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  • 1.
    Andriam Parany, Rivolala
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    von Heland, Jacob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The role of sacred forests in pollination of livelihoods crops in southern MadagascarIn: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    The potential of ‘Urban Green Commons’ in the resilience building of cities2013In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 86, p. 156-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While cultural diversity is increasing in cities at a global level as a result of urbanization, biodiversity is decreasing with a subsequent loss of ecosystem services. It is clear that diversity plays a pivotal role in the resilience building of ecosystems; however, it is less clear what role cultural diversity plays in the resil- ience building of urban systems. In this paper we provide innovative insights on how common property sys- tems could contribute to urban resilience building. Through a review of recent findings on urban common property systems and the relevant literature, we deal with urban green commons (UGCs) and discuss their potential to manage cultural and biological diversity in cities. We describe three examples of UGCs, i.e. col- lectively managed parks, community gardens, and allotment areas, with a focus on their institutional characteristics, their role in promoting diverse learning streams, environmental stewardship, and social– ecological memory. We discuss how UGCs can facilitate cultural integration through civic participation in urban land-management, conditions for the emergence of UGCs, the importance of cognitive resilience building, and what role property-rights diversity plays in urban settings. We conclude by elucidating some key insights on how UGCs can promote urban resilience building.

  • 3.
    Barthtel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Swedish Royal Academy of Science, Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Urban Gardens, Agricultures and Waters: Sources of Resilience for Long-Term Food Security in Cities2013In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 86, p. 224-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food security has always been a key resilience facet for people living in cities. This paper discusses lessons for food security from historic and prehistoric cities. The Chicago school of urban sociology established a modernist understanding of urbanism as an essentialist reality separate from its larger life-support system. However, different urban histories have given rise to a remarkable spatial diversity and temporal variation viewed at the global and long-term scales that are often overlooked in urban scholarship. Drawing on two case studies from widely different historical and cultural contexts - the Classic Maya civilization of the late first millennium AD and Byzantine Constantinople - this paper demonstrates urban farming as a pertinent feature of urban support systems over the long-term and global scales. We show how urban gardens, agriculture, and water management as well as the linked social-ecological memories of how to uphold such practices over time have contributed to long-term food security during eras of energy scarcity. We exemplify with the function of such local blue-green infrastructures during chocks to urban supply lines. We conclude that agricultural production is not "the antithesis of the city," but often an integrated urban activity that contribute to the resilience of cities.

  • 4. Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    et al.
    Norberg, Jon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Maler, Karl-Göran
    Coupled economic-ecological systems with slow and fast dynamics - Modelling and analysis method2011In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 70, no 8, p. 1448-1458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to the exploration of non-convex dynamics in coupled human-nature systems. We study welfare issues associated with the management of a human-nature complex adaptive system with a threshold and a stochastic driver. We exemplify with a specific system where we link changes in the number and diversity of birds to the abundance of a pest (insects) that causes damages to goods and services valuable to human beings. We present a method that simplifies the analysis and helps us discuss different management models that combine direct and indirect controls of the pest. This allows us to show that 1) the choice of control method depends in a highly non-linear way on biodiversity characteristics and 2) the socially optimal outcome may not be reachable using price instruments. Hence the price vs. quantity debate needs to be revisited using a complex adaptive system lens.

  • 5. Daedlow, Katrin
    et al.
    Beckmann, Volker
    Schlüter, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Germany.
    Arlinghaus, Robert
    Explaining institutional persistence, adaptation, and transformation in East German recreational-fisheries governance after the German reunification in 19902013In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 96, p. 36-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the capacity of a natural resource governance system to absorb a disturbance while maintaining its major structures and functions (defined as institutional resilience). Exemplified by East German recreational fisheries governance being disturbed by the German reunification, we studied why in five out of six East German states the former centralized governance system persisted while in one state a decentralized governance system was implemented. Based on resilience thinking and new institutional economics, three analytical steps were developed to assess: (1) the structure and function of the governance system, (2) the attributes of the disturbance and the reorganization process, and (3) human motivations. The centralized system persisted because leading managers wanted to preserve customary structures and functions, minimize transaction costs of change, and maintain powerful positions. This was possible because of their influential positions in the reorganization process. Our results suggest that in externally induced, fundamental, and rapid disturbances decision-makers tend to prevent transformations in their governance system. However, key managers in the sixth state faced the same disturbance but their lack of leadership and an emerging rivalry for fishing rights facilitated a transformation to decentralized governance. Thus, attributes of disturbances can be leveraged by actors' motivations in the reorganization process.

