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  • 1. Ahmed, N
    et al.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Allison, E.H.
    Muir, J.F.
    Prawn postlarvae fishing in coastal Bangladesh: Challenges for sustainable livelihoods2010In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 218-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fishing for prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) postlarvae is a major contributor to the livelihoods of the coastal poor in Bangladesh, including women. A study of coastal livelihoods along the lower Pasur River in southwest Bangladesh indicates that on average 40% of total annual income comes from postlarvae fishing during the few months involved. However, indiscriminate fishing of wild postlarvae, with high levels of by-catch, has an impact on biodiversity in coastal ecosystems. This has provoked imposition of restrictions on postlarvae collection. The ban has, however, not been firmly enforced because of the lack of alternative livelihoods for coastal poor. A conceptual framework, drawn from an approach to poverty reduction known as the sustainable livelihoods approach, is applied to understanding the role of prawn postlarvae fishing. Evidence from this study suggests that postlarvae fishers faced a number of livelihood constraints, including poor livelihood assets. This paper concludes that wider livelihood options need to be found for postlarvae fishers to support their livelihoods.

  • 2. Blasiak, Robert
    et al.
    Durussel, Carole
    Pittman, Jeremy
    Sénit, Carole-Anne
    Petersson, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Yagi, Nobuyuki
    The role of NGOs in negotiating the use of biodiversity in marine areas beyond national jurisdiction2017In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 81, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2004, the UN General Assembly resolved to establish a working group to consider issues pertaining to the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ). The group met nine times between 2006 and 2015 before concluding its mandate by recommending the development of an international legally binding instrument on BBNJ under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Based on in-depth interviews with working group participants, this research examines how NGOs contributed to the working group process. Respondents from government delegations highlighted the usefulness of workshops and side events convened by NGOs, and the role of NGOs in bringing experts on technical issues particularly marine genetic resources and the sharing of benefits into the BBNJ negotiations. Respondents from both NGOs and government delegations emphasized the importance of fostering personal relationships in order to ensure a steady and constructive information flow. Social media efforts by NGOs were considered by some government representatives to have occasionally hampered open discussion, although they noted that conditions have improved. The lengthy working group process was marked by substantial fluctuation in participation, particularly within government delegations from developing states. Of 1523 individuals who participated in at least one of the working group meetings, only 45 attended more than half of the meetings, and 80% of these were representing NGOs or highly industrialized countries. Respondents felt that this comparatively small number of individuals provided a source of continuity that was crucial for moving the discussions forward.

  • 3.
    Blasiak, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Huang, Julia Hsiang-Wen
    Ishihara, Hiroe
    Kelling, Ingrid
    Lieng, Sopha
    Lindoff, Hannah
    Macfarlane, Alastair
    Minohara, Akane
    Miyakoshi, Yasuyulti
    Wisse, Herman
    Yagi, Nobuyuki
    Promoting diversity and inclusiveness in seafood certification and ecolabelling: Prospects for Asia2017In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 85, p. 42-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on the inputs by a range of experts who participated in the February 2017 international symposium on Designing the Future for Fisheries Certification Schemes at the University of Tokyo, this manuscript traces the origins of fisheries certification schemes, relevant developments, and remaining challenges from an Asian perspective. Over the past 20 years, seafood certification has emerged as a powerful tool for meeting growing demands for sustainable fisheries and aquaculture products. Despite broad consensus among countries regarding what constitute responsible fishing practices, the fisheries certification landscape remains uneven. A plethora of certification schemes has generated confusion among consumers and retailers, and capital-intensive certification schemes may be out-of-reach or impractical for some small-scale fisheries, particularly within the developing world. A recent initiative by the Global Sustainable Seafood Initiative (GSSI) is aiming to address the diversity within the certification landscape by creating a tool to benchmark certification schemes that are in line with the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and other relevant agreed FAO guidelines on fisheries, ecolabelling and aquaculture. Countries in Asia are among the world's top consumers and exporters of seafood, yet have faced some particular challenges with regard to seafood certification, underscoring the need for certification schemes that account for regional and local conditions and management practices, particularly with regard to small-scale fisheries.

  • 4.
    Blasiak, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Wabnitz, Colette C. C.
    Aligning fisheries aid with international development targets and goals2018In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 88, p. 86-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Official development assistance (ODA) is intended to spur progress and increase security among recipient countries. Billions in ODA have been allocated to fisheries to support nutrition and livelihoods worldwide. Yet, from 2010 to 2015, fisheries allocations decreased by > 30%, while grants for non-fisheries sectors increased by > 13%. Globally, grants for climate change adaptation and mitigation fell for fisheries, while rapidly increasing in sectors like agriculture and forestry. In Oceania, a region highly dependent on fisheries for food security and particularly vulnerable to climate change, disbursements fell by 44%. Grants for fisheries research, education and training fell in absolute numbers, and as a proportion of total ODA to fisheries. These findings are out of alignment with recent international commitments, including the Sustainable Development Goals (2015), The Future We Want (2012), and relevant Aichi Targets (2010). Risk aversion among donors; redirection of climate finance into other sectors; and allocation decisions based on factors unrelated to fisheries are identified as contributing to observed findings. Increasing the volume of fisheries-related ODA and better aligning it with international commitments could bring substantial co-benefits and contribute to the sustainable use of marine ecosystems, support sustainable trade and economic opportunities, increase adaptive capacity, and foster human well-being.

  • 5.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ottosen, K. M.
    Ferreira, A. S. A.
    Richter, A.
    Rogers, L. A.
    Pedersen, M. W.
    Kokkalis, A.
    Bardarson, H.
    Bonanomi, S.
    Butler, W.
    Diekert, F. K.
    Fouzai, N.
    Holma, M.
    Holt, R. E.
    Kvile, K. O.
    Malanski, E.
    Macdonald, J. I.
    Nieminen, E.
    Romagnoni, G.
    Snickars, M.
    Weigel, B.
    Woods, P.
    Yletyinen, Johanna K
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Whittington, J. D.
    What are the major global threats and impacts in marine environments? Investigating the contours of a shared perception among marine scientists from the bottom-up.2015In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 60, p. 197-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine scientists broadly agree on which major processes influence the sustainability of marine environments worldwide. Recent studies argue that such shared perceptions crucially shape scientific agendas and are subject to a confirmation bias. Based on these findings a more explicit engagement with scientists' (shared) perceptions of global change in marine environments is called for. This paper takes stock of the shared understanding in marine science of the most pertinent, worldwide threats and impacts that currently affect marine environments. Using results from an email survey among leading academics in marine science this article explores if a shared research agenda in relation to global change in marine environments exists. The analysis demonstrates that marine scientists across disciplines are largely in agreement on some common features of global marine change. Nevertheless, the analysis also highlights where natural and social scientists diverge in their assessment. The article ends discussing what these findings imply for further improvement of interdisciplinary marine science.

