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  • 1.
    Atak, Kivanc
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Bayram, Ismail Emre
    Protest Policing alla Turca: Threat, Insurgency, and the Repression of Pro-Kurdish Protests in Turkey2017In: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 95, no 4, p. 1667-1694Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do certain protests prompt more intervention from the police? And why does the intensity of intervention vary over time? Drawing on analytical approaches in the protest policing literature, and on studies investigating the relationship between civil conflict, public opinion, and state repression, this study examines whether pro-Kurdish events in Turkey are treated more severely than others, and how the policing of these protests changes over time. Based on an original dataset, we analyze more than 10,000 protest events that took place in Turkey between 2000 and 2009. Our findings suggest that compared to others, pro-Kurdish events are more likely to encounter police action, one that particularly involves repressive strategies. We further show that repressive policing in pro-Kurdish events is more pronounced when the Kurdish armed insurgency against the state intensifies. Given that this is the first systematic quantitative study on protest policing in Turkey, it not only tests previously confirmed theories of protest policing, but also makes a theoretical contribution by providing a dynamic notion of threat beyond its situational forms, which builds on the conflict between the Turkish state and the PKK.

  • 2. Barclay, Kieron
    et al.
    Hällsten, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Myrskylae, Mikko
    Birth Order and College Major in Sweden2017In: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 96, no 2, p. 629-660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on birth order has consistently shown that later-borns have lower educational attainment than first-borns; however, it is not known whether there are birth order patterns in college major. Given evidence that parents disproportionately invest in first-born children, there are likely to be birth order patterns attributable to differences in both opportunities and preferences, related to ability, human capital specialization through parent-child transfers of knowledge, and personality. Birth order patterns in college major specialization may shed light on these explanatory mechanisms and may also account for long-term birth order differences in educational and labour market outcomes. Using Swedish population register data and sibling fixed effects, we find large birth order differences in university applications. First-borns are more likely to apply to, and graduate from, medicine and engineering programs at university, while later-borns are more likely to study journalism and business programs, and to attend art school. We also find that these birth order patterns are stronger in high-socioeconomic status families and that differences in college major explain approximately half of the within-family birth order differences in long-term earnings. These results indicate that early life experiences and parental investment shape sibling differences in ability, preferences, and ambitions even within the shared environment of the family.

  • 3.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Family Formation and Men's and Women's Attainment of Workplace Authority2012In: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 90, no 3, p. 795-816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Swedish panel data, we assess whether the gender gap in supervisory authority has changed during the period 1968-2000, and investigate to what extent the gap can be attributed to gender-specific consequences of family formation. The results indicate that the gap has narrowed modestly during the period, and that the life-event of parenthood is a major cause. As long as women and men are childless and single, the gender gap in supervisory authority is marginal, even reversed. When men become fathers, however, they strongly increase their chances for supervisory authority whereas women's chances remain unaffected when they become mothers. We also find a male "marriage premium" on workplace authority, but this premium is generated by selection.

  • 4.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Szulkin, Ryszard
    Ethnic Environment During Childhood and the Educational Attainment of Immigrant Children in Sweden2010In: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 88, no 3, p. 1305-1329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We ask whether ethnic residential segregation influences the future educational careers of children of immigrants in Sweden. We use a dataset comprising a cohort of children who finished compulsory school in 1995 (n = 6,560). We follow these children retrospectively to 1990 to measure neighborhood characteristics during late childhood, and prospectively through 2003 to measure the number of years of education attained thus far. The largest immigrant groups came from Finland, Turkey, former Yugoslavia, Iran and Chile. Our empirical analysis reveals that immigrant children who grow up in neighborhoods with many young coethnics who have limited educational resources, obtain relatively low average grades from compulsory school, and on average, do not attain the same levels of education as do immigrant children who grow up elsewhere. For a minority of immigrant children who lived in neighborhoods with educationally successful young coethnics, we find a positive effect of growing up in an ethnic enclave. Also in this case, the effect of the ethnic environment on future educational attainment is mediated by school results in compulsory school.

