningen.
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    The evolution of novel cues for ancestral phenotypes2011In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 26, no 9, p. 436-437Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. Shafer, Aaron B. A.
    et al.
    Wolf, Jochen B. W.
    Alves, Paulo C.
    Bergstrom, Linnea
    Bruford, Michael W.
    Brannstrom, Ioana
    Colling, Guy
    Dalen, Love
    De Meester, Luc
    Ekblom, Robert
    Fawcett, Katie D.
    Fior, Simone
    Hajibabaei, Mehrdad
    Hill, Jason A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Hoezel, A. Rus
    Hoglund, Jacob
    Jensen, Evelyn L.
    Krause, Johannes
    Kristensen, Torsten N.
    Kruetzen, Michael
    McKay, John K.
    Norman, Anita J.
    Ogden, Rob
    Osterling, E. Martin
    Ouborg, N. Joop
    Piccolo, John
    Popovic, Danijela
    Primmer, Craig R.
    Reed, Floyd A.
    Roumet, Marie
    Salmona, Jordi
    Schenekar, Tamara
    Schwartz, Michael K.
    Segelbacher, Gernot
    Senn, Helen
    Thaulow, Jens
    Valtonen, Mia
    Veale, Andrew
    Vergeer, Philippine
    Vijay, Nagarjun
    Vila, Caries
    Weissensteiner, Matthias
    Wennerström, Lovisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Wheat, Christopher W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Zielinski, Piotr
    Genomics and the challenging translation into conservation practice2015In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 78-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global loss of biodiversity continues at an alarming rate. Genomic approaches have been suggested as a promising tool for conservation practice as scaling up to genome-wide data can improve traditional conservation genetic inferences and provide qualitatively novel insights. However, the generation of genomic data and subsequent analyses and interpretations remain challenging and largely confined to academic research in ecology and evolution. This generates a gap between basic research and applicable solutions for conservation managers faced with multifaceted problems. Before the real-world conservation potential of genomic research can be realized, we suggest that current infrastructures need to be modified, methods must mature, analytical pipelines need to be developed, and successful case studies must be disseminated to practitioners.

  • 22. Shafer, Aaron B. A.
    et al.
    Wolf, Jochen B. W.
    Alves, Paulo C.
    Bergström, Linnea
    Colling, Guy
    Dalén, Love
    De Meester, Luc
    Ekblom, Robert
    Fior, Simone
    Hajibabaei, Mehrdad
    Hoezel, A. Rus
    Hoglund, Jacob
    Jensen, Evelyn L.
    Krützen, Michael
    Norman, Anita J.
    Österling, E. Martin
    Ouborg, N. Joop
    Piccolo, John
    Primmer, Craig R.
    Reed, Floyd A.
    Roumet, Marie
    Salmona, Jordi
    Schwartz, Michael K.
    Segelbacher, Gernot
    Thaulow, Jens
    Valtonen, Mia
    Vergeer, Philippine
    Weissensteiner, Matthias
    Wheat, Christopher W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Vilà, Carlese
    Zieliński, Piotr
    Genomics in Conservation: Case Studies and Bridging the Gap between Data and Application Reply2016In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 83-84Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23. Simmons, Leigh W.
    et al.
    Lüpold, Stefan
    Fitzpatrick, John L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Evolutionary Trace-Off between Seconcary Sexual Traits and Ejaculates2017In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 32, no 12, p. 964-976Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent theoretical models predict that the evolutionary diversification of the weapons and ornaments of pre-mating sexual selection should be influenced by trade-offs with male expenditure on ejaculates. However, the patterns of association between secondary sexual traits and ejaculate expenditure are frequently inconsistent in their support of this prediction. We show why consideration of additional life-history, ecological, and mating-system variables is crucial for the interpretation of associations between secondary sexual traits and ejaculate production. Incorporation of these 'missing variables' provides evidence that interactions between pre- and post-mating sexual selection can underlie broad patterns of diversification in male weapons and ornaments. We call for more experimental and genetic approaches to uncover trade-offs, as well as for studies that consider the costs of mate-searching.

  • 24. Snelgrove, Paul V. R.
    et al.
    Soetaert, Karline
    Solan, Martin
    Thrush, Simon
    Wei, Chih-Lin
    Danovaro, Roberto
    Fulweiler, Robinson W.
    Kitazato, Hiroshi
    Ingole, Baban
    Norkko, Alf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Parkes, R. John
    Volkenborn, Nils
    Global Carbon Cycling on a Heterogeneous Seafloor2018In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 96-105Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diverse biological communities mediate the transformation, transport, and storage of elements fundamental to life on Earth, including carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. However, global biogeochemical model outcomes can vary by orders of magnitude, compromising capacity to project realistic ecosystem responses to planetary changes, including ocean productivity and climate. Here, we compare global carbon turnover rates estimated using models grounded in biological versus geochemical theory and argue that the turnover estimates based on each perspective yield divergent outcomes. Importantly, empirical studies that include sedimentary biological activity vary less than those that ignore it. Improving the relevance of model projections and reducing uncertainty associated with the anticipated consequences of global change requires reconciliation of these perspectives, enabling better societal decisions on mitigation and adaptation.

