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  • 1.
    Bygren, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ability Grouping's Effects on Grades and the Attainment of Higher Education: A Natural Experiment2016In: Sociology of education, ISSN 0038-0407, E-ISSN 1939-8573, Vol. 89, no 2, p. 118-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To test the effect of ability grouping on grades and the attainment of higher education, this study examines a naturally occurring experimentan admission reform that dramatically increased ability sorting between schools in the municipality of Stockholm. Following six cohorts of students (N= 79,020) from the age of 16 to 26, I find a mean effect close to zero and small positive and negative differentiating effects on grades. With regard to the attainment of higher education, I find a mean effect close to zero, the achievement group gap was unaffected, the immigrant-native gap increased, and the class background gap decreased. These results are consistent with much previous research that has found small mean effects of ability grouping. They are inconsistent with previous research, however, in that I find ability grouping's effects on gaps are rather small and point in different directions.

  • 2.
    Engzell, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). University of Oxford, UK.
    Aspiration Squeeze: The Struggle of Children to Positively Selected Immigrants2019In: Sociology of education, ISSN 0038-0407, E-ISSN 1939-8573, Vol. 92, no 1, p. 83-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why is it that children of immigrants often outdo their ethnic majority peers in educational aspirations yet struggle to keep pace with their achievements? This article advances the explanation that many immigrant communities, while positively selected on education, still have moderate absolute levels of schooling. Therefore, parents’ education may imbue children with high expectations but not always the means to fulfill them. Swedish data on children of immigrants from over 100 countries of origin support this view: Net of parents’ absolute years of schooling, a high rank in the sending country benefits children’s aspirations, attitudes, and educational choices but not their test scores or school grades. The upshot is an ‘‘aspiration squeeze’’ where to emulate their parents’ relative place in the education distribution, children are left struggling against the momentous tide of educational expansion.

  • 3. Fleischmann, Fenella
    et al.
    Jonsson, Jan O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Rudolphi, Frida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    van de Werfhorst, Herman G.
    Gender inequalities in the education of the second generation in Western countries2014In: Sociology of education, ISSN 0038-0407, E-ISSN 1939-8573, Vol. 87, no 3, p. 143-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on comparative analyses from nine Western countries, we ask whether local-born children from a wide range of immigrant groups show patterns of female advantage in education that are similar to those prevalent in their host Western societies. We consider five outcomes throughout the educational career: test scores or grades at age 15, continuation after compulsory schooling, choice of academic track in upper-secondary education, completion of upper secondary, and completion of tertiary education. Despite great variation in gender gaps in education in immigrants’ origin countries (with advantages for males in many cases), we find that the female advantage in education observed among the majority population is usually present among second-generation immigrants. We interpret these findings in light of ideas about gender role socialization and immigrant selectivity.

  • 4. Jackson, Michelle
    et al.
    Jonsson, Jan O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Rudolphi, Frida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ethnic Inequality in Choice-driven Education Systems: A Longitudinal Study of Performance and Choice in England and Sweden2012In: Sociology of education, ISSN 0038-0407, E-ISSN 1939-8573, Vol. 85, no 2, p. 158-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors ask whether choice-driven education systems, with comprehensive schools and mass education at the secondary and tertiary level, represented in this article by England and Sweden, provide educational opportunities for ethnic minorities. In studying educational attainment, the authors make a theoretical distinction between mechanisms connected with school performance on the one hand (primary effects) and educational choice, given performance, on the other (secondary effects). Using large national data sets and recently developed methods, they show that performance effects tend to depress the educational attainment of most, although not all, ethnic minorities, whereas choice effects increase the transition rates of these students. This pattern is repeated at the transition to university education. These results are true for many immigrant categories in both England and Sweden, although immigrant students are a heterogeneous group. Black Caribbean students in England and children of Turkish and South American descent in Sweden fare worst, while several Asian groups do extremely well. The authors conclude that it may be a generic feature of choice-driven school systems in Western societies to benefit non-European immigrants, and they discuss some possible explanations for this.

  • 5.
    Rosenqvist, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Two Functions of Peer Influence on Upper-secondary Education Application Behavior2018In: Sociology of education, ISSN 0038-0407, E-ISSN 1939-8573, Vol. 91, no 1, p. 72-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peers have a paradoxical influence on each other's educational decisions. On one hand, students are prone to conform to each other's ambitious educational decisions and, on the other hand, are discouraged from ambitious decisions when surrounded by successful peers. In this study I examine how peers influence each other's decision to apply to an academic track in upper-secondary education through these two functions of peer influence. The results show that students are more likely to conform to their in-group peers. However, discouraging effects are structured differently, whereby expectations about self- and peer achievement seem to be a mediating factor. This suggests that the point of reference varies with the mechanism mediating interpersonal influence together with characteristics of both peers and egos. The analysis benefits from rich population registers covering 13 full cohorts of Swedish students, facilitating controls for several sources of endogeneity, such as unobserved time-constant school and family effects.

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