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  • 1.
    Bihagen, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nermo, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Stern, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Class Origin and Elite Position of Men in Business Firms in Sweden, 1993-2007: The Importance of Education, Cognitive Ability, and Personality2013In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 939-954Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Swedish registry data, we study the impact of class origin on becoming part of the business elite between 1993 and 2007 for men aged 35–44 years. The elite is defined as the top 1 per cent of wage earners within large firms. We find a clear working class disadvantage and, with time, a polarization between those of working class origin and others. Decomposition analyses indicate that differences in educational attainment levels cause a large part of the gap, but less so over time. Differences in personality traits measured at around the age of 18 years also help explain the class origin differentials, and more so over time. The decomposition analyses indicate that the net effect of cognitive abilities is small. The results suggest a change in the value of education and personality in the labour market over time, but as men of working class origins have disadvantages in both domains, the relative disadvantage of coming from the working class was rather stable during the period 1993–2007.

  • 2.
    Bohman, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Economic Action and Interfirm Relations: Diffusion of Stock Repurchases on the Stockholm Stock Exchange 2000–20032006In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 383-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the importance of interorganizational relations for stock repurchases made on the Stockholm Stock Exchange between 2000 and 2003. Building on theories of social influence, the main argument made is that stock repurchases are associated not only with specific economic characteristics of the repurchasing firms but also with social influence through board interlocks. The study makes use of parametric survival analysis and is performed on all firms listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange in at least January and June in one of the examined years. The result suggests that the decision to repurchase stocks is dependent on both the firms’ economic settings and their social embeddedness in terms of board interlocks. The argument of social embeddedness holds true even when ownership interlocks are taken into consideration. This is particularly important because there seems to be some overlapping between the director and the ownership network, and controlling for ownership interlocks increases the credibility of the argument that stock repurchases made during the studied period were associated with social embeddedness in terms of board interlocks.

  • 3.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Work and well-being in a comparative perspective - the role of family policy2011In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 16-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates whether associations between well-being and paid work and housework, respectively, differ between European family policy models, and whether any such differences can be attributed to differences in the experience of work–family conflict. Analysing data on mothers and fathers in 18 European countries, the study finds that the traditional family policy model shows the most positive association between women’s well-being and paid working hours, although this association is concealed by work–family conflict. Possibly, the selection into long paid working hours of women with rewarding jobs is greater here than elsewhere. Women’s housework hours are also most positively associated with well-being in the traditional model, although well-being decreases when housework hours become too long. In the market-oriented model, women’s paid working hours and housework hours are instead associated with decreasing well-being, the former association appearing to be caused by work–family conflict. The strongest positive association between men’s paid working hours and well-being is found in the market-oriented model, but again, control for work–family conflict reveals positive associations in this and other models. Hence, among both mothers and fathers, work–family conflict appears to be one important reason why paid working hours are not more clearly associated with high levels of well-being.

  • 4.
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Making their mark: the effects of neighbourhood and upper secondary school on educational achievement2008In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 463-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study contributes to the literature on neighbourhood and school effects on individual educational outcomes by asking whether and to what extent adolescent educational achievement in metropolitan Sweden is determined by neighbourhood and upper secondary school characteristics net of observed individual-level background attributes. Extensive cross-classified multilevel regression analyses of comprehensive leaving certificate data for around 26,000 upper secondary school students show that characteristics attributable to upper secondary schools matter much more for the variability in achievement than do neighbourhoods. There are also indications of contextual effects of neighbour and schoolmate characteristics that operate above and beyond the impact of observed individual-level background attributes. Since the estimated effects of concentrations of (dis)advantage and immigrant density at neighbourhood and school level point in different directions, this study demonstrates the benefits of analysing the effects of neighbourhood and school on individual educational outcomes at the same time.

  • 5.
    Bygren, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The Gender Composition of Workplaces and Men's and Women's Turnover2010In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 193-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a data set of 721,123 employees in 1,890 Swedish workplaces, the author tests whether employees’ propensity to leave a workplace is dependent on the share of the employees of the opposite sex in a workplace. Net of time-invariant workplace heterogeneity, the probability to leave a workplace is found to decrease with the share of employees of the opposite sex. This is true for men as well as women. The results contradict theories suggesting that men and women prefer to work in work settings with a high proportion of employees of their own sex. On the contrary, a plausible explanation of the results is that both men and women prefer work settings with a high proportion of employees of the opposite sex.