  • 6.
    Elsler, Laura G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Drohan, Sarah E.
    Schlüter, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Watson, James R.
    Levin, Simon A.
    Local, Global, Multi-Level: Market Structure and Multi-Species Fishery Dynamics2019In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 156, p. 185-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Price and market structures in fisheries change rapidly, now 40% of seafood is traded internationally and are associated with overharvesting of marine species. We have developed a bio-economic fishery model to address the pressing need of managing the interplay of different markets. We first regard local, multi-level and global markets individually and then analyze the effect of transitioning between markets on the exploitation of species and the stability of income. We find that in gradually globalizing markets, transition management needs to account for non-linear price changes since earlier policies may not be suitable after globalization. We hypothesize that short-term policies to ban harvest in the interest of species recovery benefit a local market in which incentives prevent overharvesting. In global markets we expect that sustained initiatives are needed to prevent overharvesting. Individual fisheries using contextualized models representing local ecological and trade structures may benefit from assessing the price dynamics presented in this analysis.

  • 7.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ecosystem services as technology of globalization: On articulating values in urban nature2013In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 86, p. 274-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper demonstrates how ecosystem services can be viewed and studied as a social practice of value articulation. With this follows that when ecosystem services appear as objects of calculated value in decision-making they are already tainted by the social and cannot be viewed as merely reflecting an objective biophysical reality. Using urban case studies of place-based struggles in Stockholm and Cape Town, we demonstrate how values are relationally constructed through social practice. The same analysis is applied on ecosystem services. Of special interest is the TEEB Manual that uses a consultancy report on the economic evaluation of Cape Town's 'natural assets' to describe a step-by-step method to catalog, quantify and price certain aspects of urban nature. The Manual strives to turn the ecosystem services approach into a transportable method, capable of objectively measuring the values of urban nature everywhere, in all cities in the world. With its gesture of being universal and objective, the article suggests that the ecosystem services approach is a technology of globalization that de-historicizes and de-ecologizes debates on urbanized ecologies, effectively silencing other and often marginalized ways of knowing and valuing. The paper inscribes ecosystem services as social practice, as part of historical process, and as inherently political. A call is made for critical ethnographies of how ecosystem services and urban sustainability indicators are put into use to change local decision-making while manufacturing global expertise.

  • 8. Fortnam, M.
    et al.
    Brown, K.
    Chaigneau, T.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Goncalves, D.
    Hicks, C.
    Revmatas, M.
    Sandbrook, C.
    Schulte-Herbrüggen, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The Gendered Nature of Ecosystem Services2019In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 159, p. 312-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article assesses the extent to which our conceptualisation, understanding and empirical analysis of ecosystem services are inherently gendered; in other words, how they might be biased and unbalanced in terms of their appreciation of gender differences. We do this by empirically investigating how women and men are able to benefit from ecosystem services across eight communities in coastal Kenya and Mozambique. Our results highlight different dimensions of wellbeing affected by ecosystem services, and how these are valued differently by men and women. However, it is not just the division of costs and benefits of ecosystem services that is gendered. Using a heuristic device of the 'ecosystem-wellbeing chain', we explain patterns within our primary data as an outcome of gendered knowledge systems, gendered behavioural expectations, gendered access to resources and gendered institutions. We conclude that this holistic, gendered understanding of ecosystem services is important not just for how ecosystem services are conceptualised, but also for the development and implementation of sustainable and equitable policy and interventions.

