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  • 1. Aarts, Alexander A.
    et al.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Zuni, Kellylynn
    Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science2015In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 349, no 6251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams.

  • 2. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Allafort, A.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bouvier, A.
    Brandt, T. J.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brez, A.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Cannon, A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Celik, O.
    Charles, E.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Costamante, L.
    Cutini, S.
    D'Ammando, F.
    Dermer, C. D.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Luca, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Digel, S. W.
    do Couto e Silva, E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Drlica-Wagner, A.
    Dubois, R.
    Dumora, D.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Ferrara, E. C.
    Focke, W. B.
    Fortin, P.
    Frailis, M.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Grove, J. E.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hadasch, D.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashi, K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Horan, D.
    Itoh, R.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, T. J.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kerr, M.
    Knoedlseder, J.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Latronico, L.
    Lee, S. -H
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lubrano, P.
    Madejski, G. M.
    Makeev, A.
    Marelli, M.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nakamori, T.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Okumura, A.
    Omodei, N.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Ozaki, M.
    Paneque, D.
    Parent, D.
    Pelassa, V.
    Pepe, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Pierbattista, M.
    Piron, F.
    Porter, T. A.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Ray, P. S.
    Razzano, M.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Ritz, S.
    Romani, R. W.
    Sadrozinski, H. F. -W
    Sanchez, D.
    Parkinson, P. M. Saz
    Scargle, J. D.
    Schalk, T. L.
    Sgro, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Strickman, M. S.
    Suson, D. J.
    Takahashi, H.
    Takahashi, T.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Tramacere, A.
    Troja, E.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vianello, G.
    Vitale, V.
    Wang, P.
    Wood, K. S.
    Yang, Zhaoyu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Ziegler, M.
    Gamma-Ray Flares from the Crab Nebula2011In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 331, no 6018, p. 739-742Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A young and energetic pulsar powers the well-known Crab Nebula. Here, we describe two separate gamma-ray (photon energy greater than 100 mega-electron volts) flares from this source detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The first flare occurred in February 2009 and lasted approximately 16 days. The second flare was detected in September 2010 and lasted approximately 4 days. During these outbursts, the gamma-ray flux from the nebula increased by factors of four and six, respectively. The brevity of the flares implies that the gamma rays were emitted via synchrotron radiation from peta-electron-volt (10(15) electron volts) electrons in a region smaller than 1.4 x 10(-2) parsecs. These are the highest-energy particles that can be associated with a discrete astronomical source, and they pose challenges to particle acceleration theory.

  • 3. Abdo, A., et al
    et al.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Meurer, Christine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    The Fermi LAT Collboration,
    The Fermi GBM Collaboration,
    Fermi Observations of High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from GRB 080916C2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 323, no 5922, p. 1688-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are highly energetic explosions signaling the death of massive stars in distant galaxies. The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Observatory together record GRBs over a broad energy range spanning about 7 decades of gammaray energy. In September 2008, Fermi observed the exceptionally luminous GRB 080916C, with the largest apparent energy release yet measured. The high-energy gamma rays are observed to start later and persist longer than the lower energy photons. A simple spectral form fits the entire GRB spectrum, providing strong constraints on emission models. The known distance of the burst enables placing lower limits on the bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow and on the quantum gravity mass.

  • 4. Abdollahi, S.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Gonzalez, J. Becerra
    Bellazzini, R.
    Bissaldi, E.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonino, R.
    Bottacini, E.
    Buson, S.
    Bregeon, J.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caputo, R.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Cavazzuti, E.
    Charles, E.
    Chen, S.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiaro, G.
    Ciprini, S.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Cominsky, L. R.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Costantin, D.
    Cutini, S.
    D'Ammando, F.
    de Palma, F.
    Desai, A.
    Digel, S. W.
    Di Lalla, N.
    Di Mauro, M.
    Di Venere, L.
    Dominguez, A.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Finke, J.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Romero, G. Gallardo
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Green, D.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hartmann, D. H.
    Hays, E.
    Helgason, K.
    Horan, D.
    Johannesson, G.
    Kocevski, D.
    Kuss, M.
    Larsson, S.
    Latronico, L.
    Li, J.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Madejski, G. M.
    Magill, J. D.
    Maldera, S.
    Manfreda, A.
    Marcotulli, L.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Meyer, M.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mizuno, T.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Negro, M.
    Nuss, E.
    Ojha, R.
    Omodei, N.
    Orienti, M.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Palatiello, M.
    Paliya, V. S.
    Paneque, D.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Persic, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Petrosian, V.
    Piron, F.
    Porter, T. A.
    Primack, J. R.
    Principe, G.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Razzaque, S.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Parkinson, P. M. Saz
    Sgro, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Suson, D. J.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, M.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Torres, D. F.
    Torresi, E.
    Tosti, G.
    Tramacere, A.
    Troja, E.
    Valverde, J.
    Vianello, G.
    Vogel, M.
    Wood, K.
    Zaharijas, G.
    A gamma-ray determination of the Universe's star formation history2018In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 362, no 6418, p. 1031-1034Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The light emitted by all galaxies over the history of the Universe produces the extragalactic background light (EBL) at ultraviolet, optical, and infrared wavelengths. The EBL is a source of opacity for gamma rays via photon-photon interactions, leaving an imprint in the spectra of distant gamma-ray sources. We measured this attenuation using 739 active galaxies and one gamma-ray burst detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. This allowed us to reconstruct the evolution of the EBL and determine the star formation history of the Universe over 90% of cosmic time. Our star formation history is consistent with independent measurements from galaxy surveys, peaking at redshift z similar to 2. Upper limits of the EBL at the epoch of reionization suggest a turnover in the abundance of faint galaxies at z similar to 6.

  • 5. Abramowski, A.
    et al.
    Aharonian, F.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anguener, E. O.
    Backes, M.
    Balenderan, S.
    Balzer, A.
    Barnacka, A.
    Becherini, Y.
    Becker-Tjus, J.
    Berge, D.
    Bernhard, S.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Birsin, E.
    Biteau, J.
    Boettcher, M.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Bordas, P.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Bryan, M.
    Bulik, T.
    Carrigan, S.
    Casanova, S.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Chakraborty, N.
    Chalme-Calvet, R.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Chretien, M.
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Cologna, G.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Couturier, C.
    Cui, Y.
    Dalton, M.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    de Wilt, P.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Donath, A.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubus, G.
    Dutson, K.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Edwards, T.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fernandes, M. V.
    Fernandez, D.
    Fiasson, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Foerster, A.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gajdus, M.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Garrigoux, T.
    Giavitto, G.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Gottschall, D.
    Grondin, M-H
    Grudzinska, M.
    Hadasch, D.
    Haeffner, S.
    Hahn, J.
    Harris, J.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hervet, O.
    Hillert, A.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Holler, M.
    Horns, D.
    Ivascenko, A.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Jahn, C.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Janiak, M.
    Jankowsky, F.
    Jung, I.
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Khelifi, B.
    Kieffer, M.
    Klepser, S.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kolitzus, D.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Krakau, S.
    Krayzel, F.
    Krueger, P. P.
    Laffon, H.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Lefranc, V.
    Lemiere, A.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Lenain, J-P
    Lohse, T.
    Lopatin, A.
    Lu, C-C
    Marandon, V.
    Marcowith, A.
    Marx, R.
    Maurin, G.
    Maxted, N.
    Mayer, M.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Mehault, J.
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Menzler, U.
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Moderski, R.
    Mohamed, M.
    Morå, Knut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Moulin, E.
    Murach, T.
    de Naurois, M.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Oakes, L.
    Odaka, H.
    Ohm, S.
    Opitz, B.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Oya, I.
    Panter, M.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pekeur, N. W.
    Pelletier, G.
    Perez, J.
    Petrucci, P-O
    Peyaud, B.
    Pita, S.
    Poon, H.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raab, S.
    Reichardt, I.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    de los Reyes, R.
    Rieger, F.
    Rob, L.
    Romoli, C.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Sahakian, V.
    Salek, D.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schuessler, F.
    Schulz, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Sol, H.
    Spanier, F.
    Spengler, Gerrit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Spies, F.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Stycz, K.
    Sushch, I.
    Tavernet, J-P
    Tavernier, T.
    Taylor, A. M.
    Terrier, R.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Trichard, C.
    Valerius, K.
    van Eldik, C.
    van Soelen, B.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Veh, J.
    Venter, C.
    Viana, A.
    Vincent, P.
    Vink, J.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Vorster, M.
    Vuillaume, T.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Wagner, P.
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Ward, M.
    Weidinger, M.
    Weitzel, Q.
    White, R.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Willmann, P.
    Woernlein, A.
    Wouters, D.
    Yang, R.
    Zabalza, V.
    Zaborov, D.
    Zacharias, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Zechlin, H-S
    The exceptionally powerful TeV gamma-ray emitters in the Large Magellanic Cloud2015In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 347, no 6220, p. 406-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way, has been observed with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) above an energy of 100 billion electron volts for a deep exposure of 210 hours. Three sources of different types were detected: the pulsar wind nebula of the most energetic pulsar known, N 157B; the radio-loud supernova remnant N 132D; and the largest nonthermal x-ray shell, the superbubble 30 Dor C. The unique object SN 1987A is, unexpectedly, not detected, which constrains the theoretical framework of particle acceleration in very young supernova remnants. These detections reveal the most energetic tip of a g-ray source population in an external galaxy and provide via 30 Dor C the unambiguous detection of g-ray emission from a superbubble.

