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  • 1.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Time spent working: Paid work, housework and the gender difference in psychological distress2010In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 419-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the connection between the time that women and men spend on paid work and housework and psychological distress, and addresses the question whether gender differences in time spent on these activities account for the gender difference in psychological distress. A group (n =1,277) of employed and cohabiting women and men from the Swedish Level-of-Living Survey 2000 (LNU 2000) are analysed using OLS regression. Results show that time spent on housework explains part of the gender difference in psychological distress. Among women, paid working time and possibly time spent on housework are associated with low psychological distress. However, spending too much time on one role decreases the possible beneficial effect of the other, and this is mainly caused by the resulting increase in total role time. Men's level of psychological distress is not associated with hours of paid work or housework. The study also shows that the division of housework between women and men is unusually uneven in households where women have a long total role time. Thus, an increase in men's participation in housework could decrease the gender difference in psychological distress as well as the number of women experiencing a high workload.

  • 2. Bukodi, Erzsébet
    et al.
    Eibl, Ferdinand
    Buchholz, Sandra
    Marzadro, Sonia
    Minello, Alessandra
    Wahler, Susanne
    Blossfeld, Hans-Peter
    Erikson, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Schizzerotto, Antonio
    Linking the macro to the micro: a multidimensional approach to educational inequalities in four European countries2018In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 26-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research into educational inequalities has shown the importance of decomposing social origins into parental class, status and education, representing economic, socio-cultural and educational family resources, respectively. But we know little about how inequalities in educational attainment at the micro-level map onto institutional characteristics of educational systems at the macro-level, if we treat social origins in a multidimensional way. Drawing on the rich over-time variation in educational systems in four European countries–Britain, Sweden, Germany and Italy–this paper develops and tests a number of hypotheses regarding the effects of various components of social origins on individuals’ educational attainment in different institutional contexts. It is evident from our results that a great deal of similarity exists across nations with different educational systems inthe persisting importance for individuals’ educational attainment of parental class, status and education. But our findings also indicate that changes in the institutional features of educational systems have, in some instances although not in others, served to reinforce or to offset the social processes generating educational inequalities at the micro level.

  • 3.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Long-term consequences of being not in employment, education or training as a young adult. Stability and change in three Swedish birth cohorts2016In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 136-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we analyse the development of young adults not in education, employment or training (NEET) in three complete Swedish birth cohorts born in 1975, 1980 and 1985. We analyse the risk for future labour-market exclusion among NEETs, and how this risk varies between three birth cohorts who made the transition from school to work during periods characterised by different opportunity structures for young adults. Analyses using propensity score matching with repeated outcomes show that belonging to the NEET-group in early adulthood has an independent effect on the development of subsequent labour-market risk for both men and women. Moreover, this effect increases across the cohorts. The fact that the degree of labour-market attachment has clear and long-lasting implications indicates that the problems associated with being NEET cannot be reduced to a transient phase. Rather, it seems as though being NEET may be both a step on an already unfavourable life career and a triggering factor for social exclusion.

  • 4.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Ellingsaeter, Anne Lise
    Cash for childcare schemes in the Nordic welfare states: diverse paths, diverse outcomes2016In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 70-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent family policy developments may blur conventional family policy typologies. While policies in some European welfare states are shifting away from strong male breadwinner regimes towards work-family reconciliation, the adding of cash for childcare (CFC) benefits in Nordic earner-carer welfare states points in the opposite direction. How can we understand growing family policy hybridisation? Comparison of CFC schemes in the five Nordic countries is the empirical basis of the discussion here - what does the insertion of such a familistic policy measure actually mean? The analysis displays diverse national policy processes and policy outputs and wide variation in parents' responses to this policy incentive. Reforms have been subject to conflicts and amendments to different degrees, and impact has been shaped by their institution at different times distinguished by mothers' varying access to childcare services and labour markets. We conclude that conceptualisation of CFC schemes needs to be contextualised in relation to political dynamisms and opportunity structures.

  • 5. Elgenius, Gabriella
    et al.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Frames of nostalgia and belonging: the resurgence of ethno-nationalism in Sweden2019In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 583-602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the ethno-nationalist rhetoric promoted by radical right-wing parties in Europe; its perceived threats against national identity translated into a nostalgia for the past based on ethnic homogeneity. Five anti-immigrant frames have been especially instrumental in attracting voters, merging with other central components to construct a potent master frame and structuring much of the mobilizing activities of these parties. This development motivates a closer look into the ways in which the ethno-nationalist message is framed and constructed, taking Sweden as our case in point. The Sweden Democrats entered the Swedish parliament in 2010, an election that has come to mark the end of Swedish 'exceptionalism' and pointing towards the resurgence of ethno-nationalism in Sweden too. The Swedish case is analyzed with a focus on the Sweden Democrats particular ethno-nationalist message; the rhetoric of decline of golden ages and solutions posed to combat these alleged processes of decay. We depart from framing theory that allow us to better understand the centrality of the ethno-nationalist message, which demonstrates considerable continuity over time, despite the modernization of party rhetoric. Thus, the exclusive conceptualization of nationality as constituted by an 'inherited essence', proposes that Swedish identity is more than culturally assigned. The empirical material consists of Sweden Democrat party manifestos and position papers since 1989 and selected articles from the party newsletter (SD Kuriren).

