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  • 1. Adams, Vanessa M.
    et al.
    Moon, Katie
    Alvarez-Romero, Jorge G.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Spencer, Michaela
    Blackman, Deborah
    Using Multiple Methods to Understand the Nature of Relationships in Social Networks2018In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 755-772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective natural resource management (NRM) often depends on collaboration through formal and informal relationships. Social network analysis (SNA) provides a framework for studying social relationships; however, a deeper understanding of the nature of these relationships is often missing. By integrating multiple analytical methods (including SNA, evidence ratings, and perception matrices), we were able to investigate the nature of relationships in NRM social networks across five service types (e.g., technical advice, on-ground support) in our case study region, Daly catchment Australia. Only one service type was rated as highly associated with free choice in establishing relationships: technical advice/knowledge. Beneficial characteristics of NRM organizations, such as collaborative and transparent, were associated with the presence of freely chosen relationships between organizations. Our results suggest a need to improve our understanding of organizational roles and characteristics, in particular for use in applied NRM contexts, such as network weaving or disseminating information.

  • 2. Baird, Julia
    et al.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Moore, Michele-Lee
    Brandes, Oliver
    Introducing Resilience Practice to Watershed Groups: What Are the Learning Effects?2016In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 29, no 10, p. 1214-1229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience as an organizing framework for addressing dynamics of social-ecological systems has experienced strong uptake; however, its application is nascent. This research study aimed to address the gap between resilience thinking and practice by focusing on learning, a key aspect of resilience. Two Canadian watershed groups were led in 2-day workshops focused on resilience. Learning effects were measured using a survey administered both before and after the workshop, and a qualitative survey was administered 6 months later to understand longer term effects. Short-term learning effects were similar between the two case studies, with strong cognitive and relational learning and less normative learning. Longer term effects showed enduring cognitive and normative learning in both cases; however, relational learning persisted only in the watershed where a resilience practice approach to watershed planning had been incorporated. Future research directions include refinements to the learning measurement methodology and continuing to build resilience practice literature.

  • 3. Cinner, Joshua E.
    et al.
    Daw, Tim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of East Anglia, United Kingdom.
    Huchery, Cindy
    Thoya, Pascal
    Wamukota, Andrew
    Cedras, Maria
    Abunge, Caroline
    Winners and Losers in Marine Conservation: Fishers' Displacement and Livelihood Benefits from Marine Reserves2014In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 27, no 9, p. 994-1005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine reserves can create both benefits and costs to fishers. This article explores the perceptions of fishers in Kenya and Seychelles about displacement, spillover, and overall impacts of local marine reserves on their livelihoods. We test whether these perceptions are different among fishers from different geographic and socioeconomic conditions. Sixty-six percent of fishers had been displaced from marine reserves or coastal development and 90% believed they had caught fishes that spilled over from marine reserves. Poorer fishers in Kenya were both displaced from, and also felt like they benefited from, marine reserves. This highlights how people's experiences with marine reserves, both positive and negative, are affected by a range of social considerations that may not be incorporated in typical evaluations of ecological and economic marine reserve success.

  • 4.
    Garcia, Maria Mancilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Explicit Arguments, Hidden Biases: Uncovering the Role of Institutional Relationships in a Dispute Over Scientific Data in Lake Titicaca (Bolivia)2016In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 29, no 9, p. 1110-1123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bay of Cohana, on the Bolivian side of Lake Titicaca (between Bolivia and Peru), has suffered from eutrophication for the last 30 years. Heavy metals from mining activities in the basin have also entered the bay. While data on eutrophication are abundant, data on mining are scarce and public interventions have focused on the former. However, one of these interventions has been criticized for not taking into account the links between eutrophication and heavy metals. This article argues that the arguments underpinning what at first sight appears to be a scientific controversy are intermingled with a competition for the institutional space. It calls attention to the impact that power struggles between public agencies have on scientific controversies, an aspect to which political ecology has not devoted sufficient attention. However, paying attention to these issues is crucial if we are to craft management systems that address conflicts between organizations.

