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  • 1.
    Andersson, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Alternative Archaeology: Many Pasts in Our Present2012In: Numen, ISSN 0029-5973, E-ISSN 1568-5276, Vol. 59, no 2-3, p. 125-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces the field of alternative archaeology. After a short presentation of how the field has been received by professional archaeologists, different ways of defining it are discussed, and potential demarcations are examined. A survey of the most frequently discussed topics follows, together with a discussion of the methodologies employed and the theoretical presuppositions accepted by writers in the alternative archaeology genre, and how these differ from the methods and theories of conventional academic archaeology. A brief section on the relevance of alternative archaeology to the study of religion concludes the article.

  • 2.
    Asprem, Egil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, History of Religions.
    Yiftach Fehige (ed.), Science and Religion: East and West, London: Routledge, 20162019In: Numen, ISSN 0029-5973, E-ISSN 1568-5276, Vol. 66, no 2-3, p. 317-331Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Faxneld, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, History of Religions.
    Review of Christopher Partridge & Eric Christianson (eds.) The Lure of the Dark Side: Satan and Western Demonology in Popular Culture (2009)2011In: Numen, ISSN 0029-5973, E-ISSN 1568-5276, Vol. 58, no 2-3, p. 408-413Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Faxneld, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, History of Religions.
    The Devil is Red: Socialist Satanism in the Nineteenth Century2013In: Numen, ISSN 0029-5973, E-ISSN 1568-5276, Vol. 60, no 5-6, p. 528-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the nineteenth century, socialists all over the Western world employed Satan as a symbol of the workers’ emancipation from capitalist tyranny and the toppling of the Christian Church, which they perceived as a protector of this oppressive system. Starting with the English Romantics at the end of the eighteenth century, European radicals developed a discourse of symbolic Satanism, which was put to use by major names in socialism like Godwin, Proudhon, and Bakunin. This shock tactic became especially widespread in turn-of-the-century Sweden, and accordingly the article focuses on the many examples of explicit socialist Satanism in that country. They are contextualized by showing the parallels to, among other things, use of Lucifer as a positive symbol in the realm of alternative spirituality, specifically the Theosophical Society. A number of reasons for why Satan gained such popularity among socialists are suggested, and the sometimes blurry line separating the rhetoric of symbolic Satanism from actual religious writing is scrutinized.

  • 5.
    Foxeus, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, History of Religions.
    “I am the Buddha, the Buddha is Me”: Concentration Meditation and Esoteric Modern Buddhism in Burma/Myanmar2016In: Numen, ISSN 0029-5973, E-ISSN 1568-5276, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 411-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In postcolonial Burma, two trends within lay Buddhism — largely in tension with one another — developed into large-scale movements. They focused upon different meditation practices, insight meditation and concentration meditation, with the latter also including esoteric lore. An impetus largely shared by the movements was to define an “authentic” Buddhism to serve as the primary vehicle of the quest for individual, local, and national identity. While insight meditation was generally considered Buddhist meditation par excellence, concentration meditation was ascribed a more dubious Buddhist identity. Given this ambiguity, it could be considered rather paradoxical that concentration meditation could be viewed as a source of “authentic” Buddhism. The aim of this article is to investigate the issue of identity and the paradox of authenticity by examining the concentration meditation practices of one large esoteric congregation and tentatively comparing its practices with those of the insight meditation movement. It will be argued that the movements represented two varieties of so-called modern Buddhism (rationalist modern Buddhism and esoteric modern Buddhism) drawing on different Buddhist imaginaries and representing two main trends that are largely diametrically opposed to one another. They therefore represent two ways of constructing an individual, local, and national identity.

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  • 6.
    Foxeus, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, History of Religions.
    Monastic Authority and Legitimizing Religio-Political Activism: Buddhist Nationalist Monks in Myanmar2023In: Numen, ISSN 0029-5973, E-ISSN 1568-5276, Vol. 70, no 5-6, p. 542-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Buddhist nationalist movements that emerged during the political and economic liberalization of the second parliamentarian period (2011–2021) in Burma/Myanmar provide unique material for the study of monastic authority. The aim of this article is to examine two overlapping dynamics regarding how monastic authority is established and undermined. As for the first dynamic, the article examines three strategies in Buddhist nationalist sermons aiming to provide legitimacy for the nationalist monks. The second dynamic is a political outgroup criticism that became more common during the period in question. The article makes a distinction between generic monastic authority, which is the fundamental one, and nationalist monastic authority, as they are legitimized and established in different ways. Finally, the article argues that recognition of monastic authority by laypeople is based not merely on trust and respect but tends to be a more complex process.