  • 6.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden; Institute for Future Studies, Sweden.
    Anni, Erlandsson
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Do Employers Prefer Fathers? Evidence from a Field Experiment Testing the Gender by Parenthood Interaction Effect on Callbacks to Job Applications2017In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 337-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In research on fatherhood premiums and motherhood penalties in career-related outcomes, employers’ discriminatory behaviours are often argued to constitute a possible explanation for observed gender gaps. However, there is as yet no conclusive evidence of such discrimination. Utilizing a field experiment design, we test (i) whether job applicants are subject to recruitment discrimination on the basis of their gender and parenthood status, and (ii) whether discrimination by gender and parenthood is conditional on the qualifications required by the job applied for. We applied for 2,144 jobs in the Swedish labour market, randomly assigning gender and parenthood status to fictitious job applicants. Based on the rate of callbacks, we do not find that employers practise systematic recruitment discrimination on the basis of the job applicants’ gender or parental status, neither in relation to less qualified nor more highly qualified jobs.

  • 7.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Pathways to Social Exclusion— A Life-Course Study2011In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 107-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article analyses how living conditions during childhood and adolescence structure socio-economic circumstances in midlife. The data are drawn from a new longitudinal Swedish data set—the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study—in which we can follow 14,294 individuals from birth (1953) to the age of 48 (2001). The analysis proceeds in three steps. The first step establishes the link between precarious living conditions in childhood and midlife social exclusion. In the second step, structural equation modelling is used to depict the pathways by which this association is mediated. The analysis produces tentative evidence that the long-term effect of financial poverty primarily runs via educational failure, whereas the effect of other social problems in the family of origin runs via deviant behaviour. In the third step, we analyse whether or not children who were raised in poor families or in families with other social problems are more sensitive to new risk exposures as adults. This is tested by examining the effect of long-term unemployment during the economic crisis of the 1990s on social exclusion risks 7–9 years later.

  • 8. Edling, Christofer
    et al.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bohman, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Faith or Social Foci?: Happiness, Religion, and Social Networks in Sweden2014In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 615-626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we study 19-year-olds in Sweden (n=2,942) with and without an immigration background (Iran, Yugoslavia, and Sweden). We follow-up on a recent study, which shows that religion and happiness tend to be positively associated at the individual level only in countries with high aggregate levels of religiosity and proposes that what affects happiness is not religiosity per se but conformity to the standard in one's country. We take these results a step further and study the relationship between religion and happiness across immigrant groups that have significantly different experiences of religion. Are we more likely to find a positive association between religion and happiness among young Swedes with parents born in Iran and Yugoslavia than among those with two Sweden-born parents? And do these associations depend on their sense of affiliation with Sweden? We argue that there are strong theoretical reasons to assume that previous results also apply to the observed association between religious networks and happiness, and we study to what extent previous results can be generalized to societies like Sweden, which has a very low aggregate level of religiosity, and whether that effect differs by immigration background. The results show that religion and religiousness per se have little impact on happiness. In particular, we find that social networks tend to be positively associated with happiness, and that this effect is driven by co-organizational membership among friends.

  • 9.
    Eger, Maureen A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Valdez, Sarah
    Neo-nationalism in Western Europe2015In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 115-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing popularity of radical right parties in Western Europe has received widespread attention. Despite a rather large literature on parties with explicitly anti-immigrant platforms, there is surprisingly little consensus about the underlying political ideology of this party family and its supporters. Particularly lacking is cross-national research that maps party positions in two-dimensional political space over time. Using Manifesto Project Data (1970-2010), we analyze election platforms of parties the literature has identified as radical right and show that they have qualitatively changed between 1970 and 2010. Current parties differ fundamentally from their predecessors in that nationalist claims are paramount. We utilize the European Social Survey (2002-2010) to confirm that voters’ attitudes are consistent with contemporary parties’ platforms. Our results point to a coherent political ideology, which may partially explain these parties’ recent electoral successes. Based on our combined analyses, we conclude that contemporary anti-immigrant parties constitute a new, distinct party family, which we term neo-nationalist.

