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  • 1.
    Andersson Joona, Pernilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    How does motherhood affect self-employment performance?2018In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 29-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the timing between self-employment entry and first child birth among Swedish women, using register data for the cohort of women born between 1970 and 1975. We use longitudinal data, where we observe self-employment entry, childbirths, and self-employment outcomes during the period 1995 to 2013. The main research question is whether women who have children when entering self-employment perform less well compared to women who do not have children at the time of self-employment entry. One reason to expect differences in outcomes is that childless women are less time constrained and could potentially invest more time in the business, which could affect outcomes. We find, contrary to our hypothesis, that women who had a child at the time of self-employment entry have higher incomes, higher revenues and more employees in their firms, while we find no difference in the exit rate out of self-employment.

  • 2.
    Andersson Joona, Pernilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    The best and the brightest or the least successful? Self-employment entry among male wage-earners in Sweden2013In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 155-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes self-employment entry among Swedish-born male wage-earners. Is it the best and the brightest or the least successful that become self-employed? The residual from an income regression is used as an indicator of who belongs to which group. We find that both wage-earners who receive a lower income than predicted, i.e. have a negative residual, and those who receive a higher income than predicted, i.e. have a positive residual, are more likely to become self-employed than those who receive an income close to the predicted one. However, splitting self-employment into different types depending on corporate form and number of employees, we find that the self-employed are drawn from both tails of the residual distribution only if it is a matter of unincorporated firms. Wage-earners who become self-employed and start an incorporated firm are only drawn from the top of the residual distribution. Using self-employment income and turnover as measures of self-employment performance, we find a positive linear relationship between the income residual and performance.

  • 3.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Landstad, Bodil J.
    A balancing act: Swedish occupational safety and health inspectors' reflections on their bureaucratic role when supervising micro-enterprises2021In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 57, p. 821-834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The safety and health of many workers employed in micro-enterprises (with less than 10 employees) is poor, and legal arrangements related to working environments remain a considerable challenge in these enterprises. The aim of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of how Swedish occupational safety and health (OSH) inspectors perceive themselves as inspectors and their role as bureaucratic regulators when meeting micro-enterprises. In the study, 11 Swedish inspectors were interviewed and asked to reflect on their role as inspectors, how they perceive themselves as inspectors and what their role is as bureaucratic regulators when inspecting micro-enterprises. The qualitative content analysis revealed one theme-a balancing act-and three categories: one inspector, many roles; interactions with micro-entrepreneurs; and exercise the profession as an inspector. The results showed that OSH inspectors experience challenges in meeting the requirements of street-level bureaucracy while addressing the needs of micro-enterprises. In conclusion, OSH inspectors need organisational support to develop inspection models and enforcement styles tailored to micro-enterprises, as this could ease their work and contribute to better inspection outcomes. The implications of this study include a need for increased competence about working environment issues in micro-enterprises, development of enforcement styles among the inspectors, emphasis of the importance of specific governmental projects for OSH and development of models in this enterprise group. Additionally, development of micro-enterprise managers' competence and ability to handle issues related to the working environment and health were also important.

  • 4.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Härter Griep, Rosane
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), Brazil.
    Mellner, Christin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    Vinberg, Stig
    Eloranta, Sandra
    Hospitalization due to stroke and myocardial infarction in self-employed individuals and small business owners compared with paid employees in Sweden—a 5-year study2019In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 343-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysing Swedish population register data, the aim of the present study is to investigate differences in acute cardiovascular disease (CVD) in terms of stroke and myocardial infarction incidence between self-employed individuals and paid employees and to study whether the associations vary by gender or across industrial sectors. A cohort of nearly 4.8 million employed individuals (6.7% self-employed in 2003) is followed-up for hospitalization due to stroke and myocardial infarction (2004–2008). Self-employed individuals are defined as sole proprietors and limited liability company owners according to legal type of their enterprise. Negative binomial regression models are applied to compare hospitalization rates between the self-employed and paid employees, adjusted for socioeconomic and demographic confounders. Two- and three-way interaction are tested between occupational group, industrial sector, and gender. Limited liability company owners have significantly lower hospitalization for myocardial infarction than paid employees. Regarding two-way interaction, sole proprietors have higher myocardial infarction hospitalization in trade, transport and communication, and lower in agriculture, forestry, and fishing than paid employees. Limited liability company owners have lower hospitalization rate for myocardial infarction than employees in several industries. The results highlight the importance of enterprise legal type and industrial sector for CVD among self-employed individuals.

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