  • 6. Ackermann, M.
    et al.
    Ajello, M.
    Albert, A.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Bissaldi, E.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bottacini, E.
    Brandt, T. J.
    Bregeon, J.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caragiulo, M.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Cavazzuti, E.
    Charles, E.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Chiaro, G.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Corbel, S.
    D'Ammando, F.
    de Angelis, A.
    den Hartog, P. R.
    de Palma, F.
    Dermer, C. D.
    Desiante, R.
    Digel, S. W.
    Di Venere, L.
    do Couto e Silva, E.
    Donato, D.
    Drell, P. S.
    Drlica-Wagner, A.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Ferrara, E. C.
    Focke, W. B.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Fuhrmann, L.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Germani, S.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hadasch, D.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Hewitt, J. W.
    Hill, A. B.
    Hou, X.
    Jean, P.
    Jogler, T.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Kerr, M.
    Knoedlseder, J.
    Kuss, M.
    Larsson, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Latronico, L.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Manfreda, A.
    Martin, P.
    Massaro, F.
    Mayer, M.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nemmen, R.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Omodei, N.
    Orienti, M.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Paneque, D.
    Panetta, J. H.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Pivato, G.
    Porter, T. A.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Razzaque, S.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Parkinson, P. M. Saz
    Schaal, M.
    Schulz, A.
    Sgro, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Stawarz, L.
    Suson, D. J.
    Takahashi, H.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Tinivella, M.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Troja, E.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Vianello, G.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wolff, M. T.
    Wood, D. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Wood, M.
    Charbonnel, S.
    Corbet, R. H. D.
    Aquino, I. De Gennaro
    Edlin, J. P.
    Mason, E.
    Schwarz, G. J.
    Shore, S. N.
    Starrfield, S.
    Teyssier, F.
    Fermi establishes classical novae as a distinct class of gamma-ray sources2014In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 345, no 6196, p. 554-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A classical nova results from runaway thermonuclear explosions on the surface of a white dwarf that accretes matter from a low-mass main-sequence stellar companion. In 2012 and 2013, three novae were detected in gamma rays and stood in contrast to the first gamma-ray-detected nova V407 Cygni 2010, which belongs to a rare class of symbiotic binary systems. Despite likely differences in the compositions and masses of their white dwarf progenitors, the three classical novae are similarly characterized as soft-spectrum transient gamma-ray sources detected over 2- to 3-week durations. The gamma-ray detections point to unexpected high-energy particle acceleration processes linked to the mass ejection from thermonuclear explosions in an unanticipated class of Galactic gamma-ray sources.

  • 7. Ackermann, M.
    et al.
    Ajello, M.
    Allafort, A.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Baring, M. G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bottacini, E.
    Brandt, T. J.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Busetto, G.
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cecchi, C.
    Celik, O.
    Charles, E.
    Chaty, S.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Chiaro, G.
    Cillis, A. N.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Cominsky, L. R.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Corbel, S.
    Cutini, S.
    D'Ammando, F.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Dermer, C. D.
    do Couto e Silva, E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Drlica-Wagner, A.
    Falletti, L.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Ferrara, E. C.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Germani, S.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giommi, P.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Grove, J. E.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hadasch, D.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hayashi, K.
    Hays, E.
    Hewitt, J. W.
    Hill, A. B.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Jackson, M. S.
    Jogler, T.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Kamae, T.
    Kataoka, J.
    Katsuta, J.
    Knoedlseder, J.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Larsson, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Latronico, L.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Madejski, G. M.
    Massaro, F.
    Mayer, M.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Mehault, J.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mignani, R. P.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nakamori, T.
    Nemmen, R.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohno, M.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Omodei, N.
    Orienti, M.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Paneque, D.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Pivato, G.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Razzaque, S.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Ritz, S.
    Romoli, C.
    Sanchez-Conde, M.
    Schulz, A.
    Sgro, C.
    Simeon, P. E.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, D. A.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Stecker, F. W.
    Strong, A. W.
    Suson, D. J.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, H.
    Takahashi, T.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Thorsett, S. E.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Tibolla, O.
    Tinivella, M.
    Troja, E.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vianello, G.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Werner, M.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Wood, M.
    Yamazaki, R.
    Yang, Zhaoyu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Zimmer, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Detection of the Characteristic Pion-Decay Signature in Supernova Remnants2013In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 339, no 6121, p. 807-811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cosmic rays are particles (mostly protons) accelerated to relativistic speeds. Despite wide agreement that supernova remnants (SNRs) are the sources of galactic cosmic rays, unequivocal evidence for the acceleration of protons in these objects is still lacking. When accelerated protons encounter interstellar material, they produce neutral pions, which in turn decay into gamma rays. This offers a compelling way to detect the acceleration sites of protons. The identification of pion-decay gamma rays has been difficult because high-energy electrons also produce gamma rays via bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton scattering. We detected the characteristic pion-decay feature in the gamma-ray spectra of two SNRs, IC 443 and W44, with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. This detection provides direct evidence that cosmic-ray protons are accelerated in SNRs.

  • 8. Ackermann, M.
    et al.
    Ajello, M.
    Allafort, A.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Belfiore, A.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bottacini, E.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cecchi, C.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Dermer, C. D.
    do Couto e Silva, E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dumora, D.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Focke, W. B.
    Fortin, P.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Germani, S.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hadasch, D.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hayashi, K.
    Hays, E.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kerr, M.
    Knoedlseder, J.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Latronico, L.
    Lee, S. -H
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Martin, P.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Mehault, J.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Okumura, A.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Ozaki, M.
    Paneque, D.
    Parent, D.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Pierbattista, M.
    Piron, F.
    Pohl, M.
    Prokhorov, D.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Reposeur, T.
    Ritz, S.
    Parkinson, P. M. Saz
    Sgro, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spinelli, P.
    Strong, A. W.
    Takahashi, H.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Tramacere, A.
    Troja, E.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vianello, G.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Wang, P.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Yang, Zhaoyu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Zimmer, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Bontemps, S.
    A Cocoon of Freshly Accelerated Cosmic Rays Detected by Fermi in the Cygnus Superbubble2011In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 334, no 6059, p. 1103-1107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The origin of Galactic cosmic rays is a century-long puzzle. Indirect evidence points to their acceleration by supernova shockwaves, but we know little of their escape from the shock and their evolution through the turbulent medium surrounding massive stars. Gamma rays can probe their spreading through the ambient gas and radiation fields. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has observed the star-forming region of Cygnus X. The 1- to 100-gigaelectronvolt images reveal a 50-parsec-wide cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays that flood the cavities carved by the stellar winds and ionization fronts from young stellar clusters. It provides an example to study the youth of cosmic rays in a superbubble environment before they merge into the older Galactic population.