  • 10.
    Engzell, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jonsson, Jan O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). University of Oxford, England .
    Estimating Social and Ethnic Inequality in School Surveys: biases from Child Misreporting and Parent Nonresponse2015In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 312-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the biases that arise in estimates of social inequalities in children's cognitive ability test scores due to (i) children's misreporting of socio-economic origin and (ii) parents' nonresponse. Unlike most previous studies, we are able to draw on linked register data with high reliability and almost no missingness and thereby jointly consider the impact of measurement error and nonresponse. Using data on 14-year-olds (n = 18,716) from a new survey conducted in England, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden (Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Survey in Four European Countries), we find that child reports on parental occupation are well aligned with parents' reports in all countries, but reports on parental education less so. This leads to underestimation of socio-economic disparities when child reports of education are used, but not occupation. Selective nonresponse among parents turns out to be a real problem, resulting in similar underestimation. We also investigate conditional estimates of immigrant-non-immigrant disparities, which are surprisingly little affected by measurement error or nonresponse in socio-economic control variables. We conclude that school-based surveys on teenagers are well advised to include questions on parental occupation, while the costs for carrying out parental questionnaires may outweigh the gains.

  • 11.
    Erikson, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Rudolphi, Frida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Change in social selection to upper secondary school - primary and secondary effects in Sweden2010In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 291-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inequality of educational opportunity (IEO) depends on two separate mechanisms: children from advantaged social backgrounds perform better at school—primary effects—and tend more than others to choose to continue in education—secondary effects. IEO in the transition from compulsory to academic upper secondary education has earlier been shown to have decreased in Sweden since the middle of the 20th century. We investigate whether this change can be accounted for by changing primary or secondary effects, or perhaps by both. The analysis is based on longitudinal data for six cohorts of children, born from 1948 to 1982. Primary and secondary effects are separated both by grade point averages and cognitive test results. The estimation of the effects is based on the comparison of actual and counterfactual transitions among children from different social classes. Results show that the decrease in IEO overall seems to be related to corresponding changes in the primary and secondary effects. Secondary effects are greater when the separation is based on cognitive ability tests rather than grades and we end by discussing the consequences of this observation for the separation of primary and secondary effects.

  • 12.
    Esser, Ingrid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Olsen, Karen M.
    Perceived Job Quality: Autonomy and Job Security within a Multi-Level Framework2012In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 443-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we examine the relationship between institutions of labour market and welfare states and two central aspects of job quality: autonomy and job security. Drawing on theoretical frameworks from varieties of capitalism and a power resource approach, we examine whether macro-level features can explain country differences in perceived autonomy and job security. In multi-level analyses, we combine institutional data with data from the European Social Survey (ESS), which contains information on 13,414 employees from 19 countries. We report three main findings: first, we find high autonomy in the Nordic countries and low autonomy and job security in transition countries; second, the institutional features-union density and skill specificity-are positively associated with autonomy; third, unemployment rate is the most important factor in explaining country differences in perceived job security. Our findings suggest that the power of workers and their skill specificity are important in explaining cross-country differences in autonomy. The study shows that a multi-level approach may help explain how institutions shape employment outcomes.

  • 13.
    Evertsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    The Transition to Parenthood and the Division of Parental Leave in Different-Sex and Female Same-Sex Couples in Sweden2018In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 471-485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the division of paid and unpaid work at the transition to parenthood has rarely been ableto separate the social construction of gender and motherhood/fatherhood identities from labour market and financial factors. By bringing in female same-sex couples (SSC) and comparing how the transition to parenthood influences the division of parental leave in SSC and different-sex couples (DSC),we can isolate parents’ gender as a predictor of the division of care from physiological and identity-forming aspects linked to being a birth-mother (or her partner). Analysing Swedish register data forcouples who had their first child in 2003–2011, results show that (i) the (birth) mother’s leave uptake ishigher than the partner’s uptake for both SSC and DSC, providing support for identity formation andinternalized norms linked to the child’s need of its (birth) mother; (ii) birth-mothers in SSC on averagetake 7 weeks less parental leave than mothers in DSC, indicating that the partner’s gender plays arole; and (iii) the (birth) mother’s parental leave share is negatively related to her income but unrelatedto her partner’s income, suggesting that her labour market prospects are more important in the division of leave than any financial, family-utility maximization.