  • 9.
    Galaz, Victor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Polycentric systems and interacting planetary boundaries: Emerging governance of climate change—ocean acidification—marine biodiversity2012In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 81, p. 21-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Planetary boundaries and their interactions pose severe challenges for global environmental governance due to their inherent uncertainties and complex multi-scale dynamics. Here we explore the global governance challenge posed by planetary boundaries interactions by focusing on the role of polycentric systems and order, a theoretical field that has gained much interest in the aftermath of claims of a stagnant UN-process. In the first part we work toward a clarification of polycentric order in an international context, and develop three propositions. We then present a case study of the emergence of international polycentricity to address interacting planetary boundaries, namely the climate change, ocean acidification and loss of marine biodiversity complex. This is done through a study of the Global Partnership on Climate, Fisheries and Aquaculture (PaCFA) initiative. As the case study indicates, a range of mechanisms of polycentric order (ranging from information sharing to coordinated action and conflict resolution) operates at the international level through the interplay between individuals, international organizations and their collaboration patterns. While polycentric coordination of this type certainly holds potential, it is also vulnerable to internal tensions, unreliable external flows of funding, and negative institutional interactions.

  • 10.
    Godar, Javier
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Persson, U. Martin
    Tizado, E. Jorge
    Meyfroidt, Patrick
    Towards more accurate and policy relevant footprint analyses: tracing fine-scale socio-environmental impacts of production to consumption2015In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 112, p. 25-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The consumption of internationally traded goods causes multiple socio-environmental impacts. Current methods linking production impacts to final consumption typically trace the origin of products back to the country level, lacking fine-scale spatial resolution. This hampers accurate calculation of trade and consumption footprints, masking and distorting the causal links between consumers' choices and their environmental impacts, especially in countries with large spatial variability in socio-environmental conditions and production impacts. Here we present the SEI-PCS model (Spatially Explicit Information on Production to Consumption Systems), which allows for fine-scale sub-national assessments of the origin of, and socio-environmental impacts embedded in, traded commodities. The method connects detailed production data at sub-national scales (e.g., municipalities or provinces), information on domestic flows of goods and in international trade. The model permits the downscaling of country-to-country trade analyses based on either physical allocation from bilateral trade matrices or MRIO models. The importance of producing more spatially-explicit trade analyses is illustrated by identifying the municipalities of Brazil from which different countries source the Brazilian soy they consume. Applications for improving consumption accounting and policy assessment are discussed, including quantification of externalities of consumption, consumer labeling, trade leakages, sustainable resource supply and traceability.

  • 11.
    Gonzalez-Mon, Blanca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Nenadovic, Mateja
    Basurto, Xavier
    Small-scale fish buyers' trade networks reveal diverse actor types and differential adaptive capacities2019In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 164, article id 106338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of understanding how social-ecological interdependencies deriving from global trade influence sustainability has been argued for decades. Even if substantial progress has been made, a research gap remains regarding how the adaptability of small-scale fish buyers, whose daily operations have implications for the livelihood of more than 100 million people, are affected by networks of trade relationships. Adaptability is here defined as fish buyers' abilities to adapt using their relationships with others. We elaborate how these capacities relate to the precise patterns in which a fish buyer is entangled with other fish buyers, with the fishers, and with the targeted fish species, by combining a multilevel social-ecological network model with empirical data from a small-scale fishery in Mexico. Further, we also identify types of fish buyers distinguishable by how they operate, and how they are embedded in the trading network. Our results suggest that adaptability differs substantially amongst these types, thus implying that fish buyers' abilities to respond to changes are unevenly distributed. This study demonstrates the need for a more profound understanding of the consequences of the different ways in which fish buyers operate commercially, and how these operations are affected by patterns of social and social-ecological interdependencies.