  • 6.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Oslo, Norway.
    Valman, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Björkvik, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    A sea of many colours - How relevant is Blue Growth for capture fisheries in the Global North, and vice versa?2018In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 87, p. 340-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blue Growth is a relatively new term that is meant to realize economic growth based on the exploitation of marine resources, while at the same time preventing their degradation, overuse, and pollution. This article discusses the relevance and usefulness of this new concept for the development of capture fisheries, a sector where growth largely seems impossible without ecological devastation. An analytical distinction between intensive and extensive growth is used to argue that certain development trajectories of capture fisheries might qualify as Blue Growth. Such trajectories of growth are illustrated with the development of the Swedish bleak roe trawl fishery in the Bothnian Bay and Norwegian whitefish fishery in the Barents Sea. Comparison of the cases highlights aspects that Blue Growth advocates might want to include if they choose to consider capture fisheries as a relevant economic activity. These aspects include: a) adding value through certification; b) technological development to make more efficient use of resources used up in the fishing operation, and to upgrade their fish as commodity; and c) specialization.

  • 7. Chaigneau, Tomas
    et al.
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Individual and village-level effects on community support for Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the Philippines2015In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 51, p. 499-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A crucial factor in the success of protected areas and conservation efforts in general is the support amongst the adjacent community. It is thought to be especially crucial for the success of small MPAs. Whilst the importance of community support has been highlighted in a number of studies, it has not yet been clearly defined or explicitly studied. Questionnaires were carried out (N=166) at three different villages within the Visayas region of the Philippines to determine individuals' support towards adjacent MPAs and individual characteristics that have previously been hypothesised to influence support. Multiple regressions analysis determined: (1) Which individual-level factors predict attitude towards MPAs, (2) whether attitudes of individuals are related to actions that benefit the adjacent MPA and (3) whether individual or community-level factors are better predictors of individual support for local community-based MPAs. Knowledge of MPA objectives, perceived participation in decision making, trust towards other fishers and differences between villages all significantly predicted attitudes towards MPAs. Weak relationships were found between attitudes and certain MPA related actions due to contextual factors. Village was not the only significant predictor of both attitudes and MPA related actions; individual characteristics irrespective of differences between villages, were also important in predicting support for the MPA. This study highlights the importance in distinguishing between attitudes and actions of individuals and suggests specific individual characteristics can be vital in influencing support towards MPAs.

  • 8.
    Crona, Beatrice I.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Basurto, Xavier
    Squires, Dale
    Gelcich, Stefan
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Khan, Ahmed
    Havice, Elizabeth
    Chomo, Victoria
    Troell, Max
    Buchary, Eny A.
    Allison, Edward H.
    Towards a typology of interactions between small-scale fisheries and global seafood trade2016In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 65, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fish and fish-related products are among the most highly traded commodities globally and the proportion of globally harvested fish that is internationally traded has steadily risen over time. Views on the benefits of international seafood trade diverge, partly as a result from adopting either an aggregate national focus or a focus on local market actors. However, both views generally assume that the trade in question is characterized by export of fisheries resources to international markets. This is potentially misleading as empirical evidence suggests that import of seafood can also have impacts on local SSF dynamics. A systematic analysis of the different ways in which local production systems connect to international seafood markets can therefore help shed more light on why small-scale fisheries exhibit such differences in outcomes as they engage in an increasingly global seafood trade. This paper conducts a synthesis across 24 cases from around the world and develops a typology of small-scale fisheries and how they connect to and interact with international seafood trade. The analysis is based on key features drawn from trade theory regarding how trade interacts with local production. The implications of the findings for social and ecological sustainability of small-scale fisheries are discussed with the aim of identifying further research topics which deserve attention to better inform trade policy for more sustainable fisheries and more just wealth distribution from their trade.

  • 9.
    Crona, Beatrice
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jiddawi, Narriman
    Middlemen, a critical social-ecological link in coastal communities of Kenya and Zanzibar2010In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 761-771Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the middlemen-fishermen link in coastal communities along the coast of southern Kenya and Zanzibar, and explores effects of reciprocal agreements and credit arrangements on social-ecological feedbacks of coastal systems The existence and generality of such arrangements are mapped and their effect on resource use and ecosystem dynamics is then explored Data show that credit arrangements are widespread and that fishermen are bound by reciprocal agreements and financial guarantees during periods of lower catches that provide short-term stabilizing social effects These arrangements create incentives which disconnect resource extraction from ecosystem dynamics and impede development of sustainable use practices The role of middlemen is seldom accounted for in fisheries governance Scenarios for the development of small-scale fisheries in the region are outlined and the function of middlemen is discussed considering the influence of external drivers Policies that incorporate middlemen are recommended to improve the governance of fish stocks and coastal ecosystems in East Africa.

  • 10.
    Crona, Beatrice
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rosendo, S.
    Outside the law?: Analyzing policy gaps in addressing fishers' migration in East Africa2011In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 379-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal areas, and their small-scale fisheries, are important targets for both internal and transboundary migration partly because high mobility is an inherent feature of many artisanal fisheries livelihoods. As climatic changes are forecast to occur, environmental changes may trigger increased flows of migrant fishers. Policies that seek to promote development in ways that do not extensively degrade natural resources will thus have to deal with likely increases in flows of people across administrative boundaries. However, to date little attention has been directed at this issue and little is known about how policies related to coastal resources and development address these issues. This paper addresses this knowledge gap by analyzing policies and legal documents related to coastal resource management and development to examine the extent to which they recognize and integrate fishers' migration in their provisions. Migrant well-being and vulnerabilities are also addressed by examining the extent to which existing policies dealing with socio-economic development and environmental management address migrants and their needs. The analysis shows that policies related to governance of marine resources and coastal development lack an acknowledgment of fishers' migration issues and suggests that this signals an important gap in policy. The implications of this are discussed. The paper also highlights the fact that the invisibility of the issue in policy means that institutions developed to deal with coastal management at the community level may not have sufficient support from legal and policy documents, and may not be developed or equipped to handle the possible conflicts and difficult trade-offs that need to be addressed as a result of current and potentially increasing fishers' mobility.