  • 14.
    Evertsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Parental Leave - Possibility or Trap?: Does Family Leave Length Effect Swedish Women's Labor Market Opportunities?2011In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 435-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is known for its policies aimed at facilitating the combination of work and familyfor both mothers and fathers. The parental leave insurance is one important part of these policies, considered to reduce the work-family conflict for women. However, there is scarce knowledge about the effects a long family leave break may have on women’s occupational careers and the studies on the topic so far mainly refer to the period up to the early 1990s. In addition, issues of selectivity are seldom dealt with. In the present study, we focus on mothers’ leave-taking behaviour in the period from 1974 to 2000 and estimate the relationship between family leave length and the transition rate to an upward occupational move upon return to work. Data from the nationally representative Swedish Level of Living Survey of 1991 and 2000 are used. The results indicate that women with leaves of 16 months or more were less likely to experience an upward occupational move once back on the job again. In a multilevel, multiprocess model including terms for unobserved heterogeneity, the main results remain, and we conclude that even after controlling for selectivity into different parental leave length, we find a negative effect of time out on subsequent career moves.

  • 15.
    Hällsten, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Is Education a Risky Investment? The Scarring Effect of University Dropout in Sweden2017In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 169-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of theoretical models of educational decision-making assume that education is a risky investment, but the empirical evidence of those risks is scant. This article analyses the link between educational failure and future adverse outcomes using Swedish register data. Drawing on the concept of risk inherent in the Breen-Goldthorpe model of educational decision-making-that staying on in school and failing leads to downward mobility-this article estimates the risk of university dropout in terms of future labour market exclusion, where dropouts are compared to never entrants of tertiary education. To rule out unobserved differences between the groups, sibling fixed effects are paired with controls for ability, non-cognitive skills, and life course events. The results show scarring effects of university dropout on labour market marginalization, although the scarring effects are small. This lends some support for the assumption that entering higher levels of education involves a risk of downward mobility.

  • 16.
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. University of Turku, Finland.
    Birth order effects on educational attainment and educational transitions in West Germany2014In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 166-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using sibling data from the German Life History Study and fixed-effects models, I find that birth order has a strong negative effect on educational attainment in West Germany—being born later translates to less education. The strength of the birth order effect is comparable to those of many commonly used family background indicators. This finding contrasts many sceptical accounts of birth order found in the sociological and psychological literatures. The results of this study also show the sensitivity of birth order estimates to model specification, pointing to a likely cause for conflicting results in the previous literature. Birth order effects are weaker for females and in larger families, but do not vary according to families’ socioeconomic characteristics. The effects are likewise strong at transition from compulsory school to Gymnasium, but not significant on the transition from Gymnasium to university. Overall, the results do not support theories emphasizing the dilution of socioeconomic resources, nor do they support theories on age-crossovers in birth order effects at around age 11. However, the dilution of other family resources such as parental time and attention is a possible candidate. The weaker birth order effects among females can reflect the traditionally gender unequal returns to education, in which intellectual and school performance advantages to lower birth order do not translate into better educational attainment among German women. Overall, these findings underline the importance of birth order in shaping socioeconomic achievement and, more generally, of the factors that affect the experiences and inequalities of children growing up in the same family.

  • 17.
    Härkönen, Juho
    et al.
    European University Institute, San Domenico di Fiesole, Italy.
    Dronkers, Jaap
    Stability and Change in the Educational Gradient of Divorce: A Comparison of Seventeen Countries2006In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 501-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a series of papers, William J. Goode argued that the relationship between modernization and the class composition of divorce is inverse. Starting from his hypothesis, we examine the relationship between female education and the risk of divorce over time in 17 countries. We expect that the relationship differs across countries and across time, so that women with higher education have a higher risk of divorce in countries and at times when the social and economic costs of divorce are high, and that there is no relationship or a negative relationship where these costs are lower. Using discrete-time event-history techniques on data on first marriages from the Fertility and Family Surveys (FFS), we find that women with higher education had a higher risk of divorce in France, Greece, Italy, Poland, and Spain. We do not find a relationship between education and divorce in Estonia, Finland, West-Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Sweden, and Switzerland, nor, depending on the model specification, in Flanders and Norway. In Austria, Lithuania, and the United States, the educational gradient of divorce is negative. Furthermore, as  predicted by our hypotheses, the educational gradient becomes increasingly negative in Flanders, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, Sweden, and the United States. We explore this variation across time and countries in more detail with multilevel models and direct measures on the legal, social, and economic environment of the countries. We find that the de-institutionalization of marriage and unconventional family practices are associated with a negative educational gradient of divorce, while welfare state expenditure is associated with a more positive gradient.