  • 12.
    Green, Tom L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Teaching (un)sustainability?: University sustainability commitments and student experiences of introductory economics2013In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 94, p. 135-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The three largest public universities in British Columbia, Canada have signed the Talloires Declaration, committing themselves to promoting sustainability and creating expectations that they will integrate sustainability across the curriculum in order to improve students' environmental literacy and stewardship. About 40% of North American university students take a mainstream introductory economics course; few of these students take economics at more advanced levels. As such, introductory economics courses are an important vehicle for students to learn economic theory; they have the potential to contribute to the knowledge that students can mobilize to foster sustainability. Interviews were held with 54 students who had recently completed an introductory level mainstream economics course at one of the three universities. Students reported that introductory economics courses place little emphasis on the environment and sustainability, they recalled course content with normative connotations that are problematic from a sustainability perspective and they described how discussion of the limitations of mainstream theory was set aside. Student reports of the insights introductory economics offers into environmental problems imply that these courses are failing to substantively increase students' understanding of sustainability and linkages between the environment and the economy. Findings suggest that current introductory economics curriculum undermines the universities' sustainability commitments.

  • 13.
    Hertz, Tilman
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schlüter, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The SES-Framework as boundary object to address theory orientation in social-ecological system research: The SES-TheOr approach2015In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 116, p. 12-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social-ecological system (SES) research is inherently cross-disciplinary which can create multiple challenges for building knowledge of SES. Some of these challenges relate to differences in ontological commitments due to theory orientation of individual disciplines. Frameworks, understood as boundary objects, have been suggested as tools for dealing with this type of challenge. This paper investigates this capacity of frameworks taking Elinor Ostroms' SES-Framework as an example. To this aim, we developed a generic approach (the SES-TheOr approach) to promote disclosure and bridge differences in ontological commitments in SES research. We then applied it for examining the use of the SES Framework as boundary object within a small cross-disciplinary research team. We found that the SES Framework provided a useful common reference and starting point for discussing variables but could not fully deal with theory orientation. We conclude by suggesting that this may partly arise due to a tension between two competing SES Framework aims: on the one hand bridging differences in ontological commitments, and on the other hand ensuring a comparative function across cases.

  • 14.
    Kemp-Benedict, Eric
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    The inverted pyramid: A neo-Ricardian view on the economy–environment relationship2014In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 107, p. 230-241Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Larsson, Markus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Granstedt, Artur
    Sustainable governance of the agriculture and the Baltic Sea - Agricultural reforms, food production and curbed eutrophication2010In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 69, no 10, p. 1943-1951Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural production and nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea are likely to increase following Poland's and the Baltic States' entrance into the EU. According to HELCOM these trends will be highly dependent on the agricultural policies of the EU. The expansion of the EU can be seen as a window of opportunity where agricultural policy could improve the Baltic Sea environment. Longstanding initiatives with local organic food systems and Ecological Recycling Agriculture (ERA) in the eight EU-countries in the Baltic Sea drainage area were evaluated during 2001-2004. The empirical results were scaled up to calculate environmental impact and food production for three different scenarios. In one scenario the Baltic Countries and Poland convert their agriculture following the average Swedish production. This resulted in 58% increase of nitrogen and 18% increase in phosphorus surplus, a corresponding increase in the load to the Baltic Sea and increased food production. In two other scenarios agriculture production in the whole Baltic Sea drainage area converts to ERA. This halved the nitrogen surplus from agriculture and eliminated the surplus of phosphorus. In these scenarios food production would decrease or remain stable depending on strategy chosen.

  • 16. Lherrnie, Guillaume
    et al.
    Wernli, Didier
    Søgaard Jørgensen, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Kenkel, Donald
    Lawell, C. -Y. Cynthia Lin
    Tauer, Loren William
    Gröhn, Yrjo Tapio
    Tradeoffs between resistance to antimicrobials in public health and their use in agriculture: Moving towards sustainability assessment2019In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 166, article id 106427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antimicrobial use (AMU) in animal agriculture contributes to select resistant bacteria potentially transferred to humans directly or indirectly via the food chain, representing a public health hazard. Yet, a major difference triggering AMU in food animal production is that in addition to therapeutic cure, farmers use antimicrobials to keep their herds healthy and highly productive, while ensuring animal welfare and food safety objectives. As a society, we consequently face difficult tradeoffs, between massive restrictions of AMU, and maintenance of current and potentially non-sustainable consumption levels. Here, we present the different components to be addressed for assessing the sustainability of AMU in animal agriculture. At first, we describe the interests and limits of existing models identified by reviewing the literature, which could potentially be used to assess AMU sustainability, while allowing the reader to capture in a simple and visual manner the complexity of the issue. We address in the following sections the boundaries of the social-ecological system and the indicators that are required for assessment of AMU sustainability. We introduce analytic methods that could be used for assessing the sustainability of antimicrobial use.

