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  • 1.
    Biggs, Reinette
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Schlüter, Maja
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Germany.
    Biggs, Duan
    Bohensky, Erin L.
    BurnSilver, Shauna
    Cundill, Georgina
    Dakos, Vasilis
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of East Anglia, United Kingdom.
    Evans, Louisa S.
    Kotschy, Karen
    Leitch, Anne M.
    Meek, Chanda
    Quinlan, Allyson
    Raudsepp-Hearne, Ciara
    Robards, Martin D.
    Schoon, Michael L.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    West, Paul C.
    Toward Principles for Enhancing the Resilience of Ecosystem Services2012In: Annual Review Environment and Resources, ISSN 1543-5938, E-ISSN 1545-2050, Vol. 37, p. 421-448Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enhancing the resilience of ecosystem services (ES) that underpin human well-being is critical for meeting current and future societal needs, and requires specific governance and management policies. Using the literature, we identify seven generic policy-relevant principles for enhancing the resilience of desired ES in the face of disturbance and ongoing change in social-ecological systems (SES). These principles are (P1) maintain diversity and redundancy, (P2) manage connectivity, (P3) manage slow variables and feedbacks, (P4) foster an understanding of SES as complex adaptive systems (CAS), (P5) encourage learning and experimentation, (P6) broaden participation, and (P7) promote polycentric governance systems. We briefly define each principle, review how and when it enhances the resilience of ES, and conclude with major research gaps. In practice, the principles often co-occur and are highly interdependent. Key future needs are to better understand these interdependencies and to operationalize and apply the principles in different policy and management contexts.

  • 2. Buhaug, Halvard
    et al.
    von Uexkull, Nina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations. Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO), Norway.
    Vicious Circles: Violence, Vulnerability, and Climate Change2021In: Annual Review Environment and Resources, ISSN 1543-5938, E-ISSN 1545-2050, Vol. 46, p. 545-568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change threatens core dimensions of human security, including economic prosperity, food availability, and societal stability. In recent years, war-torn regions such as Afghanistan and Yemen have harbored severe humanitarian crises, compounded by climate-related hazards. These cases epitomize the powerful but presently incompletely appreciated links between vulnerability, conflict, and climate-related impacts. In this article, we develop a unified conceptual model of these phenomena by connecting three fields of research that traditionally have had little interaction: (a) determinants of social vulnerability to climate change, (b) climatic drivers of armed conflict risk, and (c) societal impacts of armed conflict. In doing so, we demonstrate how many of the conditions that shape vulnerability to climate change also increase the likelihood of climate?conflict interactions and, furthermore, that impacts from armed conflict aggravate these conditions. The end result may be a vicious circle locking affected societies in a trap of violence, vulnerability, and climate change impacts. 

  • 3. Cork, Steven
    et al.
    Alexandra, Carla
    Alvarez-Romero, Jorge G.
    Bennett, Elena M.
    Berbés-Blázquez, Marta
    Bohensky, Erin
    Bok, Barbara
    Costanza, Robert
    Hashimoto, Shizuka
    Hill, Rosemary
    Inayatullah, Sohail
    Kok, Kasper
    Kuiper, Jan J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Moglia, Magnus
    Pereira, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Weeks, Rebecca
    Wyborn, Carina
    Exploring Alternative Futures in the Anthropocene2023In: Annual Review Environment and Resources, ISSN 1543-5938, E-ISSN 1545-2050, Vol. 48, p. 25-54Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many challenges posed by the current Anthropocene epoch require fundamental transformations to humanity's relationships with the rest of the planet. Achieving such transformations requires that humanity improve its understanding of the current situation and enhance its ability to imagine pathways toward alternative, preferable futures. We review advances in addressing these challenges that employ systematic and structured thinking about multiple possible futures (futures-thinking). Over seven decades, especially the past two, approaches to futures-thinking have helped people from diverse backgrounds reach a common understanding of important issues, underlying causes, and pathways toward optimistic futures. A recent focus has been the stimulation of imagination to produce new options. The roles of futures-thinking in breaking unhelpful social addictions and in conflict resolution are key emerging topics. We summarize cognitive, cultural, and institutional constraints on the societal uptake of futures-thinking, concluding that none are insurmountable once understood.