  • 18.
    Härkönen, Juho
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Dronkers, Jaap
    European University Institute.
    Stability and Change in the Educational Gradient of Divorce: A Comparison of Seventeen Countries2006In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 501-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a series of papers, William J. Goode argued that the relationship between modernization and the class composition of divorce is inverse. Starting from his hypothesis, we examine the relationship between female education and the risk of divorce over time in 17 countries. We expect that the relationship differs across countries and across time, so that women with higher education have a higher risk of divorce in countries and at times when the social and economic costs of divorce are high, and that there is no relationship or a negative relationship where these costs are lower. Using discrete-time event-history techniques on data on first marriages from the Fertility and Family Surveys (FFS), we find that women with higher education had a higher risk of divorce in France, Greece, Italy, Poland, and Spain. We do not find a relationship between education and divorce in Estonia, Finland, West-Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Sweden, and Switzerland, nor, depending on the model specification, in Flanders and Norway. In Austria, Lithuania, and the United States, the educational gradient of divorce is negative. Furthermore, as predicted by our hypotheses, the educational gradient becomes increasingly negative in Flanders, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, Sweden, and the United States. We explore this variation across time and countries in more detail with multilevel models and direct measures on the legal, social, and economic environment of the countries. We find that the de-institutionalization of marriage and unconventional family practices are associated with a negative educational gradient of divorce, while welfare state expenditure is associated with a more positive gradient.

  • 19.
    Jonsson, Jan O.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Rudolphi, Frida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Weak Performance—Strong Determination: School Achievement and Educational Choice among Children of Immigrants in Sweden2011In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 487-508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We ask how the advantages and disadvantages in the educational careers of children of immigrants in Sweden are produced, making a theoretical distinction between mechanisms connected with school performance on one hand, and educational choice on the other. Using a new data set, covering six full cohorts of Swedish-born ninth-graders in 1998–2003 (N¼612,730), with matched school-Census information, we show that children of non-European immigrant origin are disadvantaged in their school performance but advantaged in their choice of academic upper secondary education. They have lower and more often incomplete grades, which force a sizeable proportion—10–20 per cent—into non-meritorious tracks or lead them to leave school. Given grades, children of non-European background make heterogeneous choices: many do not enrol in upper secondary education, but among those who do the propensity is high that they choose academic studies before vocational. In contrast, children of the ‘old’ (chiefly Nordic) labour immigrants are similar to the majority group in their equal preference for these two routes. A school system where choice plays a significant role appears to be advantageous for the often high-aspiring second-generation immigrant students, but greater efforts to reduce early achievement differences may still alleviate ethnic minority disadvantages.

  • 20.
    Kahlmeter, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Housing Evictions and Economic Hardship. A Prospective Study2018In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 106-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has demonstrated that evictions primarily affect vulnerable populations. However, relatively little is known about the consequences eviction has, particularly regarding economic outcomes. Using comprehensive Swedish national register data on evictions in 2009, this study tests two competing hypotheses regarding to what extent an eviction affects subsequent economic hardship for an already disadvantaged group. The degree to which individuals rely on means-tested social assistance is used as an indicator of economic hardship. The cumulative disadvantage perspective predicts that additional strain will compound the economic hardship experienced by the group. In contrast, the disadvantage saturation perspective suggests that additional adversities may not add to economic hardship for disadvantaged individuals. Results from propensity score matching analyses show that, the year immediately after eviction, the degree of social assistance receipt was around 8 percentage points higher for the evicted group than for the matched comparison group. In the following 3 years, the degree of social assistance receipt continued to be significantly higher for those evicted compared to peers. The results lend support to the cumulative disadvantage perspective and suggest that—in the context of preventing evictions—policy measures such as assistance to repay rent arrears would be adequate to prevent further economic hardship.

  • 21.
    Kulin, Joakim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Meuleman, Bart
    Human Values and Welfare State Support in Europe: An East-West Divide?2015In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 418-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses comparative data from the European Social Survey to investigate the influence of self-transcendence and conservation values on public support for the welfare state. The results firstly show that these value dimensions are strongly related to welfare state support in the majority of the countries investigated. The main contribution of this study, however, is that it evidences striking differences between countries regarding which values drive welfare attitudes, and the strength of the association between values and attitudes. Moreover, we show that the between-country variation in value effects is systematically related to contextual factors. Self-transcendence values are found to be a strong predictor of welfare state support in countries with high levels of social expenditure. In the less generous welfare states of Eastern Europe, the effects of self-transcendence values are weaker or absent. In Eastern European countries, conservation rather than self-transcendence values drive attitudes to the welfare state. Outspoken cohort differences in value effects in Eastern European countries as well as persisting differences between East and West Germany confirm our interpretation that the particular Eastern European pattern can be ascribed to the unique experiences of 'authoritarian egalitarianism' under communism.