  • 17.
    Lindahl, Therese
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Governing complex commons - The role of communication for experimental learning and coordinated management2015In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 111, p. 111-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we build on common-pool research and adaptive management to increase our understanding on if and how communication between resource users affects their joint ability to learn about and manage complex ecological resources. More specifically we study the role of user communication in relation to learning through continual experimentation when managing a complex resource system involving resource interdependencies. For this purpose we designed a laboratory experiment where we tested the effect of user communication over time in a setup with two interdependent resources, and where resource access is asymmetrical: one resource is shared and the other is private. Our results indicate that communication, through its interaction with experimental learning is more multifaceted than what previous experimental studies on commons dilemmas suggest. We show for example that in communicating groups the likelihood of successful resource management increases, but this effect is mostly dominant in earlier periods, when resource dynamics are unknown. We hypothesize however, that communication stimulates continual improvements by fine-tuning of management through experimental learning and coordinated resource extraction. Furthermore, we hypothesize that in communicating groups, the need to quickly gain a basic understanding of the dynamics overshadows not only the devotion to improve management of the private resource but also the potential tensions brought by the asymmetry in resource access.

  • 18.
    Lindkvist, Emilie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Norberg, Jon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Modeling experiential learning: The challenges posed by threshold dynamics for sustainable renewable resource management2014In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 104, p. 107-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive management incorporates learning-by-doing (LBD) in order to capture learning and knowledge generation processes, crucial for sustainable resource use in the presence of uncertainty and environmental change. By contrast, an optimization approach to management identifies the most efficient exploitation strategy by postulating an absolute understanding of the resource dynamics and its inherent uncertainties. Here, we study the potential and limitations of LBD in achieving optimal management by undertaking an analysis using a simple growth model as a benchmark for evaluating the performance of an agent equipped with a 'state-of-the-art' learning algorithm. The agent possesses no a priori knowledge about the resource dynamics, and learns management solely by resource interaction. We show that for a logistic growth function the agent can achieve 90% efficiency compared to the optimal control solution, whereas when a threshold (tipping point) is introduced, efficiency drops to 65%. Thus, our study supports the effectiveness of the LED approach. However, when a threshold is introduced efficiency decreases as experimentation may cause resource collapse. Further, the study proposes that: an appropriate amount of experimentation, high valuation of future stocks (discounting) and, a modest rate of adapting to new knowledge, will likely enhance the effectiveness of LBD as a management strategy.

  • 19. Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Nguyen Thu, Huong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Stage, Jesper
    Weak support for weak sustainability: Genuine savings and long-term wellbeing in Sweden, 1850–20002018In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 145, p. 339-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study genuine savings as an indicator of long-term welfare for Sweden for the period 1850 to 2000. Sweden has developed long series of comprehensive ‘green’ national accounts for this entire period and is, therefore, interesting as a testing ground for the hypotheses linking green accounting and sustainability. We find support for the weakest of the hypotheses in the theoretical literature on weak sustainability and genuine savings, namely that genuine savings are correlated with future economic well-being. However, the stronger hypotheses in this literature are not supported: there is no one-to-one relationship between genuine savings and prosperity, there is no indication that the relationship becomes stronger for longer time horizons, or with more comprehensive savings measures. The findings suggest that genuine savings, at least as currently measured in national accounts and satellite accounts, may not be a good forward-looking indicator of future prosperity.