  • 11.
    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Fröcklin, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Börjesson, Sanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Okupnik, Janine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Jiddawi, Narriman S.
    Gender analysis for better coastal management - Increasing our understanding of social-ecological seascapes2017In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 83, p. 62-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although highly recognized as needed, studies linking gender and coastal/marine management are scarce. This research illustrates the importance of gender analysis in natural resource management by linking gender and coastal management i.e. Marine Spatial Planning. The research was conducted in various Zanzibar seascapes (Unguja Island, Tanzania). Using a typology comprising gender structure, symbolism and identity; the results show a clear gendered division of labor, highly associated with a gender symbolism in which traditional roles of women as responsible for reproduction activities played a major role. Men used the whole seascape for their activities, while women remained in coastal forests and shallow areas collecting wood, invertebrates and farming seaweed. These activities allowed women to combine productive and reproductive work. Ecosystem importance for subsistence decreased with distance from land for both genders, while the importance for income increased with distance for men. Both genders acknowledged seagrasses as very important for income. Income closely followed the universal pattern of men earning more. Identities were defined by traditional ideas like women are housewives, while men identities were strongly associated with fisheries with reinforced masculinity. Livelihood diversity was higher for women also showing a tendency of slow change into other roles. Management was found to be strongly androcentric, revealing a deep gender inequality. The research exemplifies how a gender analysis can be conducted for management enhancement. It also invites replication around the world. If management is found to be androcentric in coastal locations elsewhere, a serious gender inequality can be at hand at global level.

  • 12.
    De la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Lindström, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Fishing institutions: Addressing regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive elements to enhance fisheries management2010In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 77-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Institutional approaches in natural resource management in general and in fisheries in particular seldom address cultural aspects or social institutions like kinship. In this study, a broad institutional approach is used to investigate the institutionalization of small-scale fisheries and seaweed farming in a seagrass dominated bay in Zanzibar. Regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive institutions and their rapid/slow moving properties are analyzed. The results show that dynamics of cooperation and conflict between different institutional elements and the balance of forces among actors are crucial to understand fisheries management dynamics. Regulations are, despite their importance, insufficient to promote sound management if they are not backed up by norms and cultural-cognitive institutions. Fisheries management would benefit by broadening the institutional perspective to increase the efficiency of management and to avoid blueprint solutions. The study shows that gaining knowledge about the wide institutional setting takes time but the investment is worth it in the long run.

  • 13.
    Drury O'Neill, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Assistance networks in seafood trade - A means to assess benefit distribution in small-scale fisheries2017In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 78, p. 196-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the connections between value chain actors in the tropical-marine small-scale fisheries of Zanzibar, Tanzania, to contribute to a better understanding of the fisher-trader link and how connections in general might feed into livelihood security. A sample of 168 fishers and 130 traders was taken across 8 sites through questionnaires and observations. The small-scale fishery system is mapped using a value chain framework both traditionally and from a less economic point of view where the assistance-exchange networks between fishery actors add another layer of complexity. Auxiliary actors previously disregarded emerge from the latter method thus shedding light on the poorly understood distribution of benefits from seafood trade. Female actors participate quite differently, relative to males in the market system, detached from high-value links such as the tourist industry, and access to predetermined or secured sales deals. Data shows that the fisher-trader link is not as one-sided as previously presented. In fact it has a more symbiotic exchange deeply nested in a broader trading and social system. Expanding the analysis from this link by taking a further step downstream highlights traders' own sales arrangements and the social pressures they are under in realizing them. A complex picture, inclusive of diversified perspectives, on interactions in the market place is presented, as well as a. reflection on the remaining critical question: how to integrate this type of data into decisions about future fisheries governance.

  • 14.
    Fidelman, Pedro
    et al.
    a Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, Qld. 4811, Australia.
    Evans, Louisa
    a Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, Qld. 4811, Australia.
    Fabinyi, Michael
    a Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, Qld. 4811, Australia.
    Rosen, Franciska
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Foale, Simon
    a Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, Qld. 4811, Australia.
    Cinner, Josh
    a Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, Qld. 4811, Australia.
    Governing large scale marine commons: contextual challenges in the Coral Triangle2011In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 42-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environment and development agendas are increasingly being characterised by regional-scale initiatives. This trend is in part motivated by recognition of the need to account for global drivers of change (e.g., climate change, migration, and globalisation), the aspirations of achieving large-scale ecological goals (such as maintaining ecosystem processes), and reconciling potentially conflicting priorities in multi-use planning. However, regional-scale governance is challenging and there is little theoretical guidance or empirical evidence to suggest how it can be achieved. This paper uses the Institutional Analysis and Development framework to highlight the diverse contextual factors that challenge governance of a large-scale marine common, using an example of the Coral Triangle Initiative. The analysis points to the need for a critical, reflexive approach to the Coral Triangle Initiative if it is to effectively navigate diverse contexts and reconcile multiple objectives in the region. Recognising the heterogeneous, multi-scale and interlinked nature of large-scale marine systems is critical. Coping with contextual complexity will require innovative approaches that strive to be inclusive of varied perspectives and actors, enable and support effective collective-choice arrangements at lower levels of organisation, and organise and link diverse institutional arrangements at multiple scales. Large-scale marine governance will also involve a great deal of experimentation and regular adjustments to governance arrangements to account for the dynamic nature of regional commons.

  • 15.
    Geijer, Christina K. A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. University College London, United Kingdom.
    Jones, Peter J. S.
    A network approach to migratory whale conservation: Are MPAs the way forward or do all roads lead to the IMO?2015In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 51, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper was to analyse the challenges and prospects of regional MPA networks as an effective tool for the protection of wide-ranging cetaceans, focusing on the potential of the Specially Protected Areas of Mediterranean Importance (SPAMI) network initiative to contribute to the conservation of the Mediterranean fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus). One of the main threats to this vulnerable population is mortalities through ship strikes. It is argued that a SPAMI network does not have the potential to effectively reduce the threat of ship strikes on a firm legal, scientific and political basis, particularly given uncertainty over fin whale seasonal movements. Instead, an alternative sectoral approach to landscape-scale protection is discussed. Building on examples from North America, it is proposed that a wider spatial scale threat-based approach should be adopted, and that a regional network of restrictions of shipping activities through the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) will more effectively reduce the risk of ship-whale strikes. This is also more consistent with the ecosystem approach, since the emphasis is on ecological scales that cross administrative boundaries, even though it is within a single sector. It is concluded that mechanisms exist to address the challenges of implementing such an approach, and that sectoral measures through the IMO represent an important way forward for improving the conservation prospects for Mediterranean fin whales. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 16.
    Grip, Kjell
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Marine nature conservation and fisheries - management of interacting and conflicting interests - a road map for the futureIn: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The establishment of Marine Protected Areas lags far behind the establishment of Terrestrial Protected Areas. In many countries a lack of consensus between nature conservation and fishery interests has complicated and inhibited progress and delayed the establishment of Marine Protected Areas for both conservation and fishery purposes. 

    To achieve a more balanced weighing of fishery and nature conservation interests in the future, there is a need to improve and enforce the coordination and harmonization of conservation and fishery objectives. An appropriate instrument for this coordination is a Marine Spatial Planning process that involves all relevant stakeholders in the planning and decision-making process.   