  • 22.
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Gender, Occupational Prestige, and Wages: A Test of Devaluation Theory2009In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 87-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Devaluation theory's basic assumption is that women are culturally devalued in society. As a consequence, female occupations and tasks are assumed to be less valued than are male tasks. Previous empirical research has found that the proportion females in an occupation has a net negative effect on wages. Less documented, however, is the relation between occupational sex composition and occupational prestige. By analysing whether the female share of an occupation or feminine work is negatively associated with occupational prestige, devaluation theory may be more directly tested than when using wages as the outcome variable. In addition, the article examines whether differences in occupational prestige account for part of the wage effect of sex composition, and whether women, relative to men, receive lower wage rewards for attained prestige. Analyses on Swedish data show that the association between the proportion females in an occupation and occupational prestige is non-linear. Mixed occupations (41–60 per cent female) have the highest prestige. Further, work generally done by women—care work—does not have lower prestige in society than other tasks. These findings do not support devaluation theory. The analysis also shows that women receive lower wage returns than do men to attained occupational prestige.

  • 23.
    Modin, Bitte
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Erikson, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Intergenerational continuity in school performance: do grandparents matter?2013In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 858-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate whether present-day ninth grade students with top marks in Swedish and mathematics tend to descend from grandparents who did well in these school-subjects too. We also examine the extent to which such inheritance is domain-specific and works through the educational attainment of the previous two generations. The study is based on grandsons (n = 6,110) and granddaughters (n = 5,658) of subjects born in Uppsala 1915–1929. Results show that the odds of students receiving top marks in mathematics and Swedish tend to increase the higher the marks their grandparents achieved in these subjects. However, associations differ by the specific school-subject and according to the gender-specific intergenerational line of transmission. In broad terms, our results indicate that grandfathers are important for the transmission of mathematical and linguistic ability to their granddaughters and grandsons. Grandmothers appear to play a smaller role in the transmission of abilities, with the distinct exception of the transmission of linguistic ability from maternal grandmothers to their granddaughters. The fact that associations vary quite strongly according to type of ability and the gender-specific line of intergenerational transmission implies that we should be looking to historical context and learning environments rather than to a simple genetic transmission model to explain our findings.

  • 24.
    Mood, Carina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Logistic Regression: Why We Cannot Do What We Think We Can Do, and What We Can Do About It2010In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 67-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Logistic regression estimates do not behave like linear regression estimates in one important respect: They are affected by omitted variables, even when these variables are unrelated to the independent variables in the model. This fact has important implications that have gone largely unnoticed by sociologists. Importantly, we cannot straightforwardly interpret log-odds ratios or odds ratios as effect measures, because they also reflect the degree of unobserved heterogeneity in the model. In addition, we cannot compare log-odds ratios or odds ratios for similar models across groups, samples, or time points, or across models with different independent variables in a sample. This article discusses these problems and possible ways of overcoming them.

  • 25.
    Mood, Carina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Take-up Down Under: Hits and Misses of Means-Tested Benefits in Australia2005In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 443-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has revealed considerable non-take-up rates of benefits in western welfare states, which has raised concern that benefits fail to reach their objectives. Most research has focused on means-tested benefits, partly because they are believed to be subject to high stigma deterring people from take-up. I study the take-up of such benefits in Australia, where virtually all cash benefits are means-tested. Using data from the first two waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics Australia (HILDA) survey, I estimate the general take-up rate of benefits among people with low assets and incomes and carry out a detailed analysis of take-up of one particular benefit, Parenting Payment. Contrary to the traditional conception of selective welfare states as highly stigmatizing, I find no evidence of a particularly low degree of take-up, and I suggest that stigma of means-tested benefits in Australia may on average be low because they target a relatively large proportion of the population. However, non-take-up appears to be considerable in some population categories where stigma is likely to be relatively high.