  • 4. Hamann, Maike
    et al.
    Berry, Kevin
    Chaigneau, Tomas
    Curry, Tracie
    Heilmayr, Robert
    Henriksson, Patrik J. G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Sweden; WorldFish, Bayan Lepas, Malaysia.
    Hentati-Sundberg, Jonas
    Jina, Amir
    Lindqvist, Emilie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lopez-Maldonado, Yolanda
    Nieminen, Emmi
    Piaggio, Matias
    Qiu, Jiangxiao
    Rocha, Juan C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Schill, Caroline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Shepon, Alon
    Tilman, Andrew R.
    van den Bijgaart, Inge
    Wu, Tong
    Inequality and the Biosphere2018In: Annual Review Environment and Resources, ISSN 1543-5938, E-ISSN 1545-2050, Vol. 43, p. 61-83Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rising inequalities and accelerating global environmental change pose two of the most pressing challenges of the twenty-first century. To explore how these phenomena are linked, we apply a social-ecological systems perspective and review the literature to identify six different types of interactions (or pathways) between inequality and the biosphere. We find that most of the research so far has only considered one-directional effects of inequality on the biosphere, or vice versa. However, given the potential for complex dynamics between socioeconomic and environmental factors within social-ecological systems, we highlight examples from the literature that illustrate the importance of cross-scale interactions and feedback loops between inequality and the biosphere. This review draws on diverse disciplines to advance a systemic understanding of the linkages between inequality and the biosphere, specifically recognizing cross-scale feedbacks and the multidimensional nature of inequality.

  • 5.
    Kuyper, Jonathan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. University of Oslo, Norway.
    Schroeder, Heike
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    The Evolution of the UNFCCC2018In: Annual Review Environment and Resources, ISSN 1543-5938, E-ISSN 1545-2050, Vol. 43, p. 343-368Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article takes stock of the evolution of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) through the prism of three recent shifts: the move away from targeting industrial country emissions in a legally binding manner under the Kyoto Protocol to mandating voluntary contributions from all countries under the Paris Agreement; the shift from the top-down Kyoto architecture to the hybrid Paris outcome; and the broadening out from a mitigation focus under Kyoto to a triple goal comprising mitigation, adaptation, and finance under Paris. This review discusses the implications of these processes for the effectiveness, efficiency, and equity of the UNFCCC's institutional and operational settings for meeting the convention's objectives. It ends by sketching three potential scenarios facing the UNFCCC as it seeks to coordinate the Paris Agreement and its relationship to the wider landscape of global climate action.

  • 6. Pelletier, Nathan
    et al.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute, Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Energy Intensity of Agriculture and Food Systems2011In: Annual Review Environment and Resources, ISSN 1543-5938, E-ISSN 1545-2050, Vol. 36, p. 223-246Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationships between energy use in food systems, food system productivity, and energy resource constraints are complex. Moreover, ongoing changes in food production and consumption norms concurrent with urbanization, globalization, and demographic changes underscore the importance of energy use in food systems as a food security concern. Here, we review the current state of knowledge with respect to the energy intensity of agriculture and food systems. We highlight key drivers and trends in food system energy use along with opportunities for and constraints on improved efficiencies. In particular, we point toward a current dearth of research with respect to the energy performance of food systems in developing countries and provide a cautionary note vis-à-vis increasing food system energy dependencies in the light of energy price volatility and concerns as to long-term fossil energy availabilities.

  • 7.
    Reyers, Belinda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Moore, Michele-Lee
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Victoria, Canada.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Galaz, Victor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Social-Ecological Systems Insights for Navigating the Dynamics of the Anthropocene2018In: Annual Review Environment and Resources, ISSN 1543-5938, E-ISSN 1545-2050, Vol. 43, p. 267-289Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social-ecological systems (SES) research offers new theory and evidence to transform sustainable development to better contend with the challenges of the Anthropocene. Four insights from contemporary SES literature on (a) intertwined SES, (b) cross-scale dynamics, (c) systemic tipping points, and (d) transformational change are explored. Based on these insights, shifts in sustainable development practice are suggested to recognize and govern the complex and codeveloping social and ecological aspects of development challenges. The potential susceptibility of SES to nonlinear systemic reconfigurations is highlighted, as well as the opportunities, agency, and capacities required to foster reconfigurative transformations for sustainable development. SES research proposes the need for diverse values and beliefs that are more in tune with the deep, dynamic connections between social and ecological systems to transform development practice and to support capacities to deal with shocks and surprises. From these perspectives, SES research offers new outlooks, practices, and novel opportunity spaces from which to address the challenges of the Anthropocene.