    Strategic Environmental Assessment for plans and programmes, and Environmental Impact Assessment for projects are commonly used tools for environmental management but have not, so far, been used for capture fisheries. The diversity of fisheries and the drastic effects of certain fisheries on the environment are strong arguments for introducing these procedures as complements to existing fisheries management and assessment tools. This would improve information on the environmental effects of fisheries relevant to the planning and decision-making process pertaining to conflicts between fishery and marine protected areas.  

    In the future, legal management of Marine Protected Areas should differ depending on whether they were designated for nature conservation purposes, under conservation law or for fishery purposes, under fishery law. When these two interests conflict in a Marine Protected Area established for nature conservation purposes, the fishery should be managed under the conservation law, as other environmentally relevant activities.   

  • 17.
    Gustavsson, Madeleine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Lindström, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Jiddawi, Narriman S.
    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Procedural and distributive justice in a community-based managed Marine Park Area in Zanzibar, Tanzania2014In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 46, p. 91-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local participation in governance and management is assumed to lead to something good. But it is rarely explicitly stated who are participating and in what. The study investigates this in the context of a Marine Protected Area (MPA) in Zanzibar, Tanzania, and in particular the Memba Island - Chwaka Bay Marine Conservation Area (MIMCA). This is done by applying Pretty's typology of participation in addressing procedural justice, which is according to Paavola linked to distributive justice, i.e. the just distribution of costs and benefits. How does participation in MIMCA facilitate procedural and distributive justice? To answer this question a number of fishermen, women seaweed farmers, local leaders, and representatives of the private sector were interviewed (n=136) in five villages. Interviews were also made with government officials at relevant departments. The results show that Village Fishermen Committees were participating in the implementation of MIMCA but not in its planning phase. Participation was mainly in the form of manipulative and passive participation. Other local actors did not participate at all. Instead, the government assumed that justice was achieved by distributing equipment, alternative income generating projects, and relying on tourism for local development. However, the distributed equipment and tourism development have created conflict and injustice within and between villages, because of the insufficient resources which did not target those in need. Tourism created problems such as inequality between livelihoods, environmental destruction and local power asymmetries between hotel management and local people. The MIMCA top-down intervention has not increased participation or justice, nor has it achieved sustainable resource use and conflict resolution. It is suggested that interactive participation by all local actors is needed to create just trade-offs. justice needs to be explicitly addressed for integrated conservation and development projects to achieve sustainability.

  • 18.
    Harring, Niklas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rönnerstrand, Björn
    Government effectiveness, regulatory compliance and public preference for marine policy instruments. An experimental approach2016In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 71, p. 106-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Democratic governance of natural resources requires democratic accountability. To explore the antecedence of public preference for marine policy instruments, this study revisit previous research findings linking inefficient political institutions to demand for more coercive policy tools. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigates the influence of 1) effectiveness of authorities and 2) regulatory compliance among resources users on the public preference for marine policy instruments. A 2 x 2 between-subject scenario experimental approach was utilised, where the effectiveness of authorities and regulatory compliance of shrimpers varied. Respondents were asked to rank three different marine policy instrument: 1) tougher penalties for noncompliance, 2) dialogue between authorities and resources users and, 3) tradable quotas. The results from the scenario experiment demonstrate that ineffective authorities increase the preference for tougher penalties. A potential explanation for this finding is that regulation implies less discretion, and hence regulation is preferred when public institutions are inefficient.

  • 19.
    Hentati-Sundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hjelm, J.
    Can fisheries management be quantified?2014In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 48, p. 18-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy efforts to reduce fisheries impact have often created micro-management. Detailed regulations are restricting the fishing industry, and are also acknowledged to limit the progress towards sustainable management. Industry representatives, political bodies and scientists have therefore argued for more simplicity and transparency. Here, fisheries management is quantified in terms of trends in regulations for different Swedish fisheries in the Baltic Sea during the period 1995–2009. The results suggest that many fisheries are suffering from increased micro-management, but interestingly some fisheries showing a different trend.

  • 20. Kaiser, Brooks A.
    et al.
    Bakanev, Sergey
    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedso
    Carson, Marcus
    Eide, Arne
    Fernandez, Linda
    Halpin, Patrick
    Izmalkov, Sergei
    Kyhn, Line A.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Punt, Maarten
    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars
    Sanchirico, James
    Sokolov, Konstantin
    Sundet, Jan H.
    Thorarinsdottir, Gudrun G.
    Vestergaard, Niels
    Spatial issues in Arctic marine resource governance workshop summary and comment2015In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 58, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapidly changing Arctic marine ecosystems face new challenges and opportunities that are increasing and shifting governance needs in the region. A group of economists, ecologists, biologists, political scientists and resource managers met in Stockholm, SE, Sept 4-6, 2014 to discuss the governance of Arctic marine resources in a spatial context. We report on the findings here.

  • 21.
    Kratzer, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Brockmann Consult GmbH, Germany.
    Harvey, E. Therese
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Philipson, Petra
    The use of ocean color remote sensing in integrated coastal zone management - A case study from Himmerfjärden, Sweden2013In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 43, p. 29-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the use of ocean color data as a diagnostic tool in integrated coastal zone management was investigated as part of the Science Policy Integration for Coastal Systems Assessment (SPICOSA) project. Parallel to this, an operational coastal monitoring system has been set up in close collaboration with end-users. The core work of the bio-optical part in the project was to develop Secchi depth and attenuation of light as indicators for coastal zone management, by linking remote sensing with the socio-economic and ecological model developed in SPICOSA. The article emphasizes the benefits of stakeholder involvement and end-user feedback for efficient and improved system development. Furthermore, conceptual models were developed on how to integrate remote sensing data into coastal zone management and into a physical-biological model of the Baltic Sea. One of the work packages in the SPICOSA project was academic training. In this work package, on-line teaching material in the field of remote sensing and bio-optics was developed and disseminated on the SETnet web page. The article presented here may act as supportive material for training in bio-optics and remote sensing.

  • 22. Lu, Yu-Heng
    et al.
    Yagi, Nobuyuki
    Blasiak, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Factors contributing to effective management in the Sakuraebi (Sergia lucens) fishery of Donggang, Taiwan2017In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 86, p. 72-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An in-depth assessment was conducted on the functioning of a Taiwanese Sakuraebi (Sergia lucens) fishery management institution to understand the role of leadership in the context of long-term incentive creation. Interviews with relevant stakeholders and statistical analysis of fisheries data indicated that the daily vessel quota system and fishers' collective efforts to influence the market resulted in increased sales value, while simultaneously allowing for the equitable distribution of benefits from the Sakuraebi fishery in Donggang, Taiwan. Local fishers expressed a high level of satisfaction with the corresponding activities initiated by the fisher's organization. Interview respondents felt that promotional marketing activities led by the organization to enhance domestic consumption were particularly effective, and statistical analysis suggests that these activities helped to reduce the dependency of Taiwanese Sakuraebi fishers on export markets. A notable characteristic of this fishery is that it combines a large-scale sales organization, which enables the exertion of market influence, with a small-sized subsidiary organization for fisheries management. An annually rotating leadership system for managing fishery operations also provides members with the opportunity to share a sense of participation and responsibility, while keeping long-term policy goals. This study reinforces previous findings that leadership, social cohesion, and the nature of the resource are key factors determining the effectiveness and success of fisheries management.