  • 5. Jönsson, Anna Maria
    et al.
    Gerger Swartling, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Reflections on Science–Stakeholder Interactions in Climate Change Adaptation Research within Swedish Forestry2014In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 27, no 11, p. 1130-1144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stakeholder engagement has become increasingly important in research programs focusing on climate change impact on ecosystem services. Communication between researchers and stakeholders, however, is often impaired by linguistic barriers, different priorities, and time constraints. This article examines the organizational aspects of science–stakeholder interactions, focusing on examples from the Swedish forestry sector. The study highlights the need articulated by the Swedish forestry sector for access to scientific knowledge, and we discuss how to present research findings in formats suitable to serve as decision support. Clear communication about common goals, expectations, resources, and time frames is needed in order to reduce the risk of stakeholder fatigue.

  • 6.
    Masterson, Vanessa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Spierenburg, Marja
    Competing Place Meanings in Complex Landscapes: A Social-Ecological Approach to Unpacking Community Conservation Outcomes on the Wild Coast, South Africa2017In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 30, no 12, p. 1442-1457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a general awareness of the social-ecological complexities within which conservation interventions are embedded, approaches to understanding a diversity of local perspectives of heterogeneous landscapes and how they matter for the outcomes of these interventions are seldom demonstrated. We apply a social-ecological approach to exploring the multiple place meanings related to key landscape elements around a proposed community conservation intervention on the Wild Coast, South Africa, by identifying and analyzing three narratives about this impending change. These narratives mobilize competing meanings of the landscape to argue for or against the conservation project. By linking place meanings to locally defined landscape units (ecotopes), we engage multiple interpretations of the heterogeneous and changing landscape to gain a holistic and more inclusive picture of social-ecological landscape processes such as increasing woodlands and field abandonment. The obstruction of this particular intervention indicates the importance of engaging with multiple cultural values of nature.

  • 7.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Does social learning lead to better governance?In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates whether social learning among large scale farmers in  central Sweden leads to improved environmental governance. Three different framings of  social learning are first identified: as learning within established communities of practices; as  multiparty collaboration cross different communities; and as explicitly tied to desirable  outcomes. Applying the first two, the paper investigates social learning as an independent variable through semi-structured in-depth interviews. Results show that learning among farmers is inherently social, but does not necessarily improve environmental governance. Without the presence of policy or externally facilitating factors social learning is not found to explain better governance. The paper concludes that the call for social learning based on successful lessons form instrumental use, risk obscuring the fact that both social learning and better governance are often conditioned by other mitigating or enabling factors. 

  • 8.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Does Social Learning Lead to Better Natural Resource Management?: A Case Study of the Modern Farming Community of Practice in Sweden2014In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 436-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates whether social learning among large-scale farmers in central Sweden leads to better natural resource management in the agricultural landscape. Three different frames of social learning are first identified: social learning as a fundamental social phenomenon, social learning as collaborative learning, and social learning as deeper learning. This article investigates the role of social learning and other factors through semistructured in-depth interviews. Results show that learning among farmers is inherently social, but that this learning does not necessarily improve natural resource management or lead to better environmental governance. The article discusses when social learning can be expected to influence natural resources management, and finds that without the presence of policy, individual leadership, or facilitation, it is not an important factor. Furthermore, the call for social learning based on results from successful instrumental application risks obscuring findings indicating that both social learning and better natural resource management are conditioned on the same external factors.

  • 9. Wamukota, A. W.
    et al.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Osuka, K.
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of East Anglia, United Kingdom.
    The Importance of Selected Individual Characteristics in Determining Market Prices for Fishers and Traders in Keny an Small-Scale Fisheries2015In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 28, no 9, p. 959-974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how selected socioeconomic characteristics of fishers and traders shape market prices at five coastal communities in Kenya. Focus groups elicited perceived factors affecting market prices, which were then tested using quantitative analysis. Ownership of fishing gear by fishers negatively influenced the prices taken. Fish traders who bought larger quantities paid a higher price. There was no significant relation between the choice of fish market by traders and fish price due to the diffused nature of the fish market. Although fish traders had relatively high income than fishers, the link between individual characteristics, market prices, and the outcomes of such interactions is more complicated than commonly perceived. The complexity is enhanced by the heterogeneity in different fisheries and of the prices at different markets and underlines the importance of continued documentation and exploration of the relationships between social and economic status and market prices for fishers and traders.

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