  • 9. Ackermann, M.
    et al.
    Ajello, M.
    Allafort, A.
    Schady, P.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bottacini, E.
    Bouvier, A.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Cavazzuti, E.
    Cecchi, C.
    Charles, E.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Chiaro, G.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Cutini, S.
    D'Ammando, F.
    de Palma, F.
    Dermer, C. D.
    Digel, S. W.
    do Couto e Silva, E.
    Domnguez, A.
    Drell, P. S.
    Drlica-Wagner, A.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Focke, W. B.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guiriec, S.
    Gustafsson, M.
    Hadasch, D.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Jackson, M. S.
    Jogler, T.
    Kataoka, J.
    Knoedlseder, J.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Larsson, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Latronico, L.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Mehault, J.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mizuno, T.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Tramacere, A.
    Nuss, E.
    Greiner, J.
    Ohno, M.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Omodei, N.
    Orienti, M.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Paneque, D.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Pivato, G.
    Porter, T. A.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Razzaque, S.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reyes, L. C.
    Ritz, S.
    Rau, A.
    Romoli, C.
    Roth, M.
    Sanchez-Conde, M.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Scargle, J. D.
    Sgro, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Stawarz, Lukasz
    Suson, D. J.
    Takahashi, H.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Tinivella, M.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Troja, E.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vianello, G.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Wood, M.
    The Imprint of the Extragalactic Background Light in the Gamma-Ray Spectra of Blazars2012In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 338, no 6111, p. 1190-1192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The light emitted by stars and accreting compact objects through the history of the universe is encoded in the intensity of the extragalactic background light (EBL). Knowledge of the EBL is important to understand the nature of star formation and galaxy evolution, but direct measurements of the EBL are limited by galactic and other foreground emissions. Here, we report an absorption feature seen in the combined spectra of a sample of gamma-ray blazars out to a redshift of z similar to 1.6. This feature is caused by attenuation of gamma rays by the EBL at optical to ultraviolet frequencies and allowed us to measure the EBL flux density in this frequency band.

  • 10. Ackermann, M.
    et al.
    Ajello, M.
    Asano, K.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Baring, M. G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Bissaldi, E.
    Bonamente, E.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Burgess, J. Michael
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Cecchi, C.
    Chaplin, V.
    Charles, E.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Chiaro, G.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cleveland, W.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Collazzi, A.
    Cominsky, L. R.
    Connaughton, V.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Cutini, S.
    D'Ammando, F.
    de Angelis, A.
    DeKlotz, M.
    de Palma, F.
    Dermer, C. D.
    Desiante, R.
    Diekmann, A.
    Di Venere, L.
    Drell, P. S.
    Drlica-Wagner, A.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Ferrara, E. C.
    Finke, J.
    Fitzpatrick, G.
    Focke, W. B.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Gibby, M.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giles, M.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Godfrey, G.
    Granot, J.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grove, J. E.
    Gruber, D.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hadasch, D.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Horan, D.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Inoue, Y.
    Jogler, T.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Kawano, T.
    Knoedlseder, J.
    Kocevski, D.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Larsson, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Latronico, L.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Mayer, M.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Moretti, E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nemmen, R.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohno, M.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Okumura, A.
    Omodei, N.
    Orienti, M.
    Paneque, D.
    Pelassa, V.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Petrosian, V.
    Piron, F.
    Pivato, G.
    Porter, T. A.
    Racusin, J. L.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Razzaque, S.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Ritz, S.
    Roth, M.
    Ryde, F.
    Sartori, A.
    Parkinson, P. M. Saz
    Scargle, J. D.
    Schulz, A.
    Sgro, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Sonbas, E.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, H.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Tinivella, M.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Troja, E.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vianello, G.
    Vitale, V.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Yamazaki, R.
    Younes, G.
    Yu, H. -F
    Zhu, S. J.
    Bhat, P. N.
    Briggs, M. S.
    Byrne, D.
    Foley, S.
    Goldstein, A.
    Jenke, P.
    Kippen, R. M.
    Kouveliotou, C.
    McBreen, S.
    Meegan, C.
    Paciesas, W. S.
    Preece, R.
    Rau, A.
    Tierney, D.
    van der Horst, A. J.
    von Kienlin, A.
    Wilson-Hodge, C.
    Xiong, S.
    Cusumano, G.
    La Parola, V.
    Cummings, J. R.
    Fermi-LAT Observations of the Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 130427A2014In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 343, no 6166, p. 42-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The observations of the exceptionally bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A by the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope provide constraints on the nature of these unique astrophysical sources. GRB 130427A had the largest fluence, highest-energy photon (95 GeV), longest gamma-ray duration (20 hours), and one of the largest isotropic energy releases ever observed from a GRB. Temporal and spectral analyses of GRB 130427A challenge the widely accepted model that the nonthermal high-energy emission in the afterglow phase of GRBs is synchrotron emission radiated by electrons accelerated at an external shock.

  • 11. Ackermann, M.
    et al.
    Ajello, M.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Belfiore, A.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Cavazzuti, E.
    Cecchi, C.
    Celik, Oe.
    Charles, E.
    Chaty, S.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Corbel, S.
    Corbet, R. H. D.
    Cutini, S.
    de Luca, A.
    den Hartog, P. R.
    de Palma, F.
    Dermer, C. D.
    Digel, S. W.
    do Couto e Silva, E.
    Donato, D.
    Drell, P. S.
    Drlica-Wagner, A.
    Dubois, R.
    Dubus, G.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Ferrara, E. C.
    Focke, W. B.
    Fortin, P.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hadasch, D.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Hill, A. B.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, T. J.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kerr, M.
    Knoedlseder, J.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nakamori, T.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohno, M.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Okumura, A.
    Omodei, N.
    Orlando, E.
    Ozaki, M.
    Paneque, D.
    Parent, D.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Pierbattista, M.
    Piron, F.
    Pivato, G.
    Porter, T. A.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Ritz, S.
    Romani, R. W.
    Roth, M.
    Parkinson, P. M. Saz
    Sgro, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Suson, D. J.
    Takahashi, H.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Tinivella, M.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Troja, E.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Vianello, G.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Wood, M.
    Yang, Zhaoyu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Zimmer, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Coe, M. J.
    Di Mille, F.
    Edwards, P. G.
    Filipovic, M. D.
    Payne, J. L.
    Stevens, J.
    Torres, M. A. P.
    Periodic Emission from the Gamma-Ray Binary 1FGL J1018.6-58562012In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 335, no 6065, p. 189-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gamma-ray binaries are stellar systems containing a neutron star or black hole, with gamma-ray emission produced by an interaction between the components. These systems are rare, even though binary evolution models predict dozens in our Galaxy. A search for gamma-ray binaries with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) shows that 1FGL J1018.6-5856 exhibits intensity and spectral modulation with a 16.6-day period. We identified a variable x-ray counterpart, which shows a sharp maximum coinciding with maximum gamma-ray emission, as well as an O6V((f)) star optical counterpart and a radio counterpart that is also apparently modulated on the orbital period. 1FGL J1018.6-5856 is thus a gamma-ray binary, and its detection suggests the presence of other fainter binaries in the Galaxy.