  • 26.
    Mood, Carina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Institute for Futures Studies (IFFS), Sweden.
    Jonsson, Jan O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Institute for Futures Studies (IFFS), Sweden; Nuffield College, UK.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Immigrant Integration and Youth Mental Health in Four European Countries2016In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 716-729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mental health of children of immigrant background compared to their majority peers is an important indicator of integration. We analyse internalizing and externalizing problems in 14–15-year-olds from England, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden (n = 18,716), using new comparative data (Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Survey in Four European Countries). Studying more than 30 different origin countries, we find that despite potential problems with acculturation and social stress, children of immigrants—particularly from geographically and culturally distant countries—report systematically fewer internalizing and externalizing problems than the majority population, thus supporting the ‘immigrant health paradox’ found in some studies. However, surprisingly, we do not find that this minority advantage changes with time in the destination country. Externalizing problems are most prevalent in our English sample, and overall Swedish adolescents show the least mental health problems. A plausible account of our results is that there is a positive selection of immigrants on some persistent and intergenerationally transferable characteristic that invokes resilience in children.

  • 27.
    Nelson, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Social Assistance and EU Poverty Thresholds 1990-2008. Are European Welfare Systems Providing Just and Fair Protection Against Low Income?2013In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 386-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that income adequacy is an important condition for a fair work-test to apply. This article provides new evidence about the construction of just social minimums by analysing the relationship between social assistance, benefit adequacy, and labour market activation. Does social assistance provide benefits at levels necessary to escape poverty? To what extent is the development of benefit adequacy related to active labour market policy? The empirical analyses combine macro-level institutional data from the SaMip data set and micro-level income data for 28 European welfare systems in 1990-2008. It is shown that social assistance seldom reaches commonly applied poverty thresholds. The adequacy of social assistance has also declined, along with the increased emphasis on the activation of beneficiaries. It therefore appears difficult to perceive European social assistance programmes as just distributive instruments.

  • 28.
    Olsson, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    The Economic Side of Social Relations:  Household Poverty, Adolescents' Own Resources and Peer Relations2007In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 471-485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While sociological theory suggests that economic resources, through the social side of consumption, are important to social relations, few studies have investigated this relation empirically. The present article examines the relationship between adolescents’ (aged 10–18 years) economic resources and social relations with peers using interview data from the Swedish Level of Living Survey 2000 and from Statistics Sweden's Living Conditions Survey 2001–2003 (n = 5,388). Several indicators of economic resources and social relations reported by adolescents and their parents, as well as register data on household income, are used. The analyses show that economic resources, both in terms of household economy and adolescents’ own resources, are positively associated with social relations. Child poverty and relative deprivation appear to have sizeable effects on some dimensions of social relations. These results are robust for a number of controls of household characteristics and are valid across age groups and for both sexes. The analyses also suggest that the intra-household distribution of resources matters for adolescents’ social relations.

  • 29.
    Sjöberg, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Corporate Governance and Earnings Inequality in the OECD Countries 1979–20002009In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 519-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to analyse the role of corporate governance in explaining cross-national differences and trends in earnings inequality in a sample of OECD countries between 1979 and 2000. It is argued that since corporate governance is fundamentally a question of in whose interest corporations are run, it will have important consequences for how the returns from production are distributed among the parties with a stake in the corporation. The article outlines an institutional approach to corporate governance and its cross-national variation as well as formulates a number of mechanisms whereby corporate governance may influence earnings inequality. The empirical assessment indicates that central aspects of these institutions, such as the role of the stock market in channelling capital to corporations, the extent of mergers and acquisitions, and protection of minority shareholders are all related to cross-national differences and trends in earnings inequality (as measured by the p90/p10 ratio). The conclusion is that corporate governance institutions and their respective managerial practices can make a significant contribution to our understanding of fundamental stratification processes.

  • 30.
    Torssander, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Erikson, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Stratification and Mortality: A comparison of education, class, status and income2010In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 465-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many analyses of social inequality in health, different dimensions of social stratification have been used more or less interchangeably as measures of the individual's general social standing. This procedure, however, has been questioned in previous studies, most of them comparing education, class, and/or income. In this article, the importance of education and income as well as two aspects of occupation—class and status—is examined. The results are based on register data and refer to all Swedish employees in the age range 35–59 years. There are clear gradients in total death risk for all socioeconomic factors except income from work among women. The size of the independent effects of education, class, status, and income differ between men and women. For both sexes, there are clear net associations between education and mortality. Class and income show independent effects on mortality only for men and status shows an independent effect only for women. While different stratification dimensions—education, social class, income, status—all can be used to show a ‘social gradient’ with mortality, each of them seems to have a specific effect in addition to the general effect related to the stratification of society for either men or women.

1 - 30 of 30
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