  • 8. Schuur, Edward A. G.
    et al.
    Abbott, Benjamin W.
    Commane, Roisin
    Ernakovich, Jessica
    Euskirchen, Eugenie
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Grosse, Guido
    Jones, Miriam
    Koven, Charlie
    Leshyk, Victor
    Lawrence, David
    Loranty, Michael M.
    Mauritz, Marguerite
    Olefeldt, David
    Natali, Susan
    Rodenhizer, Heidi
    Salmon, Verity
    Schädel, Christina
    Strauss, Jens
    Treat, Claire
    Turetsky, Merritt
    Permafrost and Climate Change: Carbon Cycle Feedbacks From the Warming Arctic2022In: Annual Review Environment and Resources, ISSN 1543-5938, E-ISSN 1545-2050, Vol. 47, p. 343-371Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid Arctic environmental change affects the entire Earth system as thawing permafrost ecosystems release greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Understanding how much permafrost carbon will be released, over what time frame, and what the relative emissions of carbon dioxide and methane will be is key for understanding the impact on global climate. In addition, the response of vegetation in a warming climate has the potential to offset at least some of the accelerating feedback to the climate from permafrost carbon. Temperature, organic carbon, and ground ice are key regulators for determining the impact of permafrost ecosystems on the global carbon cycle. Together, these encompass services of permafrost relevant to global society as well as to the people living in the region and help to determine the landscape-level response of this region to a changing climate.

  • 9. Stoddard, Isak
    et al.
    Anderson, Kevin
    Capstick, Stuart
    Carton, Wim
    Depledge, Joanna
    Facer, Keri
    Gough, Clair
    Hache, Frederic
    Hoolohan, Claire
    Hultman, Martin
    Hällstrom, Niclas
    Kartha, Sivan
    Klinsky, Sonja
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    Lövbrand, Eva
    Nasiritousi, Naghmeh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Sweden.
    Newell, Peter
    Peters, Glen P.
    Sokona, Youba
    Stirling, Andy
    Stilwell, Matthew
    Spash, Clive L.
    Williams, Mariama
    Three Decades of Climate Mitigation: Why Haven't We Bent the Global Emissions Curve?2021In: Annual Review Environment and Resources, ISSN 1543-5938, E-ISSN 1545-2050, Vol. 46, p. 653-689Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite three decades of political efforts and a wealth of research on the causes and catastrophic impacts of climate change, global carbon dioxide emissions have continued to rise and are 60% higher today than they were in 1990. Exploring this rise through nine thematic lenses-covering issues of climate governance, the fossil fuel industry, geopolitics, economics, mitigation modeling, energy systems, inequity, lifestyles, and social imaginaries-draws out multifaceted reasons for our collective failure to bend the global emissions curve. However, a common thread that emerges across the reviewed literature is the central role of power, manifest in many forms, from a dogmatic political-economic hegemony and influential vested interests to narrow techno-economic mindsets and ideologies of control. Synthesizing the various impediments to mitigation reveals how delivering on the commitments enshrined in the Paris Agreement now requires an urgent and unprecedented transformation away from today's carbon- and energy-intensive development paradigm.

  • 10.
    Österblom, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. South American Institute for Resilience and Sustainability Studies, Uruguay; The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Bebbington, J.
    Blasiak, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Sobkowiak, M.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Transnational Corporations, Biosphere Stewardship, and Sustainable Futures2022In: Annual Review Environment and Resources, ISSN 1543-5938, E-ISSN 1545-2050, Vol. 47, p. 609-635Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corporations are perceived as increasingly powerful and critically important to ensuring that irreversible climatological or ecological tipping points on Earth are not crossed. Environmental impacts of corporate activities include pollution of soils, freshwater and the ocean, depletion of ecosystems and species, unsustainable use of resources, changes to air quality, and alteration of the global climate. Negative social impacts include unacceptable working conditions, erosion of traditional practices, and increased inequalities. Multiple formal and informal mechanisms have been developed, and innovative examples of corporate biosphere stewardship have resulted in progress. However, the biosphere crisis underscores that such efforts have been insufficient and that transformative change is urgently needed. We provide suggestions for aligning corporate activities with the biosphere and argue that such corporate biosphere stewardship requires more ambitious approaches taken by corporations, combined with new and formalized public governance approaches by governments.

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