  • 25. Sutherland, William J.
    et al.
    Aveling, Rosalind
    Brooks, Thomas M.
    Clout, Mick
    Dicks, Lynn V.
    Fellman, Liz
    Fleishman, Erica
    Gibbons, David W.
    Keim, Brandon
    Lickorish, Fiona
    Monk, Kathryn A.
    Mortimer, Diana
    Peck, Lloyd S.
    Pretty, Jules
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rodriguez, Jon Paul
    Smith, Rebecca K.
    Spalding, Mark D.
    Tonneijck, Femke H.
    Watkinson, Andrew R.
    A horizon scan of global conservation issues for 20142014In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 15-22Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the output of our fifth annual horizon-scanning exercise, which aims to identify topics that increasingly may affect conservation of biological diversity, but have yet to be widely considered. A team of professional horizon scanners, researchers, practitioners, and a journalist identified 15 topics which were identified via an iterative, Delphi-like process. The 15 topics include a carbon market induced financial crash, rapid geographic expansion of macroalgal cultivation, genetic control of invasive species, probiotic therapy for amphibians, and an emerging snake fungal disease.

  • 26. Sutherland, William J.
    et al.
    Broad, Steven
    Caine, Jacqueline
    Clout, Mick
    Dicks, Lynn V.
    Doran, Helen
    Entwistle, Abigail C.
    Fleishman, Erica
    Gibbons, David W.
    Keim, Brandon
    LeAnstey, Becky
    Lickorish, Fiona A.
    Markillie, Paul
    Monk, Kathryn A.
    Mortimer, Diana
    Ockendon, Nancy
    Pearce-Higgins, James W.
    Peck, Lloyd S.
    Pretty, Jules
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Spalding, Mark D.
    Tonneijck, Femke H.
    Wintle, Bonnie C.
    Wright, Katherine E.
    A Horizon Scan of Global Conservation Issues for 20162016In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 44-53Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of our seventh annual horizon scan, in which we aimed to identify issues that could have substantial effects on global biological diversity in the future, but are not currently widely well known or understood within the conservation community. Fifteen issues were identified by a team that included researchers, practitioners, professional horizon scanners, and journalists. The topics include use of managed bees as transporters of biological control agents, artificial superintelligence, electric pulse trawling, testosterone in the aquatic environment, building artificial oceanic islands, and the incorporation of ecological civilization principles into government policies in China.

  • 27. Sutherland, William J.
    et al.
    Clout, Mick
    Depledge, Michael
    Dicks, Lynn V.
    Dinsdale, Jason
    Entwistle, Abigail C.
    Fleishman, Erica
    Gibbons, David W.
    Keim, Brandon
    Lickorish, Fiona A.
    Monk, Kathryn A.
    Ockendon, Nancy
    Peck, Lloyd S.
    Pretty, Jules
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Spalding, Mark D.
    Tonneijck, Femke H.
    Wintle, Bonnie C.
    A horizon scan of global conservation issues for 20152015In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 17-24Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of our sixth annual horizon scan, which aims to identify phenomena that may have substantial effects on the global environment, but are not widely known or well understood. A group of professional horizon scanners, researchers, practitioners, and a journalist identified 15 topics via an iterative, Delphi-like process. The topics include a novel class of insecticide compounds, legalisation of recreational drugs, and the emergence of a new ecosystem associated with ice retreat in the Antarctic.

  • 28.
    Wheat, Christopher W.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Wahlberg, Niklas
    Critiquing blind dating: the dangers of over-confident date estimates in comparative genomics2013In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 28, no 22, p. 636-642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phylogenomic advances provide more rigorous estimates for the timing of evolutionary divergences than previously available (e.g., Bayesian relaxed-clock estimates with soft fossil constraints). However, because many family-level clades and higher, as well as model species within those clades, have not been included in phylogenomic studies, the literature presents temporal estimates likely harboring substantial errors. Blindly using such dates can substantially retard scientific advancement. We suggest a way forward by conducting analyses that minimize prior assumptions and use large datasets, and demonstrate how using such a phylogenomic approach can lead to significantly more parsimonious conclusions without a good fossil record. We suggest that such an approach calls for research into the biological causes of conflict between molecular and fossil signatures.

  • 29.
    Österblom, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Constable, Andrew
    Fukumi, Sayaka
    Illegal fishing and the organized crime analogy2011In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 261-262Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 29 of 29
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