  • 12.
    Ahrens, Maryon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Bohm, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Dumm, Jonathan P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Finley, Chad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Flis, Samuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Hultqvist, Klas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    O'Sullivan, Erin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Walck, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Jóhannesson, Guðlaugur
    Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita). University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Multimessenger observations of a flaring blazar coincident with high-energy neutrino IceCube-170922A2018In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 361, no 6398, article id 1378Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Ahrens, Maryon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Bohm, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Dumm, Jonathan P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Finley, Chad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Flis, Samuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Hultqvist, Klas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    O'Sullivan, Erin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Walck, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Neutrino emission from the direction of the blazar TXS 0506+056 prior to the IceCube-170922A alert2018In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 361, no 6398, p. 147-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high-energy neutrino event detected by IceCube on 22 September 2017 was coincident in direction and time with a gamma-ray flare from the blazar TXS 0506+056. Prompted by this association, we investigated 9.5 years of IceCube neutrino observations to search for excess emission at the position of the blazar. We found an excess of high-energy neutrino events, with respect to atmospheric backgrounds, at that position between September 2014 and March 2015. Allowing for time-variable flux, this constitutes 3.5 sigma evidence for neutrino emission from the direction of TXS 0506+056, independent of and prior to the 2017 flaring episode. This suggests that blazars are identifiable sources of the high-energy astrophysical neutrino flux.

  • 14.
    Ahrens, Maryon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Deoskar, Kunal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Finley, Chad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Hultqvist, Klas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Jansson, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Walck, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Evidence for neutrino emission from the nearby active galaxy NGC 10682022In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 378, no 6619, p. 538-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A supermassive black hole, obscured by cosmic dust, powers the nearby active galaxy NGC 1068. Neutrinos, which rarely interact with matter, could provide information on the galaxy’s active core. We searched for neutrino emission from astrophysical objects using data recorded with the IceCube neutrino detector between 2011 and 2020. The positions of 110 known gamma-ray sources were individually searched for neutrino detections above atmospheric and cosmic backgrounds. We found that NGC 1068 has an excess of 79+22−2079−20+22 neutrinos at tera–electron volt energies, with a global significance of 4.2σ, which we interpret as associated with the active galaxy. The flux of high-energy neutrinos that we measured from NGC 1068 is more than an order of magnitude higher than the upper limit on emissions of tera–electron volt gamma rays from this source.

  • 15. Ajello, M.
    et al.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berretta, A.
    Bhattacharyya, B.
    Bissaldi, E.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E.
    Bonino, R.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Burns, E.
    Buson, S.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Cavazzuti, E.
    Cibrario, N.
    Ciprini, S.
    Clark, C. J.
    Cognard, I.
    Coronado-Blazquez, J.
    Crnogorcevic, M.
    Cromartie, H.
    Crowter, K.
    Cutini, S.
    D'Ammando, F.
    De Gaetano, S.
    de Palma, F.
    Digel, S. W.
    Di Lalla, N.
    Dirirsa, F. Fana
    Di Venere, L.
    Dominguez, A.
    Ferrara, E. C.
    Fiori, A.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gammaldi, V.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Green, D.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Gustafsson, M.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hays, E.
    Hewitt, J. W.
    Horan, D.
    Hou, X.
    Jóhannesson, Guðlaugur
    Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita). University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Keith, M. J.
    Kerr, M.
    Kramer, M.
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Kuss, M.
    Larsson, S.
    Latronico, L.
    Li, J.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Maldera, S.
    Manfreda, A.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    Mereu, I.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mirabal, N.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Negro, M.
    Nieder, L.
    Ojha, R.
    Omodei, N.
    Orienti, M.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Paneque, D.
    Parthasarathy, A.
    Pei, Z.
    Persic, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Pillera, R.
    Poon, H.
    Porter, T. A.
    Principe, G.
    Racusin, J. L.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Rani, B.
    Ransom, S. M.
    Ray, P. S.
    Razzano, M.
    Razzaque, S.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Roy, J.
    Sanchez-Conde, M.
    Parkinson, P. M. Saz
    Scargle, J.
    Scotton, L.
    Serini, D.
    Sgro, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, D. A.
    Spandre, G.
    Spiewak, R.
    Spinelli, P.
    Stairs, I.
    Suson, D. J.
    Swihart, S. J.
    Tabassum, S.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Theureau, G.
    Torres, D. F.
    Troja, E.
    Valverde, J.
    Wadiasingh, Z.
    Wood, K.
    Zaharijas, G.
    A gamma-ray pulsar timing array constrains the nanohertz gravitational wave background2022In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 376, no 6592, p. 521-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After large galaxies merge, their central supermassive black holes are expected to form binary systems. Their orbital motion should generate a gravitational wave background (GWB) at nanohertz frequencies. Searches for this background use pulsar timing arrays, which perform long-term monitoring of millisecond pulsars at radio wavelengths. We used 12.5 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data to form a gamma-ray pulsar timing array. Results from 35 bright gamma-ray pulsars place a 95% credible limit on the GWB characteristic strain of 1.0 x 10(-14) at a frequency of 1 year(-1). The sensitivity is expected to scale with t(obs), the observing time span, as t(obs)(-13/6). This direct measurement provides an independent probe of the GWB while offering a check on radio noise models.

  • 16.
    Amann, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Klötzer, Bernhard
    Degerman, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Köpfle, Norbert
    Götsch, Thomas
    Lömker, Patrick
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Germany .
    Rameshan, Christoph
    Ploner, Kevin
    Bikaljevic, Djuro
    Wang, Hsin-Yi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Soldemo, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Shipilin, Mikhail
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Goodwin, Christopher M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Gladh, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Halldin Stenlid, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Börner, Mia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Schlueter, Christoph
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    The state of zinc in methanol synthesis over a Zn/ZnO/Cu(211) model catalyst2022In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 376, no 6593, p. 603-608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The active chemical state of zinc (Zn) in a zinc-copper (Zn-Cu) catalyst during carbon dioxide/carbon monoxide (CO2/CO) hydrogenation has been debated to be Zn oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles, metallic Zn, or a Zn-Cu surface alloy. We used x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at 180 to 500 millibar to probe the nature of Zn and reaction intermediates during CO2/CO hydrogenation over Zn/ZnO/Cu(211), where the temperature is sufficiently high for the reaction to rapidly turn over, thus creating an almost adsorbate-free surface. Tuning of the grazing incidence angle makes it possible to achieve either surface or bulk sensitivity. Hydrogenation of CO2 gives preference to ZnO in the form of clusters or nanoparticles, whereas in pure CO a surface Zn-Cu alloy becomes more prominent. The results reveal a specific role of CO in the formation of the Zn-Cu surface alloy as an active phase that facilitates efficient CO2 methanol synthesis.  

  • 17. Anderson, Christopher J.
    et al.
    Bahník, Štěpán
    Barnett-Cowan, Michael
    Bosco, Frank A.
    Chandler, Jesse
    Chartier, Christopher R.
    Cheung, Felix
    Christopherson, Cody D.
    Cordes, Andreas
    Cremata, Edward J.
    Della Penna, Nicolas
    Estel, Vivien
    Fedor, Anna
    Fitneva, Stanka A.
    Frank, Michael C.
    Grange, James A.
    Hartshorne, Joshua K.
    Hasselman, Fred
    Henninger, Felix
    van der Hulst, Marije
    Jonas, Kai J.
    Lai, Calvin K.
    Levitan, Carmel A.
    Miller, Jeremy K.
    Moore, Katherine S.
    Meixner, Johannes M.
    Munafò, Marcus R.
    Neijenhuijs, Koen I.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nosek, Brian A.
    Plessow, Franziska
    Prenoveau, Jason M.
    Ricker, Ashley A.
    Schmidt, Kathleen
    Spies, Jeffrey R.
    Stieger, Stefan
    Strohminger, Nina
    Sullivan, Gavin B.
    van Aert, Robbie C. M.
    van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.
    Vanpaemel, Wolf
    Vianello, Michelangelo
    Voracek, Martin
    Zuni, Kellylynn
    Response to Comment on "Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science"2016In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 351, no 6277, article id 1037Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gilbert et al. conclude that evidence from the Open Science Collaboration's Reproducibility Project: Psychology indicates high reproducibility, given the study methodology. Their very optimistic assessment is limited by statistical misconceptions and by causal inferences from selectively interpreted, correlational data. Using the Reproducibility Project: Psychology data, both optimistic and pessimistic conclusions about reproducibility are possible, and neither are yet warranted.

