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  • 1.
    Grönqvist, Hans
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Hall, Caroline
    Education policy and early fertility: Lessons from an expansion of upper secondary schooling2013In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 37, p. 13-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the effects of education policy on early fertility. We study a major educational reform in Sweden in which vocational tracks in upper secondary school were prolonged from two to three years and the curricula were made more academic. Our identification strategy takes advantage of cross-regional and cross-time variation in the implementation of a pilot scheme preceding the reform in which several municipalities evaluated the new policy. The empirical analysis draws on rich population micro data. We find that women who enrolled in the new programs were significantly less likely to give birth early in life. There is however, no statistically significant effect on men's fertility decisions. Our results suggest that the social benefits of changes in education policy may extend beyond those usually claimed.

  • 2.
    Hinnerich, Björn Tyrefors
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Höglin, Erik
    Johannesson, Magnus
    Are boys discriminated in Swedish high schools?2011In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 682-690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading. We rigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is on average 15% lower for boys than for girls. Blind grading lowers the average grades with 13%, indicating that personal ties and/or grade inflation are important in non-blind grading. But we find no evidence of discrimination against boys in grading. The point estimate of the discrimination effect is close to zero with a 95% confidence interval of +/- 4.5% of the average non-blind grade.

  • 3.
    Hällsten, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Is It Ever Too Late to Study? The Economic Returns on Late Tertiary Degrees in Sweden2012In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 179-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the economic returns on tertiary degrees obtained in ages above 30 for individuals with upper-secondary schooling in light of current ideas on lifelong learning. Sweden is a case in point: Swedish tertiary education is open to older students, and labor market legislation supports employees who take a leave to study. The longitudinal data used for this analysis is based on annual population level registers from 1981 to 2007. Matching techniques are combined with fixed effect estimation to account for non-random selection. Late degrees were found to increase the employment rate by 18 percentage points and earnings while employed by 12 percent, which indicates strong employment effects and small effects on earnings while employed. The effects were absent in the higher parts of the earnings distribution, and females gained more than men. The estimated effects are largely stable across periods within a birth cohort.

  • 4.
    Koerselman, Kristian
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Incentives from curriculum tracking2013In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 32, p. 140-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Curriculum tracking creates incentives in the years before its start, and we should therefore expect test scores to be higher during those years. I find robust evidence for incentive effects of tracking in the UK based on the UK comprehensive school reform. Results from the Swedish comprehensive school reform are inconclusive. Internationally, I find a large and widening test score gap between early and late tracking countries. Incentive effects of tracking show how early age scores can be endogenous with respect to later-age policies, and add to a growing literature on incentives in education.

  • 5.
    Stenberg, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Using Longitudinal Data to Evaluate Publicly Provided Formal Education for Low skilled2011In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 1262-1280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern societies would potentially reap large benefits from upgrading low skilled's education. However, this is difficult to put into practice because employers are reluctant to train low skilled and because low skilled are unwilling to participate. To circumvent this potential market imperfection, a large supply of formal education in Sweden is complemented with the eligibility of enrollees for financial support. This study uses detailed data on Swedish siblings aged 24-43 in 1994 to evaluate the impact on annual earnings. The estimated average return was 4.4% in 2004. Calculations indicate that this is barely sufficient to cover society's total costs.

  • 6.
    Sund, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Estimating peer effects in Swedish high school using school, teacher and student fixed effects2009In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 28, p. 329-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I use a rich dataset in order to observe each student in different subjects and courses over time. Unlike most peer studies, I identify the peers and the teachers that each student has had in every classroom. This enables me to handle the simultaneity and selection problems, which are inherent in estimating peer effects in the educational production function. I use a value-added approach with lagged peer achievement to avoid simultaneity and extensive fixed effects to rule out selection. To be specific, it is within-student acrosssubject variation with additional controls for time-invariant teacher characteristics that is exploited. Moreover, I identify students that are attending classes in which they have no peers from previous education which otherwise might bias the result. I find positive peer effects for the average student but also that there is a non-linear dimension. Lowerachieving students benefit more from an increase in both mean peer achievement and the spread in peer achievement within the classroom than their higher-achieving peers.

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