  • 6.
    Erikson, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Is it enough to be bright? Parental background, cognitive ability and educational attainment2016In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 117-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do separate factors of the social background – parental education, social class, social status and earnings – affect educational attainment independently of each other and to what extent is the association between these background factors and educational attainment transmitted via cognitive ability? Close to 28,000 randomly selected Swedish school children participated in a test of cognitive ability at age 13. Information on the four origin factors and on the children’s highest level of education was collected from Swedish registers with few missing data. The data were analysed by means of ordinary least squares regression. Parental education and social class are more highly associated with educational attainment than parental status and earnings, but all four factors have an effect on level of education independently of each other and of cognitive ability at age 13. Between 16 and 19 percent of the variance in education is accounted for by the social origin factors. Around one third of the effects of the origin factors is transmitted via cognitive ability. The paper ends with a short discussion of possible mechanisms, other than cognitive ability, that link social background with education.

  • 7.
    Fahlén, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Capabilities and childbearing intentions in Europe: the association between work-family reconciliation policies, economic uncertainties and women’s fertility plans2013In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 639-662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the association between economic uncertainties, work-family reconciliation policies and women’s short-term childbearing intentions in ten European countries. I introduce the Capability Approach to this issue and argue that short-term childbearing intentions are an indicator of women’s capabilities to start a family or to have additional children. Data from the European Social Survey is used. The analysis reveals that the association between economic uncertainties and short-term childbearing varies by the number of children already born, education and institutional contexts. Being in paid work have a positive impact on childless women’s short-term intentions in some countries, while in other countries, unemployed childless women are those most likely to intend to have a child in the near future. Other aspects of economic uncertainties, namely perceived job and income insecurity, have a negative impact on short-term childbearing intentions, regardless of motherhood status. The analysis also shows that the combination of weaker institutional support for work-family reconciliation, perceived job and income insecurity and low educational skills are associated with lower childbearing intentions, but the pattern across the ten countries varies by motherhood status, and is slightly more evident for childless women. This study has shown the importance of embedding individual decision processes in a broader social societal context.

  • 8.
    Goldschmidt, Tina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Anti-immigrant sentiment and majority support for three types of welfare: The case of Germany2015In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 620-652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past research suggests that majority evaluations of welfare deservingness are structured along ethnic dividing lines. The fact that poverty and immigrant status are highly associated across Europe's increasingly ethnically diverse societies may thus lead majorities to withdraw support from welfare programs that transfer money to people who are different from themselves. Utilizing measures of general welfarism, most prior studies have not addressed the interplay between attitudes toward immigrants and support for specific welfare types that rely on different notions of entitlement and attract varying levels of take-up among natives and immigrants. Addressing this gap in the literature and focusing on the example of Germany, this paper asks to what extent anti-immigrant sentiment relates to native-born Germans’ attitudes toward the government's responsibility to care for three recipient groups: the unemployed, the old, and the sick. Anti-immigrant attitudes expressed as ethnic prejudice are associated with lowered support for government intervention to assist the unemployed, while support for old-age and sickness assistance does not appear to be related to levels of negative out-group sentiment. The results suggest that those who harbor ethnic prejudice are more likely to oppose aid that is predominantly means-tested, rather than universal or contribution-based, and that does benefit a large number of non-natives. The negative association between prejudice and support for unemployment assistance is independent of concerns with the economic viability of the welfare system in the face of immigration. This points to the relevance of negative affect beyond subjectively rational motives.

  • 9. Griffiths, D
    et al.
    Lambert, P
    Bihagen, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Measuring the potential power elite in the UK and Sweden2014In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 742-762Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Grönlund, Anne
    et al.
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Family-friendly policies and women´s wages – is there a trade-off? Skill investments, occupational segregation and the gender pay gap in Germany, Sweden and the UK2016In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 91-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has suggested that there is a trade-off between the ‘family-friendliness’ of jobs, occupations and welfare states on the one hand and women's relative wages on the other. In particular, the extensive family policies found in Scandinavia are thought to harm highly educated women by affecting occupational segregation and workplace skill development. In this article, we use pooled wage data from the European Social Survey of 2004 and 2010 to examine the mechanisms behind the gender wage gap in Germany, Sweden and the UK and compare the situation of high- and low-skilled employees. Our findings show that the gender wage gap among high-skilled employees in Sweden is larger than in the UK, but not larger than in Germany. Also, segregation and work-related training are no more important in Sweden than in the other countries. Another important finding is that the mechanisms behind the gender wage gap differ between high- and low-skilled employees in ways not predicted by the trade-off argument. In particular, the large unexplained wage gap among high-skilled employees provides new theoretical challenges.