  • 5. Erola, Jani
    et al.
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Dronkers, Jaap
    More careful or less marriageable? Parental divorce, spouse selection, and entry into marriage2012In: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 90, no 4, p. 1323-1345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the large literature on the long-term effects of parental divorce, few studies have analyzed the effects of parental divorce on spouse selection behavior. However, the characteristics of one's spouse can have important effects on economic well-being and on marital success. We use discrete-time, event-history data from Finnish population registers to study the effects of parental divorce on entry into marriage with spouses who have different educational qualifications (both absolute and relative to one's own education), using conditional multinomial logistic regression models. The results show that Finnish children of divorce have lower rates of marriage than those from intact families. In particular, children of divorce have a lower likelihood of marrying spouses with secondary education or more, and especially low rates of marrying someone with a tertiary degree. The latter gap is smaller among those with tertiary education, as a result of the higher rates of homogamous marriage among the children of divorce with high education. Our findings suggest that children of divorce carry with them traits and behaviors that make them less marriageable candidates in the marriage market. We discuss the possible implications of these findings.

  • 6.
    Evertsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Aisenbrey, Silke
    Yeshiva University.
    Grunow, Daniela
    University of Amsterdam.
    Is There a Career Penalty for Mothers' Time Out? A Comparison of Germany, Sweden and the United States2009In: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 88, no 2, p. 573-606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on three countries with distinct policies toward motherhood and work: Germany, Sweden and the United States. We analyze the length of mothers’ time out of paid work after childbirth and the short-term career consequences for mothers. In the United States, we identify a career punishment even for short time-out periods; long time-out periods increase the risk of a downward move and reduce the chances of an upward move. In Germany, long time-out periods destabilize the career and, the longer the leave, the greater the risk of either an upward or downward move. In Sweden, we find a negative effect of time out on upward moves. Hence, even in “woman-friendly” Sweden, women’s career prospects are better if they return to paid work sooner rather than later.

     

  • 7. Gregg, Paul
    et al.
    Jonsson, Jan O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Oxford University, UK.
    Macmillan, Lindsey
    Mood, Carina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    The Role of Education for Intergenerational Income Mobility: A comparison of the United States, Great Britain, and Sweden2017In: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 96, no 1, p. 121-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have found that intergenerational income persistence is relatively high in the United States and Britain, especially as compared to Nordic countries. We compare the association between family income and sons' earnings in the United States (National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979), Britain (British Cohort Study 1970), and Sweden (Population Register Data, 1965 cohort), and find that both income elasticities and rank-order correlations are highest in the United States, followed by Britain, with Sweden being clearly more equal. We ask whether differences in educational inequality and in return to qualifications can explain these cross-country differences. Surprisingly, we find that this is not the case, even though returns to education are higher in the United States. Instead, the low income mobility in the United States and Britain is almost entirely due to the part of the parent-son association that is not mediated by educational attainment. In the United States and especially Britain, parental income is far more important for earnings at a given level of education than in Sweden, a result that holds also when controlling for cognitive ability. This goes against widespread ideas of the United States as a country where the role of ascription is limited and meritocratic stratification prevails.

  • 8.
    Hedström, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Liu, Ka-Yuet
    Nordvik, Monica K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Interaction domains and suicides: A population-based panel study of suicides in the Stockholm metropolitan area, 1991-19992008In: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 87, no 2, p. 713-740Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how suicides influence suicide risks of others within two interaction domains: the family and the workplace. A distinction is made between dyad-based social-interaction effects and degree-based exposure effects. A unique database including all individuals who ever lived in Stockholm during the 1990s is analyzed. For about 5.6 years on average, 1.2 million individuals are observed, and 1,116 of them commit suicide. Controlling for other risk factors, men exposed to a suicide in the family (at work) are 8.3 (3.5) times more likely to commit suicide than non-exposed men. The social-interaction effect thus is larger within the family domain; yet work-domain exposure is more important for the suicide rate because individuals are more often exposed to suicides of coworkers than family members.

  • 9. Manzoni, Anna
    et al.
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Mayer, Karl Ulrich
    Moving on?: a growth-curve analysis of occupational attainment and career progression patterns in West Germany2014In: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 92, no 4, p. 1285-1312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we use multilevel growth-curve analysis to model occupational stratification across West German careers for cohorts born between 1919 and 1971. We argue that a life-course approach gives a more appropriate perspective into social stratification by focusing on the permanence of inequalities across human lives. With data from the German Life History Study (GLHS), our primary interest is in the amount and timing of career progression and the ways in which educational attainment, class background, and cohort context shape them. We confirm previous findings of limited career progression and permanence in occupational inequality. Thus, career mobility can correct for initial disadvantages only to a limited degree. We also confirm the strong role played by the standardized and stratified German educational system, which channels workers into specific occupations with strict boundaries. We find a substantial gross effect of class background, which is strongly mediated by educational attainment for women but not for men. We do not find any general indications of a trend in change across cohorts, although there are some weak indications that men who entered the labor market in the problematic 1970s had weaker career growth. We conclude by discussing the advantages of a life-course approach to occupational stratification and the possibilities of growth-curve analysis to answer pertinent questions in research on careers and occupational mobility.

