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  • 1.
    Barron, Jennie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Enfors, Elin
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Cambridge, Howard
    Moustapha, Adamou M.
    Coping with Rainfall Variability: Dry Spell Mitigation and Implication on Landscape Water Balances in Small-scale Farming Systems in Semi-arid Niger2010In: International Journal of Water Resources Development, ISSN 0790-0627, E-ISSN 1360-0648, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 543-559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rainfall variability and inherent dry spells are a reality with severe implications for smallholder agro-ecosystems in semi-arid Sahel. To increase both on- and off-farm biomass production and productivity is challenging with these climate-induced temporal and spatial variations of water. This paper tests the idea that increased vegetation through tree cover may impact water balance in a water-stressed landscape: South-east Niger. Local rainfall data, farming systems data and a landscape water-modelling tool (ArcSWAT) are used. Four production domains (conventional or fertilized combined with millet crop or millet crop plus trees) were assessed for long-term yield and landscape water balance impacts. The dry-spell analysis shows a frequency of dry spells less than 14 days is in the order of one to two dry-spell events per season in 7 years out of 10 years. The occurrence has increased between 1960 and 2004, despite a slight recovery of total annual rainfall amounts since the severe droughts of the 1980s. Results of modelled millet yields and landscape water balances suggest that options exist to enhance landscape productivity. With marginal inputs of fertilizer, millet yields increased fivefold to 2.0-2.4tha-1, and water productivity improved from 6,000 to 12,000m3 actual evapotranspiration (ETa) t-1 grain, to an improved 1,700-3,000m3 ETa t-1 grain. In addition, 10% tree cover in combination with fertilized millet increased yield with marginal or no impact on water partitioning and flows in the landscape. The policy opportunities are complex and urgently needed in view of increased rainfall variability due to expected climate change. To develop sustainable pathways in these landscapes dominated by poor smallholder framers requires water managers to be more innovative and go beyond water resources alone.

  • 2.
    Falkenmark, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm International Water Institute, Sweden.
    Water and human livelihood resilience: a regional-to-global outlook2017In: International Journal of Water Resources Development, ISSN 0790-0627, E-ISSN 1360-0648, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 181-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the need to profoundly expand the way we think about freshwater. Stressing water's role as the bloodstream of the biosphere, the article highlights water's functions in sustaining life on the planet (control, state and moisture feedback functions), the role of water partitioning changes in inducing non-linear change at multiple scales, and humanity's influence on a social-ecological system's capacity to adapt and continue to function. It reviews water's roles during its journey through the upper layers of the land mass, different types of water-ecosystem interactions, and water's roles in landscape-scale resilience building.

  • 3.
    Falkenmark, Malin
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Water-A Reflection of Land Use: understanding of Water Pathways and Quality Genesis2011In: International Journal of Water Resources Development, ISSN 0790-0627, E-ISSN 1360-0648, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 13-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims at a scientifically based synthesis of water quality genesis and pollution problems arising from human interventions in the landscape, physical as well as chemical. First, water quality genesis is explained in terms of sources, water pathways and some time scales involved. It goes on to look closer at chemical reactions along water pathways down a landscape catena, using the simple perception of a stream tube. The river quality outcome is explained in terms of a mix of water fractions with different hydrochemical signatures. Water quality is finally looked at in a 4000-year perspective, explaining some regional similarities and differences in the past. In looking towards the future, a potential further intensification and expansion in scale is seen as probable in response to driving forces at work, poor mitigation capabilities and the long response times involved.

  • 4.
    Falkenmark, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm International Water Institute, Sweden.
    Jägerskog, A.
    Schneider, K.
    Overcoming the land-water disconnect in water-scarce regions: time for IWRM to go contemporary2014In: International Journal of Water Resources Development, ISSN 0790-0627, E-ISSN 1360-0648, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 391-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to analyze the relationships between water and land. It posits that there is a disconnect between land and water management that needs to be rectified. To address the major challenges the world is facing in terms of feeding itself and securing adequate access to water there is a need to revisit the integrated water resources management (IWRM) paradigm. While IWRM incorporates the link between land and water in theory, it is often ignored in practice. The authors argue that greater visibility of the land-water linkage is needed and would be encouraged by adding an L for land use, making ILWRM: integrated land and water resources management. The natural systems at play are juxtaposed with a discussion of the (water) governance challenges that they pose. Challenges stemming from increased land (and thereby water) acquisitions, as well as the transboundary perspectives of the ILWRM challenge, highlight the need to revisit and evolve our approach to providing water and food security.

  • 5. Polpanich, Orn-Uma
    et al.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Krittasudthacheewa, Chayanis
    Bush, Angela L.
    Kemp-Benedict, Eric
    Modelling impacts of development on water resources in the Huai Sai Bat sub-basin in north-eastern Thailand with a participatory approach2017In: International Journal of Water Resources Development, ISSN 0790-0627, E-ISSN 1360-0648, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 1020-1040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is done to connect hydrological modelling with stakeholder participation. This study incorporates agricultural development and climatic changes within the Water Evaluation and Planning hydrological model. This is done with a participatory approach involving four scenario workshops, 400 household surveys and two focus group discussions in the period of 2010-2012 for the ungauged Huai Sai Bat sub-basin as a case study in the Mekong region. The modelling results indicate future increased streamflow during the wet (monsoon) season in response to shifts in the regional climate. Modelled land-use and management changes brought about large unmet water demands, primarily in the dry season.

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