  • 11.
    Holmqvist, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    The 'active welfare state' and its consequences: A case study of sheltered employment in Sweden2010In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 209-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the findings of a longitudinal case study of sheltered employment for activating so-called occupationally disabled people in Sweden. Data consist of interviews, archival studies and participant observation on how occupationally disabled people's employability is to be promoted and the consequences of such activities. It is argued that those that, for one reason or another, are unable to live up to the norms of being a 'normal' and hence fully active citizen, are objectified as passive and unemployable persons through the same principles that aim to make them active. Through its emphasis on ability, strength, and competence, the 'active society' may raise the bar of employability higher than ever before. As a result, an increasing number of people risk disablement and indeed end up as 'disabled'.

  • 12.
    Härkönen, Juho
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Bihagen, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Occupational Attainment and Career Progression in Sweden2011In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 451-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze occupational attainment and career progression over the life course for Swedish men and women, born in 1925–1974. Careers progress (measured as improvements in occupational prestige) fast during the first 5–10 years in the labour market, and flatten out afterwards (approximately between 30–40 years of age). This is in line with the occupational status maturation hypothesis. Both class origin and educational attainment affect occupational attainment. The effects of educational attainment vary more over the career, but depend on the educational attainment level in question. Successive cohorts of women gain higher occupational prestige, and continue to gain in occupational prestige longer across their careers. We also find that cohorts that entered the labour market in times of economic downturns and restructuring (the oil crisis years and the early 1990s) had more difficulties in establishing their careers. Returns to education generally increase across cohorts, while class background differences decrease, as has been reported in earlier research.

  • 13. Moisio, Pasi
    et al.
    Lorentzen, Thomas
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Angelin, Anna
    Salonen, Tapio
    Kauppinen, Timo
    Trends in the Intergenerational Transmission of Social Assistance in the Nordic Countries in the 2000s2015In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 73-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study considered trends in the intergenerational transmission of social assistance (SA) among young adults in Finland, Norway and Sweden during the 2000s. Comparable administrative register data-sets enabled us to compare year by year the social assistance recipiency of 20-year-old adults in the period 1999–2008, together with information on their parents' social assistance recipiency at the time when those young adults were aged 16 years. The intergenerational odds-ratio for SA was stronger in Sweden than in Finland or Norway. The probabilities of transitioning into SA when having an SA family background have declined in all three countries, but less than the transition probabilities into SA when from a non-SA family. This has strengthened the intergenerational odds-ratio in all three countries, though only slightly in Norway. The upwards trend in intergenerational odds-ratios for SA follows almost perfectly the declining trend in the number of 20-year-old recipients in these three countries. When the number of SA recipients decrease, it decreases the transition probabilities into SA more among those with a non-SA family background compared to the those with an SA family background. This difference in the decrease of transition probabilities turns into an increase in the intergenerational odds-ratio.

  • 14.
    Tåhlin, Michael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Westerman, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Youth employment decline and the structural change of skill2020In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 47-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Labor market prospects for youth have deteriorated significantly in many OECD countries over recent decades. While the extent and consequences of falling youth employment are commonly studied, attempts at understanding its causes have been much more limited. The present paper attempts to fill this explanatory gap. We suggest that the secular decline in youth employment can be accounted for by the structural change of skill. This process of structural change has two interrelated components: (a) one part where skill supply (individual educational attainment) and skill demand (educational requirements of jobs) grow together in what can be called matched upgrading and (b) another part where excess skill supply leads to mismatch and crowding-out. These components of skill growth have commonly been treated separately and incompletely in the literature. We build on both of them in developing our account of why the labor market for youth has weakened. Using data on 10 European countries from the EU Labor Force Surveys over the period 1998 to 2015, we estimate associations between the structural change of skill and youth employment decline. The main conclusion is that both matched skill upgrading and overeducation are strongly and negatively linked to young people’s employment chances.

  • 15.
    Törrönen, Jukka
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Maunu, Antti
    Reflexive self-talk and situated freedom in the context of sociability: An analysis of transgressive drinking in young adult Finns' diaries2009In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 431-450Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 15 of 15
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