  • 23. Lynham, J.
    et al.
    Halpern, B. S.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Essington, T.
    Estes, J.
    Hunsicker, M.
    Kappel, C.
    Salomon, A. K.
    Scarborough, C.
    Selkoe, K. A.
    Stier, A.
    Costly stakeholder participation creates inertia in marine ecosystems2017In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 76, p. 122-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystems often shift abruptly and dramatically between different regimes in response to human or natural disturbances. When ecosystems tip from one regime to another, the suite of available ecosystem benefits changes, impacting the stakeholders who rely on these benefits. These changes often create some groups who stand to incur large losses if an ecosystem returns to a previous regime. When the participation cost in the decision-making process is extremely high, this can lock in ecosystem regimes, making it harder for policy and management to shift ecosystems out of what the majority of society views as the undesirable regime. Public stakeholder meetings often have high costs of participation, thus economic theory predicts they will be dominated by extreme views and often lead to decisions that do not represent the majority viewpoint. Such extreme viewpoints can create strong inertia even when there is broad consensus to manage an ecosystem towards a different regime. In the same manner that reinforcing ecological feedback loops make it harder to exit an ecosystem regime, there are decision-making feedback loops that contribute additional inertia.

  • 24.
    Mahajan, Shauna L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Daw, Tim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Perceptions of ecosystem services and benefits to human well-being from community-based marine protected areas in Kenya2016In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 74, p. 108-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) have historically been implemented and managed in a top-down way, excluding resource-dependent users from planning and management. In response to conflict and non-compliance, the governance of marine resources is increasingly embracing community-based approaches, assuming that by putting communities at the forefront of planning and management, participation will increase, causing positive social and ecological impacts. Given the relative newness of community-based MPAs, this study explores how resource users perceive their impacts on ecosystem services (ES) and human well-being (HWB). This study, explores two community-based MPAs called tengefus in Kenya using mixed qualitative methods, including a participatory photography method called photovoice. Participation in and donor support for tengefus influences how resource users perceived tengefus and their impacts on ES and HWB. Individuals who were engaged in the tengefu from the inception or held official positions perceived more positive impacts on ES and HWB compared to those not as involved. Tengefus were often viewed by communities as attractors for external support and funding, positively influencing attitudes and feelings towards conservation. One site, the first tengefu in Kenya, had more external support and was surrounded by positive perceptions, while the other site had little external support and was surrounded by more conflict and mixed perceptions. This study exemplifies the complex social political dynamics that MPAs create and are embedded within. Community-based MPA initiatives could benefit from ensuring widespread engagement throughout the inception, implementation and management, recognizing and managing expectations around donor support, and not assuming that benefits spillover throughout the community.

  • 25.
    Mahmoudi, Said
    Stockholm University.
    Legal Protection of the Persian Gulf's Marine Environment1997In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 21, p. 53-63Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Mahmoudi, Said
    Stockholm University.
    Passage of Warships through the Strait of Hormuz1991In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 15, p. 338-348Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Marín, Andrés
    et al.
    Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile.
    Gelcich, Stefan
    Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile.
    Araya, Gonzalo
    Corporación para la Educación, Desarrollo e Investigación de la Pesca Artesanal de Chile (CEDIPAC) and Confederación Nacional de Pescadores Artesanales de Chile (CONAPACH), Chile.
    Olea, Gonzalo
    Corporación para la Educación, Desarrollo e Investigación de la Pesca Artesanal de Chile (CEDIPAC) and Confederación Nacional de Pescadores Artesanales de Chile (CONAPACH), Chile.
    Espíndola, Miguel
    Corporación para la Educación, Desarrollo e Investigación de la Pesca Artesanal de Chile (CEDIPAC) and Confederación Nacional de Pescadores Artesanales de Chile (CONAPACH), Chile.
    Castilla, Juan C.
    Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile.
    The 2010 tsunami in Chile: Devastation and survival of coastal small-scalefishing communities2010In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 1381-1384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2010, a tsunami generated by a magnitude 8.8 earthquake struck the central-south zone of Chile. Thisshort communication reports the direct impacts on the small-scale artisanal fishing capacity and coastallivelihoods along approximately 600 km of the coastline. Despite the magnitude of the catastrophe, theabsence of official warnings, and the failure of telecommunication networks only 8 fisher victims werereported out of a total death toll of more than 170. Results show that this trend is explained by socioculturalassets and a natural hazard subculture. This highlights the need to integrate contextual andbehavioural approaches in disaster management and rehabilitation policies.

  • 28.
    Merrie, Andrew
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    An innovation and agency perspective on the emergence and spread of Marine Spatial Planning2014In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 44, p. 366-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The roles of governance and technological innovation have been widely recognized as important parts of sustainability transitions. However, less attention has been paid to understanding the mechanisms of the emergence and spread of innovative ideas for stewardship of social-ecological systems. This study considers how theories of innovation and agency are able to provide explanatory power regarding the spread and impact of such ideas. This includes how innovations may contribute to resolving the mismatches between the scale of ecological processes and the scale of governance of ecosystems. The emergence and spread of Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) is used as an illustrative case study. The study shows that individuals embedded in informal networks have played a key role in driving the emergence of MSP across scales and in constantly re-framing the tool in order to overcome obstacles to adoption and implementation. In a number of cases, MSP has been decoupled from the ecosystem despite being framed as a tool for ecosystem-based management. Finally, this study is important to understand the process of emergence of new integrated tools for ecosystem stewardship at the global level.

  • 29.
    Mtwana Nordlund, Lina
    et al.
    WIO CARE, Tanzania; Chumbe Island Coral Park, Tanzania.
    Kloiber, Ulrike
    Carter, Eleanor
    Riedmiller, Sibylle
    Chumbe Island Coral Park—governance analysis2013In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 41, p. 110-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chumbe Island Coral Park Ltd (CHICOP), established in 1991 as the first managed marine park in Tanzania, has become an international test case for sustainable private marine conservation funded by ecotourism. The experiences, problems and achievements of CHICOP are described, in particular drivers and incentives for committed on-site MPA management in the legal and institutional environment of Zanzibar. The employment of local fishers as park rangers proved cost-effective and facilitated partnership with local fishing communities, as did Environmental Education (EE) programs for local schools and communities. Risks for private investors remain high though due to limited long-term security of tenure of leases and contracts.