  • 10.
    Mood, Carina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Neighborhood Social Influence and Welfare Receipt in Sweden: A Panel Data Analysis2010In: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 88, no 3, p. 1331-1356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article places the choice to claim welfare benefits in a social context by studying how neighborhood welfare receipt affects welfare receipt among couples in Stockholm, Sweden. It is expected that the propensity to claim welfare should increase with welfare use in the neighborhood, primarily through stigma reduction and increasing availability of information. I use individual-level panel data (N = 1,595,843) for the Stockholm County population during the 1990s, data that contain a wide range of information and allow extensive controls for observed and unobserved confounding factors. The results from pooled and fixed-effects logistic regressions suggest that welfare receipt among people in the same neighborhood substantially increases the number of households entering the welfare system (inflow), but the effects on outflow are negligible.

  • 11.
    Oláh, Livia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Gender equality perceptions, division of paid and unpaid work, and partnership dissolution in Sweden2014In: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 93, no 2, p. 571-594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increase in female employment and the decrease in gender labor specialization, there has also been a marked change in gender role attitudes. An increasing proportion of women and men has come to prefer gender egalitarianism. Yet a marked gender division of labor persists. Here, we study the interplay between individual gender role attitudes and behavior in terms of sharing paid and unpaid work with one’s partner, and implications for partnership stability. We focus on Sweden, a country with long experience of the dual-earner model and policies supporting female labor-force participation while also promoting men’s active engagement in family tasks. We test two hypotheses: first, that gender egalitarianism in attitudes and behavior per se strengthens partnership stability (the gender egalitarian model) and second, that consistency in individual attitudes and couple behavior, whether egalitarian or traditional, strengthens partnership stability (the attitude-behavior consistency model). We use data from the Swedish Young Adult Panel Study (YAPS) conducted in 1999, 2003, and 2009. We find no difference in dissolution risk between the consistent egalitarian and the consistent traditional individuals, and both categories exhibit lower dissolution risks than individuals holding gender egalitarian views but dividing workload with their spouse/partner in a gender-traditional way. These results speak in favor of the attitude-behavior consistency model of marriage.

  • 12.
    Sjöberg, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Social Insurance as a Collective Resource: Unemployment Benefits, Job Insecurity and Subjective Well-being in a Comparative Perspective2010In: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 88, no 3, p. 1281-1304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that unemployment benefits are providing a crucial but often overlooked function by reducing the insecurity associated with modern labor markets. Because job insecurity is associated with concerns about future financial security, economic support during unemployment may lessen the negative effects of job insecurity on employed individuals’ well-being. Using data from the European Social Survey, this article shows that the generosity of unemployment benefits makes a difference to the subjective well-being of employed individuals, especially those with limited economic resources and an insecure position in the labor market. These results indicate that unemployment benefits may be viewed as a collective resource with important external benefits, i.e., benefits to society over and above those to the unemployed who directly utilize such benefits.

  • 13.
    Thomson, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    McLanahan, Sara S.
    Reflections on "Family Structure and Child Well-Being: Economic Resources vs. Parental Socialization"2012In: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 91, no 1, p. 45-53Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14. Volker, Beate
    et al.
    Mollenhorst, Gerald
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Steenbeek, Wouter
    Schutjens, Veronique
    Flap, Henk
    Lost Letters in Dutch Neighborhoods: A Field Experiment on Collective Efficacy2016In: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 94, no 3, p. 953-974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A lack of collective efficacy in neighborhoods is associated with social and physical disorder and related anti-social actions. It is less clear, however, whether collective efficacy in neighborhoods also enhances prosocial, other-regarding behavior. We studied this association by employing the Lost Letter Technique in a large-scale field experiment. Our data stem from 1,240 letters dropped in a representative sample of 110 Dutch neighborhoods, combined with neighborhood data based on a survey of residents (SSND2, n = 996) and information provided by Statistics Netherlands. We distinguish between two conditions: (1) location of the lost letter, that is, behind a car's windshield wiper or on the sidewalk; and (2) type of addressee, that is, a Dutch name or a Turkish/Moroccan name. When we decompose collective efficacy into social cohesion and shared expectations of social control, we find that shared control expectations clearly matter for the rate of posted letters. Social cohesion has no effect. Furthermore, a high percentage of non-Western residents, high residential mobility, and a relatively low local income level are negatively related to the rate of posted letters.

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