  • 18.
    Armstrong McKay, David I.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Exeter, UK; Georesilience Analytics, UK.
    Staal, Arie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Utrecht University, Netherlands.
    Abrams, Jesse F.
    Winkelmann, Ricarda
    Sakschewski, Boris
    Loriani, Sina
    Fetzer, Ingo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Cornell, Sarah E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany.
    Lenton, Timothy M.
    Exceeding 1.5°C global warming could trigger multiple climate tipping points2022In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 377, no 6611, article id eabn7950Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate tipping points occur when change in a part of the climate system becomes self-perpetuating beyond a warming threshold, leading to substantial Earth system impacts. Synthesizing paleoclimate, observational, and model-based studies, we provide a revised shortlist of global “core” tipping elements and regional “impact” tipping elements and their temperature thresholds. Current global warming of ~1.1°C above preindustrial temperatures already lies within the lower end of some tipping point uncertainty ranges. Several tipping points may be triggered in the Paris Agreement range of 1.5 to <2°C global warming, with many more likely at the 2 to 3°C of warming expected on current policy trajectories. This strengthens the evidence base for urgent action to mitigate climate change and to develop improved tipping point risk assessment, early warning capability, and adaptation strategies. 

  • 19. Barlow, M. J.
    et al.
    Swinyard, B. M.
    Owen, P. J.
    Cernicharo, J.
    Gomez, H. L.
    Ivison, R. J.
    Krause, O.
    Lim, T. L.
    Matsuura, M.
    Miller, S.
    Olofsson, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Polehampton, E. T.
    Detection of a Noble Gas Molecular Ion, (ArH+)-Ar-36, in the Crab Nebula2013In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 342, no 6164, p. 1343-1345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Noble gas molecules have not hitherto been detected in space. From spectra obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory, we report the detection of emission in the 617.5- and 1234.6-gigahertz J = 1-0 and 2-1 rotational lines of (ArH+)-Ar-36 at several positions in the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant known to contain both molecular hydrogen and regions of enhanced ionized argon emission. Argon-36 is believed to have originated from explosive nucleosynthesis in massive stars during core-collapse supernova events. Its detection in the Crab Nebula, the product of such a supernova event, confirms this expectation. The likely excitation mechanism for the observed (ArH+)-Ar-36 emission lines is electron collisions in partially ionized regions with electron densities of a few hundred per centimeter cubed.

  • 20. Barreda, V. D.
    et al.
    Palazzesi, L.
    Telleria, M. C.
    Katinas, L.
    Crisci, J. V.
    Bremer, Kåre
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Passalia, M. G.
    Corsolini, R.
    Rodriguez Brizuela, R.
    Bechis, F.
    Eocene Patagonia Fossils of the Daisy Family2010In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 329, no 5999, p. 1621-1621Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. Bastviken, David
    et al.
    Tranvik, Lars J.
    Downing, John A.
    Crill, Patrick M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Enrich-Prast, Alex
    Freshwater Methane Emissions Offset the Continental Carbon Sink2011In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 331, no 6013, p. 50-50Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22. Bergström, Anders
    et al.
    Frantz, Laurent
    Schmidt, Ryan
    Ersmark, Erik
    Lebrasseur, Ophelie
    Girdland-Flink, Linus
    Lin, Audrey T.
    Storå, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Sjögren, Karl-Göran
    Anthony, David
    Antipina, Ekaterina
    Amiri, Sarieh
    Bar-Oz, Guy
    Bazaliiskii, Vladimir I.
    Bulatovic, Jelena
    Brown, Dorcas
    Carmagnini, Alberto
    Davy, Tom
    Fedorov, Sergey
    Fiore, Ivana
    Fulton, Deirdre
    Germonpré, Mietje
    Haile, James
    Irving-Pease, Evan K.
    Jamieson, Alexandra
    Janssens, Luc
    Kirillova, Irina
    Horwitz, Liora Kolska
    Kuzmanovic-Cvetkovic, Julka
    Kuzmin, Yaroslav
    Losey, Robert J.
    Ložnjak Dizdar, Daria
    Mashkour, Marjan
    Novak, Mario
    Onar, Vedat
    Orton, David
    Pasaric, Maja
    Radivojevic, Miljana
    Rajkovic, Dragana
    Roberts, Benjamin
    Ryan, Hannah
    Sablin, Mikhail
    Shidlovskiy, Fedor
    Stojanovic, Ivana
    Tagliacozzo, Antonio
    Trantalidou, Katerina
    Ullén, Inga
    Villaluenga, Aritza
    Wapnish, Paula
    Dobney, Keith
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Linderholm, Anna
    Dalén, Love
    Pinhasi, Ron
    Larson, Greger
    Skoglund, Pontus
    Origins and genetic legacy of prehistoric dogs2020In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 370, no 6516, p. 557-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dogs were the first domestic animal, but little is known about their population history and to what extent it was linked to humans. We sequenced 27 ancient dog genomes and found that all dogs share a common ancestry distinct from present-day wolves, with limited gene flow from wolves since domestication but substantial dog-to-wolf gene flow. By 11,000 years ago, at least five major ancestry lineages had diversified, demonstrating a deep genetic history of dogs during the Paleolithic. Coanalysis with human genomes reveals aspects of dog population history that mirror humans, including Levant-related ancestry in Africa and early agricultural Europe. Other aspects differ, including the impacts of steppe pastoralist expansions in West and East Eurasia and a near-complete turnover of Neolithic European dog ancestry.

  • 23.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Collaborative environmental governance: Achieving collective action in social-ecological systems2017In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 357, no 6352, p. 1-10Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing ecosystems is challenging because of the high number of stakeholders, the permeability of man-made political and jurisdictional demarcations in relation to the temporal and spatial extent of biophysical processes, and a limited understanding of complex ecosystem and societal dynamics. Given these conditions, collaborative governance is commonly put forward as the preferred means of addressing environmental problems. Under this paradigm, a deeper understanding of if, when, and how collaboration is effective, and when other means of addressing environmental problems are better suited, is needed. Interdisciplinary research on collaborative networks demonstrates that which actors get involved, with whom they collaborate, and in what ways they are tied to the structures of the ecosystems have profound implications on actors' abilities to address different types of environmental problems.

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  • 24.
    Bohm, Christian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Danninger, Matthias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Finley, Chad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Flis, Samuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Hulth, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Hultqvist, Klas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Walck, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Wolf, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Zoll, Marcel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Evidence for High-Energy Extraterrestrial Neutrinos at the IceCube Detector2013In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 342, no 6161, p. 947-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on results of an all-sky search for high-energy neutrino events interacting within the IceCube neutrino detector conducted between May 2010 and May 2012. The search follows up on the previous detection of two PeV neutrino events, with improved sensitivity and extended energy coverage down to about 30 TeV. Twenty-six additional events were observed, substantially more than expected from atmospheric backgrounds. Combined, both searches reject a purely atmospheric origin for the 28 events at the 4 sigma level. These 28 events, which include the highest energy neutrinos ever observed, have flavors, directions, and energies inconsistent with those expected from the atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. These properties are, however, consistent with generic predictions for an additional component of extraterrestrial origin.