  • 30. Nhuong, Tran
    et al.
    Rodriguez, U. -Primo
    Chan, Chin Yee
    Phillips, Michael John
    Mohan, Chadag Vishnumurthy
    Henriksson, Patrik John Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. WorldFish, Penang, Malaysia.
    Koeshendrajana, Sonny
    Suri, Sharon
    Hall, Stephen
    Indonesian aquaculture futures: An analysis of fish supply and demand in Indonesia to 2030 and role of aquaculture using the AsiaFish model2017In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 79, p. 25-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the seafood sector in Indonesia, using fish supply-demand modeling, with special focus on the growing role of aquaculture in the country's food portfolio. The paper describes six scenarios for future fish supply demand dynamics and examines the role of aquaculture growth in fish supply in Indonesia. A business as usual scenario (BAU) assumed exogenous variables of our supply-demand model following historical trends. Five alternative scenarios explored the implications of stagnant capture fisheries; export-oriented growth of aquaculture; domestic-oriented aquaculture growth; slow growth of aquaculture sector; and disease outbreaks to key aquaculture species. The BAU scenario projected that fish supply and demand in Indonesia continues to increase over time and strong aquaculture growth is critical to meet increasing demand for fish. Stagnant capture fisheries resulted in increasing fish prices and decreasing fish consumption. Export-oriented aquaculture growth benefitted fish supply and exports, but also helped lower domestic prices and thus increase consumption. An emphasis on domestic aquaculture commodities increased fish supply, providing best domestic consumption outcomes and lower consumer prices. Slow aquaculture growth reduced fish supply and led to undesirable increases in domestic prices and decreasing domestic consumption as a consequence. Disease outbreaks in shrimp and carp aquaculture resulted in a short-term reduction in aquaculture output and increasing fish prices, lowering fish consumption.

  • 31.
    Niiranen, Susa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Richter, A.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Stige, L. C.
    Valmarn, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Eikeset, A. -M.
    Global connectivity and cross-scale interactions create uncertainty for Blue Growth of Arctic fisheries2018In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 87, p. 321-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic faces high expectations of Blue Growth due to future projections of easier access and increased biological productivity. These expectations are, however, often based on global and regional climate change projections and largely ignore the complexity of social-ecological interactions taking place across different temporal and spatial scales. This paper illustrates how such cross-scale interactions at, and across, different dimensions (e.g., ecological, socioeconomic and governance) can affect the development of Arctic fisheries; and potentially create uncertainties for future Blue Growth projections. Two Arctic marine systems, The Barents Sea and the Central Arctic Ocean (CAO), are used as focus areas. The former hosts productive fisheries and is mostly covered by the EEZs of Norway and Russia, while the latter is still mainly covered by sea-ice and is a high seas area with no multilevel governance system in place. The examples show that, both systems are affected by a number of processes, beyond the environmental change, spanning a wide range of dimensions, as well as spatial and temporal scales. To address the complexity of the Arctic marine systems calls for an increase in holistic scientific understanding together with adaptive management practices. This is particularly important in the CAO, where no robust regional management structures are in place. Recognizing how cross-scale dynamics can cause uncertainties to the current fisheries projections and implementing well-functioning adaptive management structures across different Arctic sub-systems can play a key role in whether the Blue Growth potential in Arctic fisheries is realized or lost.

  • 32. Purcell, Steven W.
    et al.
    Crona, Beatrice I.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Lalavanua, Watisoni
    Eriksson, Hampus
    Distribution of economic returns in small-scale fisheries for international markets: A value-chain analysis2017In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 86, p. 9-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale fishers are often believed to receive marginal earnings for seafood relative to other value-chain actors but proportionate incomes across different traded species are rarely compared. This study compares value chains for 15 species of sea cucumbers between Fiji and Kiribati using data collected on sale prices of dried products (beche-de-mer) from fishers to middlemen and exporters, export prices and market retail prices in China. Pacific islanders comprised almost all fishers, but represented only some middlemen and few exporters. Proportional increases in prices along the value chains differed greatly among sea cucumber species and between countries. Fishers' earnings varied greatly among species. The relative share of the end market value they received was negatively related to product end-market value; on average 50% of the end retail value for the lowest-value species but < 10% for the highest-value species. Most fishers lacked information about market prices. The gross markup of exporters differed greatly between the two countries. Downstream actors reaped increasingly higher proportions of the product value for higher value species. Variation in sale prices between countries and fishers for the same product indicates a potential for higher earnings to fishers. Improved transparency of prices to fishers could empower them to negotiate higher prices, especially for more valuable species. Upgrading of value-chain governance, e.g. through fisher cooperatives or auction systems, could improve efficiency and fisher incomes, potentially reducing the need for high fishing rates. Such interventions will benefit from understanding the value-chain patterns among different species harvested in multispecies fisheries.

  • 33. Rodriguez Rodriguez, Gonzalo
    et al.
    Villasante, Sebastian
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Garcia-Negro, Maria do Carme
    Are red tides affecting economically the commercialization of the Galician (NW Spain) mussel farming?2011In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 252-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs), more specifically red tides, are among the most critical environmental factors affecting mussel cultivation in Galicia (NW Spain), and they often have been blamed for economic losses for producers. This statement is based on the correlation between days of closure of the production areas and unsold product. The present article shows that such a statement is not always correct, at least in the case of Galician mussel farming, because red tides only cause losses to producers under specific circumstances that arise from the impossibility of placing their product in the market. In addition, this article reveals the importance of finding organizational solutions within the framework of the production sector to counteract the impact of this type of phenomenon.

  • 34.
    Rosen, Franciska
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Institutional entrepreneurs, global networks, and the emergence of international institutions for ecosystem-based management: The Coral Triangle Initiative2013In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 38, p. 195-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the role of institutional entrepreneurship in the creation of an international agreement to radically transform management of coastal and marine resources in the Coral Triangle. It analyzes how institutional entrepreneurs develop strategies to overcome barriers to change and navigate opportunity contexts to mobilize support for ecosystem-based management. The analysis shows that institutional change depends on collaboration among several institutional entrepreneurs that have access to different networks and are supported by different types of organizations. It also shows that interplay between institutional entrepreneurship and high-level political leadership plays a critical role in institution building. Institutional entrepreneurs must therefore align their ideas of ecosystem-based management to multiple political priorities and transfer experience and social capital from previous multilateral projects. By supporting the development of new governance arenas for deliberation, institutional entrepreneurs may enhance the fit between domestic and multilateral policy making. Lastly, institutional entrepreneurship may raise critical questions about legitimacy, accountability and ownership.