  • 20. Müller-Hansen, Finn
    et al.
    Heitzig, Jobst
    Donges, Jonathan F.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Germany.
    Cardoso, Manoel F.
    Dalla-Nora, Eloi L.
    Andrade, Pedro
    Kurths, Jürgen
    Thonicke, Kirsten
    Can Intensification of Cattle Ranching Reduce Deforestation in the Amazon? Insights From an Agent-based Social-Ecological Model2019In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 159, p. 198-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deforestation in the Amazon with its vast consequences for the ecosystem and climate is largely related to subsequent land use for cattle ranching. In addition to conservation policies, proposals to reduce deforestation include measures to intensify cattle ranching. However, the effects of land-use intensification on deforestation are debated in the literature. This paper introduces the abacra model, a stylized agent-based model to study the interplay of deforestation and the intensification of cattle ranching in the Brazilian Amazon. The model combines social learning and ecological processes with market dynamics. In the model, agents adopt either an extensive or semi-intensive strategy of cattle ranching based on the success of their neighbors. They earn their income by selling cattle on a stylized market. We present a comprehensive analysis of the model with statistical methods and find that it produces highly non-linear transient outcomes in dependence on key parameters like the rate of social interaction and elasticity of the cattle price. We show that under many environmental and economic conditions, intensification does not reduce deforestation rates and sometimes even has a detrimental effect on deforestation. Anti-deforestation policies incentivizing fast intensification can only lower deforestation rates under conditions in which the local cattle market saturates.

  • 21.
    Nilsson, Måns
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Persson, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Can Earth system interactions be governed?: Governance functions for linking climate change mitigation with land use, freshwater and biodiversity protection2012In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 75, p. 61-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earth system interactions, as highlighted by the planetary boundaries framework, occur within and across natural, social and economic systems and shape global environmental change. This paper addresses the multi-level governance problem of coherently addressing key interactions between four Earth sub-systems - climate change, freshwater use, land use and biodiversity - taking into account concerns over problem shifting. After discussing possibilities for regional downscaling of the boundaries, we explore challenges for the EU region to coherently address this particular set of interacting Earth sub-systems and reduce the risk of problem shifting. This analysis demonstrates that Earth system interactions can be governed, but that they likely require comprehensive packages of governance responses across both sub-systems and levels. Three overarching governance functions are tentatively identified that directly or indirectly address Earth system interactions: reduction of system stress, risks and vulnerabilities; triggering and navigation of transformation of economic activity; and development of a diversity of options. Finally, the paper briefly discusses political and institutional challenges for developing, enabling and stabilising these governance functions.

  • 22. Nilsson, Måns
    et al.
    Persson, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Reprint of can earth system interactions be governed?: Governance functions for linking climate change mitigation with land use, freshwater and biodiversity protection2012In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 81, p. 10-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earth system interactions, as highlighted by the planetary boundaries framework, occur within and across natural, social and economic systems and shape global environmental change. This paper addresses the multi-level governance problem of coherently addressing key interactions between four Earth sub-systems - climate change, freshwater use, land use and biodiversity - taking into account concerns over problem shifting. After discussing possibilities for regional downscaling of the boundaries, we explore challenges for the EU region to coherently address this particular set of interacting Earth sub-systems and reduce the risk of problem shifting. This analysis demonstrates that Earth system interactions can be governed, but that they likely require comprehensive packages of governance responses across both sub-systems and levels. Three overarching governance functions are tentatively identified that directly or indirectly address Earth system interactions: reduction of system stress, risks and vulnerabilities; triggering and navigation of transformation of economic activity: and development of a diversity of options. Finally, the paper briefly discusses political and institutional challenges for developing, enabling and stabilising these governance functions.