  • 25.
    Britton, Tom
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Ball, Frank
    Trapman, Pieter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    A mathematical model reveals the influence of population heterogeneity on herd immunity to SARS-CoV-22020In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 369, no 6505, p. 846-849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite various levels of preventive measures, in 2020, many countries have suffered severely from the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. Using a model, we show that population heterogeneity can affect disease-induced immunity considerably because the proportion of infected individuals in groups with the highest contact rates is greater than that in groups with low contact rates. We estimate that if R-0 = 2.5 in an age-structured community with mixing rates fitted to social activity, then the disease-induced herd immunity level can be similar to 43%, which is substantially less than the classical herd immunity level of 60% obtained through homogeneous immunization of the population. Our estimates should be interpreted as an illustration of how population heterogeneity affects herd immunity rather than as an exact value or even a best estimate.

  • 26.
    Bäckman, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Soveri, Anna
    Johansson, Jarkko
    Andersson, Micael
    Dahlin, Erika
    Neely, Anna S.
    Virta, Jere
    Laine, Matti
    Rinne, Juha O.
    Effects of working-memory training on striatal dopamine release2011In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 333, no 6043, p. 718-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Updating of working memory has been associated with striato-frontal brain regions and phasic dopaminergic neurotransmission. We assessed raclopride binding to striatal dopamine (DA) D2 receptors during a letter-updating task and a control condition before and after 5 weeks of updating training. Results showed that updating affected DA activity before training and that training further increased striatal DA release during updating. These findings highlight the pivotal role of transient neural processes associated with D2 receptor activity in working memory.

  • 27. Caporale, Nicolò
    et al.
    Leemans, Michelle
    Birgersson, Lina
    Germain, Pierre-Luc
    Cheroni, Cristina
    Borbély, Gábor
    Engdahl, Elin
    Lindh, Christian
    Bardini Bressan, Raul
    Cavallo, Francesca
    Chorev, Nadav Even
    D'Agostino, Giuseppe Alessandro
    Pollard, Steven M.
    Rigoli, Marco Tullio
    Tenderini, Erika
    Lopez Tobon, Alejandro
    Trattaro, Sebastiano
    Troglio, Flavia
    Zanella, Matteo
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Sweden; Örebro University, Sweden.
    Damdimopoulou, Pauliina
    Jönsson, Maria
    Kiess, Wieland
    Kitraki, Efthymia
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Nånberg, Eewa
    Öberg, Mattias
    Rantakokko, Panu
    Rudén, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Söder, Olle
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Demeneix, Barbara
    Fini, Jean-Baptiste
    Gennings, Chris
    Rüegg, Joëlle
    Sturve, Joachim
    Testa, Giuseppe
    From cohorts to molecules: Adverse impacts of endocrine disrupting mixtures2022In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 375, no 6582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are compounds that interfere with physiological hormonal regulation. Humans are pervasively exposed to many different EDCs, and a growing body of evidence indicates that early life exposure to such EDC mixtures can induce changes in the human organism that underlie increased susceptibility to diseases throughout the life span, including neurodevelopmental disorders. Chemical regulation is, however, entirely based on the risk assessment of individual compounds, leaving the real-life impact of chemical mixtures unexamined and unregulated. This is relevant insofar as cumulative exposure to multiple compounds may be associated with adverse health outcomes even when the concentrations of individual chemicals fall below the regulatory dose.

    RATIONALE: We set out to make the epidemiological associations between exposure to mixtures and health outcomes experimentally tractable, defining molecular pathways and dose responses that could be translated back to actual human exposures and thereby refine current risk assessment practices. As opposed to previous studies that focused on single compounds, we identified and tested an EDC mixture associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in the Swedish Environmental Longitudinal, Mother and child, Asthma and allergy (SELMA) pregnancy cohort (MIX N) by integrating epidemiological data with experimental toxicology and characterized real life–relevant exposure.

    RESULTS: We used weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression to identify chemicals associated with language delay in children and included those chemicals in MIX N. MIX N was synthesized following the relative proportions and total concentrations found in the SELMA cohort. It was then tested in both in vitro and in vivo models. In human fetal primary neural stem cells and three-dimensional cortical brain organoids differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells, transcriptomic analysis showed that MIX N interferes with hormonal pathways and dysregulates expression of genes and biological pathways that are causally linked to autism spectrum disorders. Data from experiments in Xenopus leavis and Danio rerio, in vivo models validated by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), confirmed thyroid function as one of the key and unifying points of vulnerability to MIX N and linked thyroid disruption to neurodevelopmental effects measured as alterations in locomotor activity. The resulting dose-response relationships were then used to estimate a point of departure (POD), which is the toxicological measure to estimate no-effect concentration. This enabled us to apply a similar mixture approach (SMACH) where we (i) identified individuals in the SELMA study who were sufficiently similarly exposed compared with the experimental mixtures and (ii) determined the proportion of the SELMA children with exposure ranges of concern using the POD as reference.

    CONCLUSION: Integrating experimental and epidemiological evidence, we established mechanistic and correlative evidence for neurodevelopmental adversities of an EDC mixture associated with language delay. Using the generated experimental data in a risk assessment concept, we found increased odds of language delay in offspring of up to 54% of pregnant women. These results emphasize the need to take mixtures into account during chemical testing and risk assessment and provide an integrative framework to guide risk assessment strategies.

     

  • 28.
    Carney Almroth, Bethanie
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Abeynayaka, Amila
    Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Hayama, Japan.
    Diamond, Miriam L.
    University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Farrelly, Trisia
    Massey University, Aotearoa New, Zealand.
    Fernandez, Marina
    Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Gündoğdu, Sedat
    Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey.
    Issifu, Ibrahim
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Rognerud, Idun
    Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo, Norway.
    Schäffer, Andreas
    Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Scheringer, Martin
    Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Villarrubia-Gómez, Patricia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Varea, Rufino
    The University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji.
    Vlahos, Penny
    University of Connecticut, Avery Point, CT, USA.
    Wagner, Martin
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Obstacles to scientific input in global policy2023In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 380, no 6649, p. 1021-1022Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Centenaro, Giada
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Tack, Ayco J. M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Global urban environmental change drives adaptation in white clover2022In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 375, no 6586, p. 1275-1281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization transforms environments in ways that alter biological evolution. We examined whether urban environmental change drives parallel evolution by sampling 110,019 white clover plants from 6169 populations in 160 cities globally. Plants were assayed for a Mendelian antiherbivore defense that also affects tolerance to abiotic stressors. Urban-rural gradients were associated with the evolution of clines in defense in 47% of cities throughout the world. Variation in the strength of clines was explained by environmental changes in drought stress and vegetation cover that varied among cities. Sequencing 2074 genomes from 26 cities revealed that the evolution of urban-rural clines was best explained by adaptive evolution, but the degree of parallel adaptation varied among cities. Our results demonstrate that urbanization leads to adaptation at a global scale.

  • 30. Clark, Peter, U.
    et al.
    Dyke, A. S.
    Shakun, J. D.
    Carlson, A. E.
    Clark, A. E.
    Wohlfarth, Barbara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology and Geochemistry.
    Mitrovica, J. X.
    Hostetler, S. W.
    McCabe, A. M.
    The Last Glacial Maximum2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 325, no 5941, p. 710-714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ~14.5 ka.