  • 35.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Navigating a complex policy system: explaining local divergences in Swedish fish stocking policy2011In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 419-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish fish stocking policy constitutes an example of the disparate challenges associated with adaptive management theory and the realization thereof. The vast substantial and institutional uncertainties of the policy subsystem have previously been identified as variables that complicate the realization of adaptive policy making. The aim of this paper is to address and tentatively explain differences in regards to how these uncertainties are handled. What regional variances in Swedish fish stocking policy can be distinguished and how can these variations be explained? The empirical analysis shows that Swedish fish stocking policy consists of a wide array of different regional policies. These regional variations are explained by differences in existing implementation resources, policy beliefs and readings of formal regulations. Policy makers can decrease these divergences in two ways; they can either change formal regulations or influence available implementation resources. Both management approaches might have positive as well as negative effects on the subsystem's adaptability.

  • 36. Sandström, Annica
    et al.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Network Governance from the top - The case of ecosystem-based coastal and marine management2015In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 55, p. 57-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary environmental policy incorporates a collaborative approach, and conservation management commonly denotes the formation of governance networks on the sub-national level. This trend toward networks implies a shift in the mode of public governance since state-centered top-down control is replaced by a primary focus on governing networks from the top. Previous research has studied the performance of collaborative networks while the role of the state in these settings has been acknowledged to a lesser extent. Thus, prevailing knowledge concerning how public agencies can govern networks towards the fulfillment of environmental objectives is restricted. This issue is addressed in this paper through an empirical case study of a state-initiated process aimed at implementing the ideas of ecosystem-based management, by means of collaboration networks, in five coastal regions in Sweden. What governance strategies were adopted by the environmental protection agency, and how can the governance outcome be described in terms of ecosystem-based management and stakeholder support? Based on the empirical findings, the influence of the chosen governance approach on the outcomes is discussed. The results clearly illustrate the particular tradeoffs that occur as various governance strategies interact and how these influence both social and ecological aspects. The application of extensive and rigorous governance strategies enhance the fulfillment of ecosystembased management while vagueness and flexibility enable local adaptation and enhance stakeholder support. Governing networks from the top involve a balancing act, and the idea of fulfilling environmental objectives through the dynamic of network is appealing albeit challenging in practice.

  • 37.
    Stange, Kari
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Managing organizational change in an international scientific network: a study of ICES reform processes2011In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 681-688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations involved in the governance of natural resources are challenged to adjust to the call for more holistic management approaches. This often necessitates organizational change. Here change processes in the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) during the years 1998–2009 are investigated using semi-structured interviews combined with observations and review of documents. Several organizational reforms were implemented during the time period studied. The major drivers were the need to improve efficiency and a striving for better integration between different components within the organization. The reform processes were driven forward by individuals who navigated between opportunities and constrains embedded in the network structure of ICES. This required good leadership and communication skills. Broad consultations were important to ensure support within the ICES community. By increasing the understanding of the dynamics of change in organizations, which operate at the science–policy interface developments in desired directions can be facilitated.

  • 38. Stuart-Smith, Rick D.
    et al.
    Bates, Amanda E.
    Lefcheck, Jonathan S.
    Duffy, J. Emmett
    Baker, Susan C.
    Thomson, Russell J.
    Stuart-Smith, Jemina F.
    Hill, Nicole A.
    Kininmonth, Stuart J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Airoldi, Laura
    Becerro, Mikel A.
    Campbell, Stuart J.
    Dawson, Terence P.
    Navarrete, Sergio A.
    Soler, German
    Strain, Elisabeth M. A.
    Willis, Trevor J.
    Edgar, Graham J.
    The potential of trait-based approaches to contribute to marine conservation2015In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 51, p. 148-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The value of diversity metrics to represent ecological communities and inform broad-scale conservation objectives and policy has often been subject to debate and uncertainty [1,2]. In practice, diversity metrics are important in setting management and conservation priorities, just as economic indices contribute to global monetary and financial policies. Thus, key challenges for ecologists are to identify new ways to view and summarise patterns in biodiversity and improve on the metrics available for management purposes. In a recent paper on functional diversity patterns in reef fishes [3], we highlighted the potential of new insights gained from functional trait-based approaches to inform marine management, stressing the need to develop and refine biodiversity measures that are linked to ecology (rather than taxonomy). We used a unique, fisheries-independent reef fish identity and abundance dataset, collected using standardised methods from equatorial to high latitude regions all over the world, to provide the first global view of the distribution of individuals amongst species (including a measure of evenness) and functional traits amongst marine communities. A recent paper by Robinson et al. [4] published in Marine Policy criticised the use of our evenness index as a measure of biodiversity, and questioned the use of functional trait-based metrics derived from surveys of standardised areas for decisions relating to broad-scale management of marine systems. In this paper we respond to Robinson et al. and rebut their claims related to sampling bias and broad-scale applicability of trait-based approaches.

  • 39.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jiddawi, N.
    Tracing value chains to understand effects of trade on coral reef fish in Zanzibar, Tanzania2013In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 38, p. 246-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coral reef fish are an important source of food security and income for human coastal populations. They also underpin ecosystem processes vital for the future ability of coral reefs to generate ecological goods and services. Identifying socio-economic drivers behind the exploitation of fish that uphold these key ecosystem processes and the scales at which they operate is therefore critical for successful management. This study addresses this issue by examining the reef-associated fish value chain in Zanzibar, and how it links to functional groups of fish and maturity stage of fish within these groups. Semi-structured interviews with 188 respondents (fishers, traders and hotel staff) involved in the fisheries and trade with reef-associated fish in Zanzibar and participatory observations were used. The trade with reef fish in Zanzibar is a complex structure involving many different agents and this study shows that these different agents exhibit differential preferences regarding fish functional groups and/or maturity stages within these groups. Consequently, both high and low trophic species, as well as small and large fishes are fished and sold, which leaves no refuge for the fish assemblage to escape fishing. When other market agents than fishers have so much influence and there are few alternative income generating activities, it is not possible to put all burden on fishers. Management measures that extend down the value chain to include all market agents as well as their links to ecosystem processes are thus likely to be needed to reach the target of sustainable fisheries.

  • 40.
    Valman, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Institutional stability and change in the Baltic Sea: 30 years of issues, crises and solutions2013In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 38, p. 54-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shift from a classic sector-by-sector management system to an operational ecosystem approach is perceived as the way forward towards sustainable use of marine systems. The nine states bordering the Baltic Sea as well as the European Community signed the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) in 2007, intended to provide practical means for implementing the ecosystem approach in the region. However, whether this shift towards a new governance approach also constitutes a case of institutional change remains unclear. This study evaluates institutional change over 30 years in order to understand the process of emergence of the ecosystem approach for this international institution. This study adds to the otherwise largely theoretical debate on institutional change by testing two models of institutional change – gradualist versus punctuated equilibrium – against data from the Helsinki Commission. Relying on a novel methodology involving quantitative text analyses of 574 documents this study suggests that the signing of the BSAP did not cause change in the institution, nor was it the cause of an abrupt institutional change. Overall, findings support a gradualist model of institutional change where the BSAP is layered upon preexisting institutional structures. Results also indicate that institutional change has occurred in some parts of the institution, whereas other parts remain remarkably stable. It proves that in order to intentionally change an institution it is vital that the change processes cohere at all levels of the institution. The study also underlines the mismatch between ecosystems and institutions. Given the relatively slow dynamics identified here, it is unclear whether institutions are able to adapt to rapid and unpredictable ecosystem shifts.