  • 23. Pinto, L.F.G.
    et al.
    Gardner, Toby A.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute. International Institute for Sustainability, Rio de Janeiro.
    McDermott, C.L.
    Ayub, K.O.L.
    Group certification supports an increase in the diversity of sustainable agriculture network: rainforest alliance certified coffee producers in Brazil2014In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 107, p. 59-64Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Plummer, Ryan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Baird, Julia
    Dzyundzyak, Angela
    Armitage, Derek
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Is Adaptive Co-management Delivering? Examining Relationships Between Collaboration, Learning and Outcomes in UNESCO Biosphere Reserves2017In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 140, p. 79-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines relationships among perceived processes and outcomes in four UNESCO biosphere reserves (BRs). BRs offer a unique opportunity to examine these relationships because they aim to foster more adaptive and collaborative forms of management, i.e. adaptive co-management (ACM). Accounting for the outcomes of ACM is a difficult task and little progress has been made to this end. However, we show here that ACM efforts in all four BRs had a myriad of positive results as well as ecological and livelihood effects. Process variables of collaboration and learning explained over half (54.6%) of the variability in results and over one third (35.1%) of the variability in effects. While the overall models for outcomes and subsequent process were not significant, the regressions revealed predictive potential for both process variables. Our analysis highlights that a better process is associated with more positive outcomes and that collaboration and learning make unique contributions to outcomes. Opportunities for quantitative techniques to be utilized in understanding, the dynamics of ACM are illustrated. Understanding relationships between process and outcomes (and vice versa) provides a sound basis to answer critiques, enhances accountability, and maximizes the potential of positive impacts for ecosystems and humans.

  • 25.
    Scharin, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Sweden.
    Ericsdotter, Siv
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Elliott, Michael
    Turner, R. Kerry
    Niiranen, Susa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hyytiäinen, Kari
    Ahlvik, Lassi
    Ahtiainen, Heini
    Artell, Janne
    Hasselström, Linus
    Söderqvist, Tore
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Processes for the sustainable stewardship of marine environments2016In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 128, p. 55-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable stewardship of the marine environment necessitates a holistic approach encompassing all the relevant drivers, activities and pressures causing problems for the natural state of the system and their impact on human societies today and in the future. This article provides a framework as well as a decision support process and tool that could guide such an approach. In this process, identifying costs and benefits of mitigation is a first step in deciding on measures and enabling instruments, which has to be accompanied by analyses regarding distributional effects (i.e. who gains or loses) related to different targets and policy instruments. As there are risks of future irreversible regime shifts and even system collapses, the assessments have to be broadened to include scenarios on possible future developments as well as ethical considerations. In particular, a deeper sustainable management strategy may be needed to respond to possible future increases in the rate of environmental change, amongst growing evidence of external pressures, interactions and non-linear dynamics. This adaptive management strategy should focus on building the resilience required to cope with and adapt to change.

  • 26.
    Schlüter, Maja
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Baeza, Andres
    Dressler, Gunnar
    Frank, Karin
    Groeneveld, Jürgen
    Jager, Wander
    Janssen, Marco A.
    McAllister, Ryan R. J.
    Müller, Birgit
    Orach, Kirill
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schwarz, Nina
    Wijermans, Nanda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    A framework for mapping and comparing behavioural theories in models of social-ecological systems2017In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 131, p. 21-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Formal models are commonly used in natural resource management (NRM) to study human-environment interactions and inform policy making. In the majority of applications, human behaviour is represented by the rational actor model despite growing empirical evidence of its shortcomings in NRM contexts. While the importance of accounting for the complexity of human behaviour is increasingly recognized, its integration into formal models remains a major challenge. The challenges are multiple: i) there exist many theories scattered across the social sciences, ii) most theories cover only a certain aspect of decision-making, iii) they vary in their degree of formalization, iv) causal mechanisms are often not specified. We provide a framework- MoHuB (Modelling Human Behavior) - to facilitate a broader inclusion of theories on human decision-making in formal NRM models. It serves as a tool and common language to describe, compare and communicate alternative theories. In doing so, we not only enhance understanding of commonalities and differences between theories, but take a first step towards tackling the challenges mentioned above. This approach may enable modellers to find and formalize relevant theories, and be more explicit and inclusive about theories of human decision making in the analysis of social ecological systems.