  • 31. Currie, Thayne
    et al.
    Brandt, G. Mirek
    Brandt, Timothy D.
    Lacy, Brianna
    Burrows, Adam
    Guyon, Olivier
    Tamura, Motohide
    Liu, Ranger Y.
    Sagynbayeva, Sabina
    Tobin, Taylor
    Chilcote, Jeffrey
    Groff, Tyler
    Marois, Christian
    Thompson, William
    Murphy, Simon J.
    Kuzuhara, Masayuki
    Lawson, Kellen
    Lozi, Julien
    Deo, Vincent
    Vievard, Sebastien
    Skaf, Nour
    Uyama, Taichi
    Jovanovic, Nemanja
    Martinache, Frantz
    Kasdin, N. Jeremy
    Kudo, Tomoyuki
    McElwain, Michael
    Janson, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Wisniewski, John
    Hodapp, Klaus
    Nishikawa, Jun
    Hełminiak, Krzysztof
    Kwon, Jungmi
    Hayashi, Masahiko
    Direct imaging and astrometric detection of a gas giant planet orbiting an accelerating star2023In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 380, no 6641, p. 198-203, article id eabo6192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct imaging of gas giant exoplanets provides information on their atmospheres and the architectures of planetary systems. However, few planets have been detected in blind surveys with direct imaging. Using astrometry from the Gaia and Hipparcos spacecraft, we identified dynamical evidence for a gas giant planet around the nearby star HIP 99770. We confirmed the detection of this planet with direct imaging using the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics instrument. The planet, HIP 99770 b, orbits 17 astronomical units from its host star, receiving an amount of light similar to that reaching Jupiter. Its dynamical mass is 13.9 to 16.1 Jupiter masses. The planet-to-star mass ratio [(7 to 8) × 10−3] is similar to that of other directly imaged planets. The planet’s atmospheric spectrum indicates an older, less cloudy analog of the previously imaged exoplanets around HR 8799.

  • 32.
    Dalén, Love
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Centre for Palaeogenetics, Sweden; Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Heintzman, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Centre for Palaeogenetics, Sweden.
    Kapp, Joshua D
    Shapiro, Beth
    Deep-time paleogenomics and the limits of DNA survival2023In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 382, no 6666, p. 48-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although most ancient DNA studies have focused on the last 50,000 years, paleogenomic approaches can now reach into the early Pleistocene, an epoch of repeated environmental changes that shaped present-day biodiversity. Emerging deep-time genomic transects, including from DNA preserved in sediments, will enable inference of adaptive evolution, discovery of unrecognized species, and exploration of how glaciations, volcanism, and paleomagnetic reversals shaped demography and community composition. In this Review, we explore the state-of-the-art in paleogenomics and discuss key challenges, including technical limitations, evolutionary divergence and associated biases, and the need for more precise dating of remains and sediments. We conclude that with improvements in laboratory and computational methods, the emerging field of deep-time paleogenomics will expand the range of questions addressable using ancient DNA.

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  • 33. Datta, Shuvo Jit
    et al.
    Khumnoon, Chutharat
    Lee, Zhen Hao
    Moon, Won Kyung
    Docao, Son
    Nguyen, Thanh Huu
    Hwang, In Chul
    Moon, Dohyun
    Oleynikov, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Terasaki, Osamu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Graduate School of EEWS, KAIST, Korea; ShanghaiTech University, China.
    Yoon, Kyung Byung
    CO2 capture from humid flue gases and humid atmosphere using a microporous coppersilicate2015In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 350, no 6258, p. 302-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Capturing CO2 from humid flue gases and atmosphere with porous materials remains costly because prior dehydration of the gases is required. A large number of microporous materials with physical adsorption capacity have been developed as CO2-capturing materials. However, most of them suffer from CO2 sorption capacity reduction or structure decomposition that is caused by co-adsorbed H2O when exposed to humid flue gases and atmosphere. We report a highly stable microporous coppersilicate. It has H2O-specific and CO2-specific adsorption sites but does not have H2O/CO2-sharing sites. Therefore, it readily adsorbs both H2O and CO2 from the humid flue gases and atmosphere, but the adsorbing H2O does not interfere with the adsorption of CO2. It is also highly stable after adsorption of H2O and CO2 because it was synthesized hydrothermally.

  • 34. De, K.
    et al.
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    Ofek, E. O.
    Moriya, T. J.
    Burke, J.
    Cao, Y.
    Cenko, S. B.
    Doran, G. B.
    Duggan, G. E.
    Fender, R. P.
    Fransson, Claes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Gal-Yam, A.
    Horesh, A.
    Kulkarni, S. R.
    Laher, R. R.
    Lunnan, Ragnhild
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Manulis, I.
    Masci, F.
    Mazzali, P. A.
    Nugent, P. E.
    Perley, D. A.
    Petrushevska, Tanja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). University of Nova Gorica, Slovenia.
    Piro, A. L.
    Rumsey, C.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Sullivan, M.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    A hot and fast ultra-stripped supernova that likely formed a compact neutron star binary2018In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 362, no 6411, p. 201-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compact neutron star binary systems are produced from binary massive stars through stellar evolution involving up to two supernova explosions. The final stages in the formation of these systems have not been directly observed. We report the discovery of iPTF 14gqr (SN 2014ft), a type Ic supernova with a fast-evolving light curve indicating an extremely low ejecta mass (approximate to 0.2 solar masses) and low kinetic energy (approximate to 2 x 10(50) ergs). Early photometry and spectroscopy reveal evidence of shock cooling of an extended helium-rich envelope, likely ejected in an intense pre-explosion mass-loss episode of the progenitor. Taken together, we interpret iPTF 14gqr as evidence for ultra-stripped supernovae that form neutron stars in compact binary systems.

  • 35. Dell'Angela, M.
    et al.
    Anniyev, T.
    Beye, M.
    Coffee, R.
    Foehlisch, A.
    Gladh, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Katayama, T.
    Kaya, S.
    Krupin, O.
    LaRue, J.
    Mogelhoj, A.
    Nordlund, D.
    Norskov, J. K.
    Öberg, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Ogasawara, H.
    Öström, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Pettersson, Lars G. M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Schlotter, W. F.
    Sellberg, Jonas A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, USA.
    Sorgenfrei, F.
    Turner, J. J.
    Wolf, M.
    Wurth, W.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, USA.
    Real-Time Observation of Surface Bond Breaking with an X-ray Laser2013In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 339, no 6125, p. 1302-1305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used the Linac Coherent Light Source free-electron x-ray laser to probe the electronic structure of CO molecules as their chemisorption state on Ru(0001) changes upon exciting the substrate by using a femtosecond optical laser pulse. We observed electronic structure changes that are consistent with a weakening of the CO interaction with the substrate but without notable desorption. A large fraction of the molecules (30%) was trapped in a transient precursor state that would precede desorption. We calculated the free energy of the molecule as a function of the desorption reaction coordinate using density functional theory, including van der Waals interactions. Two distinct adsorption wells-chemisorbed and precursor state separated by an entropy barrier-explain the anomalously high prefactors often observed in desorption of molecules from metals.

  • 36. Deng, Hexiang
    et al.
    Grunder, Sergio
    Cordova, Kyle E.
    Valente, Cory
    Furukawa, Hiroyasu
    Hmadeh, Mohamad
    Gandara, Felipe
    Whalley, Adam C.
    Liu, Zheng
    Asahina, Shunsuke
    Kazumori, Hiroyoshi
    O'Keeffe, Michael
    Terasaki, Osamu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). NanoCentury KAIST Institute and Graduate School of Energy, Environment, Water, and Sustainability, Republic of Korea.
    Stoddart, J. Fraser
    Yaghi, Omar M.
    Large pore apertures in a series of metal organic frameworks2012In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 336, no 6084, p. 1018-1023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a strategy to expand the pore aperture of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) into a previously unattained size regime (>32 angstroms). Specifically, the systematic expansion of a well-known MOF structure, MOF-74, from its original link of one phenylene ring (I) to two, three, four, five, six, seven, nine, and eleven (II to XI, respectively), afforded an isoreticular series of MOF-74 structures (termed IRMOF-74-I to XI) with pore apertures ranging from 14 to 98 angstroms. All members of this series have non-interpenetrating structures and exhibit robust architectures, as evidenced by their permanent porosity and high thermal stability (up to 300 degrees C). The pore apertures of an oligoethylene glycol-functionalized IRMOF-74-VII and IRMOF-74-IX are large enough for natural proteins to enter the pores.