  • 7.
    Gemzöe, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies.
    In Nature’s Cathedral: Caminoization and Cultural Critique in Swedish Pilgrim Spirituality2020In: Numen, ISSN 0029-5973, E-ISSN 1568-5276, Vol. 67, no 5-6, p. 483-507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two parallel, interrelated waves of interest in pilgrimage on foot has surged in Sweden since the 1990s: participation in the international Camino pilgrimage and a vernacular pilgrimage movement in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Sweden. In this article, the interconnections between the two strands are explored. In both settings, attention is paid primarily to walking itself, illustrating a key facet of Caminoization: the stress on the journey rather than the destination. It is argued here that the pilgrimage walks in the Church of Sweden are modeled on a Caminoized notion of pilgrimage, built into the Swedish word pilgrimsvandring. This notion of pilgrimage functions as an open category that can connect to both religious heritages and social and cultural trends in new ways. A key outcome of the spread of Caminoized pilgrimage is the rise of a pilgrim spirituality that celebrates simplicity and communing with nature, and carries with it a cultural critique of postindustrial society, further accentuated in the pilgrimage movement’s recent turn to ecology and climate action.

  • 8.
    Granholm, Kennet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, History of Religions.
    "Sons of Northern Darkness": Heathen Influences in Black Metal and Neofolk MusicIn: Numen, ISSN 0029-5973, E-ISSN 1568-5276Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Jackson, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, History of Religions.
    A New Order of the Ages: Eschatological Vision in Virgil and Beyond2012In: Numen, ISSN 0029-5973, E-ISSN 1568-5276, Vol. 59, no 5-6, p. 533-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proceeding from the Latin mottoes for the Great Seal of the United States, this paper explores the use and repercussions of eschatological themes in Virgil’s poetry. A hith-herto unnoticed datum in the history of the Great Seal’s final design exemplifies how comparatively recent readings of the myth of Aeneas and the Cumaean Sibyl could inform our understanding of how the same myth was conceived in the Augustan Age. The discussion revolves around topics such as ekphrasis, the conflation of memoir and myth, and the eschatological significance of spatial and temporal transmission. The final part of the paper introduces some new thoughts concerning the ludi tarentini and the centennial life span.

  • 10.
    Jackson, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, History of Religions.
    Religious Studies: The Key Concepts. By Carl Olson2013In: Numen, ISSN 0029-5973, E-ISSN 1568-5276, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 142-144Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Karahan, Anne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Byzantine Visual Culture: Conditions of "Right" Belief and some Platonic Outlooks2016In: Numen, ISSN 0029-5973, E-ISSN 1568-5276, Vol. 63, no 2-3, p. 210-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monumental picture programs of Byzantine churches exist within a spatial and liturgical setting of rituals that depend on circumstances that create a distinction from profane to sacred. The core theme is the epic narrative of the holy drama of the incarnated son, i.e., the image of God (eikon tou theou), acknowledged as indivisibly as much human as divine. In a Byzantine religious sense, images of Christ prove the incarnation, yet human salvation depends on faith in the incarnation but also in the transcendent unknowable God. From the perspective of visual culture, the dilemma is that divine nature is, in a religious sense, transcendent and unknowable, beyond words and categorizations, unintelligible, as opposed to human nature, which is intelligible. This article concerns the strategy of Byzantine visual culture to weave together expressible and inexpressible in order to acknowledge “right belief,” without trespassing the theology and mode of thought of the church fathers on the triune mystery of the Christian God and the incarnation. In a Byzantine religious sense, circumscribed by time and space, the human condition is inconsistent with cognition of what God is. Nonetheless, salvation depends on faith in that God is, a “fact” acknowledged through holy images. Particular theoretical and methodological focus will be on how the three fourth-century Cappadocian fathers and Dionysius the Areopagite, but also Maximus the Confessor discuss God’s unintelligibility but also intelligibility, with some comparative Platonic outlooks.

  • 12.
    Karivieri, Arja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Classical Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Divine or Human Images? Neoplatonic and Christian Views on Works of Art and Aesthetics2016In: Numen, ISSN 0029-5973, E-ISSN 1568-5276, Vol. 63, no 2-3, p. 196-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how Neoplatonists and Christians experienced and interpreted works of art, and how views on artists and individual works of art, such as Pheidias' Zeus in Olympia, were expressed by the representatives of traditional Greco-Roman religions and Christians. The way the value of a work of art was expressed in Greco-Roman literature is compared with the comments and opinions of Neoplatonists and Christian authors, which show that art and its appreciation and function are closely connected to the relationship to God in ancient sources. The ideal of beauty took its place to enrich also the Christian view of aesthetics and enhanced the development of both Greco-Roman and Christian art.

  • 13.
    Sundqvist, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, History of Religions.
    Magic and Kingship in Medieval Iceland: The Construction of a Discourse of Political Resistance, written by Nicolas Meylan 2016In: Numen, ISSN 0029-5973, E-ISSN 1568-5276, Vol. 63, no 2-3, p. 329-333Article, book review (Other academic)
1 - 13 of 13
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