  • 27. Selomane, Odirilwe
    et al.
    Reyers, Belinda
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Tallis, Heather
    Polasky, Stephen
    Towards integrated social-ecological sustainability indicators: Exploring the contribution and gaps in existing global data2015In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 118, p. 140-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development goals (SDGs), which recognise the interconnections between social, economic and ecological systems, have ignited new interest in indicators able to integrate trends in - and interactions between nature and socio-economic development. We explore whether existing global data can be used to measure nature's contribution to development targets and explore limitations in these data. Using Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 1- eradicate extreme hunger and poverty. We develop two indicators to assess the contribution of nature to progress in this goal. The indicators (based on income and employment data from nature-based sectors (NBS) represented by agriculture, forestry and fisheries) show large but declining contributions of nature to MDG 1: NBS contributed to lifting 18% of people out of poverty and provided 37% of global employment between 1991 and 2010. For low income countries, the contributions were 20% and 55% respectively. In exploring data gaps the study highlighted low reporting rates especially in low income countries, as well as lack of other measures of poverty alleviation beyond income and employment. If we are to move beyond target setting to implementation of sustainable development goals at national scales, these shortcomings require as much attention as the elaboration and agreement on the post-2015 development goals.

  • 28. Stikvoort, Britt
    et al.
    Lindahl, Therese
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Thou shalt not sell nature: How taboo trade-offs can make us act pro-environmentally, to clear our conscience2016In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 129, p. 252-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many nature/natural areas are threatened by economic development and urban expansion. Oftentimes nature is not considered part of the cost/benefit analyses preceding such economic development, and most people find it offensive to price-tag nature. To pit (sacred) nature-values against other monetized values (these are so-called taboo trade-offs) is seen as morally offensive. Non-nature related taboo trade-offs (e.g. between life-saving and money-saving) were found elsewhere to induce moral cleansing attempts to reaffirm one's own moral position by performing overly moral 'cleansing' behaviour. This study investigated whether trade-offs between nature as sacred value and money as secular induces such moral cleansing in shape of pro-environmental behaviour (PEB). A laboratory experiment measured self-reported (hypothetical) and real donations to an environmental cause, after participants were presented with a taboo or non-taboo trade-off. Taboo trade-offs affected participants' real, but not hypothetical behaviour. Findings support prior evidence that confrontation with certain trade-offs affects people's behaviour, and expand the scope of sacred values to include nature, and moral cleansing behaviour to PEB.

  • 29. Thiel, Andreas
    et al.
    Schleyer, Christian
    Hinkel, Jochen
    Schlüter, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hagedorn, Konrad
    Bisaro, Sandy
    Bobojonov, Ihtiyor
    Hamidov, Ahmad
    Transferring Williamson's discriminating alignment to the analysis of environmental governance of social-ecological interdependence2016In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 128, p. 159-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Institutional fit is operationalized by transferring transaction costs economics (TCE) to the analysis of instances of social-ecological interdependence. We carefully spell out the differences with conventional TCE and outline analytical steps based on discriminating alignment that enable a TCE analysis of environmental governance of nature-related transactions. We illustrate the approach through the example of wildlife management in Germany. Here we find hierarchical governance (a prohibition) of killing of wolves embedded into a polycentric hybrid monitoring arrangement. In applying TCE to nature-related transactions, we argue that characteristics of nature-related transactions can be subsumed under the core categories of jointness, uncertainty, asset specificity, frequency, rivalry, excludability and social-relational distance. Benefits of this approach include its generating a narrow list of descriptors of instances of biophysically mediated interdependence related to one evaluation criterion: cost-effectiveness. The TCE of nature-related transactions thus identifies sets of stylized contextual factors and aspects related to the governance of hazards of ex-post opportunistic behavior that cut across scales. They can be used as composite descriptors that facilitate analysis of complex multi-scalar arrangements of natural resource governance. We propose the concept of 'governance challenge', derived from TCE, as being useful for building research on environmental governance.

1 - 29 of 29
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