  • 41.
    Valman, Matilda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Duit, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Organizational responsiveness: The case of unfolding crises and problem detection within HELCOM2016In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 70, p. 49-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How and to what extent do international organizations detect, process and react to different types of change within their policy domains? This study addresses this question by combining a unique data set consisting of policy documents from the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) with data measuring ecosystem change in the Baltic Sea during the period 1980-2013. Here HELCOM's responses to two types of ecosystem changes are investigated: fast and visible (summer algae blooms) and slow and opaque (anoxic areas). Finally, this study assesses if the organizational reform of 2007, which introduced the ecosystem approach, has had any effects on HELCOM responsiveness. It is found that HELCOM, contrary to expectations, is only responding systematically to slow-moving and opaque processes but that this response confirms the anticipated organizational bottom-up pattern. The ecosystem approach reform seems to have had a negative effect on the responsiveness of HELCOM; however, a general trend is that HELCOM over time has become more responsive in the lower levels of the organization. The lack of an immediate effect regarding the ecosystem approach reform can serve as a reminder of the absence of panaceas in policy making in general, and in environmental governance in particular.

  • 42. Villasante, Sebastián
    et al.
    Rodríguez, David
    Antelo, Manel
    Quaas, Martin
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The Global Seafood Market Performance Index: a theoretical proposal and potential empirical applications2012In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 142-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to create the Global Seafood Market Performance Index (GSMPI) in order to compare fisheries-related impacts of different countries across spatial and temporal scales. The article presents the first effort to investigate the trade-offs among marine ecosystems, seafood markets, poverty alleviation, food security and governance at worldwide level by creating the GSMPI. The GSMPI will provide relevant information on environmental, governance, socioeconomic, food security, corruption, seafood market, and corporate social responsibility issues for individual decision-makers and scientists, national governments, and stakeholders as well as international fishing and aquaculture industries.

  • 43.
    Wallner-Hahn, Sieglind
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Molander, Fia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Gallardo, Gloria
    Villasante, Sebastian
    Eklöf, Johan S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Jiddawi, Narriman S.
    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Destructive gear use in a tropical fishery: Institutional factors influencing the willingness-and capacity to change2016In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 72, p. 199-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to empirically assess institutional aspects shaping fishers' behavior leading to unsustainable resource use, by using the example of destructive drag-net fishing in Zanzibar, Tanzania. A broad institutional approach was used to specifically assess institutional factors influencing the fishers' reasons for the current use of destructive drag-nets as well as their willingness- and economic capacity to change to less destructive gears. Different regulative, normative, cultural-cognitive and economic factors (tradition, group-belonging, social acceptance, common practice, identity of drag-net users and weak economic capacity) were identified as critical elements influencing the current use of destructive gears, as well as obstructing changes to other gears. Hence, the importance of addressing all of these factors, matching to the different contexts, rather than focusing on fast-moving regulative measures, is emphasized to increase chances of management success. More promising approaches would be resource allocations to more sustainable fishing gears, well-managed gear exchange programs, as well as alterations of slow-moving normative and cultural factors, e.g. awareness raising on the advantages of more sustainable fishing gears, their traditional and cultural values, information on the actual income they generate, as well as education and an exchange of traditional knowledge on how to use them.

  • 44. Wamukota, A.
    et al.
    Brewer, T. D.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Sweden.
    Market integration and its relation to income distribution and inequality among fishers and traders: The case of two small-scale Kenyan reef fisheries2014In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 48, p. 93-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study, carried out in five fishing communities along the Kenyan coast, examined fisheries-derived income of fishers and traders in two different invertebrate fisheries (octopus and sea cucumber) and tested if differences in global market integration of these two products could explain differences in income inequalities among actors involved in the two fisheries. The structure of the value chains was mapped, differences in income between fishers and traders tested, and income inequalities among actors in each fishery examined. Although the octopus fishery included a greater diversity of actors and thereby provides income to a larger group of people, income inequality in this fishery was higher among fishers and traders than in the sea cucumber fishery. Thus, the often cited relationship between increasing market integration and income inequality may require a re-evaluation and a more nuanced treatment.

  • 45.
    Österblom, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gardmark, A.
    Bergstrom, L.
    Muller-Karulis, B.
    Folke, C.
    Lindegren, M.
    Casini, M.
    Olsson, P.
    Diekmann, R.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Humborg, Cristoph
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Moellmann, C.
    Making the ecosystem approach operational-Can regime shifts in ecological- and governance systems facilitate the transition?2010In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 1290-1299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effectively reducing cumulative impacts on marine ecosystems requires co-evolution between science, policy and practice. Here, long-term social-ecological changes in the Baltic Sea are described, illustrating how the process of making the ecosystem approach operational in a large marine ecosystem can be stimulated. The existing multi-level governance institutions are specifically set up for dealing with individual sectors, but do not adequately support an operational application of the ecosystem approach. The review of ecosystem services in relation to regime shifts and resilience of the Baltic Sea sub-basins, and their driving forces, points to a number of challenges. There is however a movement towards a new governance regime. Bottom-up pilot initiatives can lead to a diffusion of innovation within the existing governance framework. Top-down, enabling EU legislation, can help stimulating innovations and re-organizing governance structures at drainage basin level to the Baltic Sea catchment as a whole. Experimentation and innovation at local to the regional levels is critical for a transition to ecosystem-based management. Establishing science-based learning platforms at sub-basin scales could facilitate this process.

  • 46.
    Österblom, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Sissenwine, M.
    Symes, D.
    Kadin, Martina
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Daw, Tim
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of East Anglia, England.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    Incentives, social-ecological feedbacks and European fisheries2011In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 568-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) has failed to deliver on social, economic and ecological goals. This failure is in part the result of a number of social-ecological feedback mechanisms. The policy is currently undergoing reform, with unknown practical outcomes. Here, relatively successful fisheries policies outside the European Union are reviewed. Through interviews and workshops with scientists, managers and other stakeholders, complemented with literature reviews, practices that can create incentives for long-term sustainability are investigated. The focus is on how the provision of clear and trusted scientific evidence can stimulate defensible decisions, in turn creating incentives for compliance, leading to positive social-ecological outcomes. Despite differences between Europe and the investigated case studies, the prospects of an increased regionalization within the European CFP provides the best starting point for implementing best practice identified in this study.

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