  • 37. Desai, Nirupa
    et al.
    Brown, Alan
    Amunts, Alexey
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab). MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, UK.
    Ramakrishnan, V.
    The structure of the yeast mitochondrial ribosome2017In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 355, no 6324, p. 528-531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitochondria have specialized ribosomes (mitoribosomes) dedicated to the expression of the genetic information encoded by their genomes. Here, using electron cryomicroscopy, we have determined the structure of the 75-component yeast mitoribosome to an overall resolution of 3.3 angstroms. The mitoribosomal small subunit has been built de novo and includes 15S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and 34 proteins, including 14 without homologs in the evolutionarily related bacterial ribosome. Yeast-specific rRNA and protein elements, including the acquisition of a putatively active enzyme, give the mitoribosome a distinct architecture compared to the mammalian mitoribosome. At an expanded messenger RNA channel exit, there is a binding platform for translational activators that regulate translation in yeast but not mammalian mitochondria. The structure provides insights into the evolution and species-specific specialization of mitochondrial translation.

  • 38. Diaz, Sandra
    et al.
    Settele, Josef
    Brondizio, Eduardo S.
    Ngo, Hien T.
    Agard, John
    Arneth, Almut
    Balvanera, Patricia
    Brauman, Kate A.
    Butchart, Stuart H. M.
    Chan, Kai M. A.
    Garibaldi, Lucas A.
    Ichii, Kazuhito
    Liu, Jianguo
    Subramanian, Suneetha M.
    Midgley, Guy F.
    Miloslavich, Patricia
    Molnar, Zsolt
    Obura, David
    Pfaff, Alexander
    Polasky, Stephen
    Purvis, Andy
    Razzaque, Jona
    Reyers, Belinda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Chowdhury, Rinku Roy
    Shin, Yunne-Jai
    Visseren-Hamakers, Ingrid
    Willis, Katherine J.
    Zayas, Cynthia N.
    Pervasive human-driven decline of life on Earth points to the need for transformative change2019In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 366, no 6471, article id eaax3100Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human impact on life on Earth has increased sharply since the 1970s, driven by the demands of a growing population with rising average per capita income. Nature is currently supplying more materials than ever before, but this has come at the high cost of unprecedented global declines in the extent and integrity of ecosystems, distinctness of local ecological communities, abundance and number of wild species, and the number of local domesticated varieties. Such changes reduce vital benefits that people receive from nature and threaten the quality of life of future generations. Both the benefits of an expanding economy and the costs of reducing nature's benefits are unequally distributed. The fabric of life on which we all depend-nature and its contributions to people-is unravelling rapidly. Despite the severity of the threats and lack of enough progress in tackling them to date, opportunities exist to change future trajectories through transformative action. Such action must begin immediately, however, and address the root economic, social, and technological causes of nature's deterioration.

  • 39. Diehl, Roland
    et al.
    Siegert, Thomas
    Hillebrandt, Wolfgang
    Grebenev, Sergei A.
    Greiner, Jochen
    Krause, Martin
    Kromer, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Maeda, Keiichi
    Roepke, Friedrich
    Taubenberger, Stefan
    Early Ni-56 decay gamma rays from SN2014J suggest an unusual explosion2014In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 345, no 6201, p. 1162-1165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Type Ia supernovae result from binary systems that include a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, and these thermonuclear explosions typically produce 0.5 solar mass of radioactive Ni-56. The Ni-56 is commonly believed to be buried deeply in the expanding supernova cloud. In SN2014J, we detected the lines at 158 and 812 kiloelectron volts from Ni-56 decay (time similar to 8.8 days) earlier than the expected several-week time scale, only similar to 20 days after the explosion and with flux levels corresponding to roughly 10% of the total expected amount of Ni-56. Some mechanism must break the spherical symmetry of the supernova and at the same time create a major amount of Ni-56 at the outskirts. A plausible explanation is that a belt of helium from the companion star is accreted by the white dwarf, where this material explodes and then triggers the supernova event.

  • 40.
    Emami, S. Noushin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Bo G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Hua, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Hill, Sharon R.
    Mozuraitis, Raimondas
    Lehmann, Philipp
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Birgersson, Göran
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    Ignell, Rickard
    Faye, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    A key malaria metabolite modulates vector blood seeking, feeding, and susceptibility to infection2017In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 355, no 6329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Malaria infection renders humans more attractive to Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes than uninfected people. The mechanisms remain unknown. We found that an isoprenoid precursor produced by Plasmodium falciparum, (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP), affects A. gambiae s. l. blood meal seeking and feeding behaviors as well as susceptibility to infection. HMBPP acts indirectly by triggering human red blood cells to increase the release of CO2, aldehydes, and monoterpenes, which together enhance vector attraction and stimulate vector feeding. When offered in a blood meal, HMBPP modulates neural, antimalarial, and oogenic gene transcription without affecting mosquito survival or fecundity; in a P. falciparum-infected blood meal, sporogony is increased.

  • 41. Evans, P. A.
    et al.
    Cenko, S. B.
    Kennea, J. A.
    Emery, S. W. K.
    Kuin, N. P. M.
    Korobkin, O.
    Wollaeger, R. T.
    Fryer, C. L.
    Madsen, K. K.
    Harrison, F. A.
    Xu, Y.
    Nakar, E.
    Hotokezaka, K.
    Lien, A.
    Campana, S.
    Oates, S. R.
    Troja, E.
    Breeveld, A. A.
    Marshall, F. E.
    Barthelmy, S. D.
    Beardmore, A. P.
    Burrows, D. N.
    Cusumano, G.
    D'Ai, A.
    D'Avanzo, P.
    D'Elia, V.
    De Pasquale, M.
    Even, W. P.
    Fontes, C. J.
    Forster, K.
    Garcia, J.
    Giommi, P.
    Grefenstette, B.
    Gronwall, C.
    Hartmann, D. H.
    Heida, M.
    Hungerford, A. L.
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    Krimm, H. A.
    Levan, A. J.
    Malesani, D.
    Melandri, A.
    Miyasaka, H.
    Nousek, J. A.
    O'Brien, P. T.
    Osborne, J. P.
    Pagani, C.
    Page, K. L.
    Palmer, D. M.
    Perri, M.
    Pike, S.
    Racusin, J. L.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Siegel, M. H.
    Sakamoto, T.
    Sbarufatti, B.
    Tagliaferri, G.
    Tanvir, N. R.
    Tohuvavohu, A.
    Swift and NuSTAR observations of GW170817: Detection of a blue kilonova2017In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 358, no 6370, p. 1565-1569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the first direct detection of merging black holes in 2015, the era of gravitational wave (GW) astrophysics began. A complete picture of compact object mergers, however, requires the detection of an electromagnetic (EM) counterpart. We report ultraviolet (UV) and x-ray observations by Swift and the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array of the EM counter part of the binary neutron star merger GW170817. The bright, rapidly fading UV emission indicates a high mass (approximate to 0.03 solar masses) wind-driven outflow with moderate electron fraction (Y-e approximate to 0.27). Combined with the x-ray limits, we favor an observer viewing angle of approximate to 30 degrees away from the orbital rotation axis, which avoids both obscuration from the heaviest elements in the orbital plane and a direct view of any ultrarelativistic, highly collimated ejecta (a gamma-ray burst afterglow).

  • 42.
    Fawcett, Christine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Kids attend to saliva sharing to infer social relationships2022In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 375, no 6578, p. 260-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the great tasks of child development is to make sense of other people’s behavior by appealing to their internal thoughts, beliefs, and desires [“intuitive psychology” (1)], as well as the groups and relationships that they are a part of [“intuitive sociology” (2)]. There has long been debate over the extent to which these intuitions can be learned from social experience or whether they require some evolved capacity to interpret and categorize behavior. On page 311 of this issue, Thomas et al. (3) examine children’s intuitions about so-called “thick” relationships—intimate bonds that people have with kin or romantic partners that are characterized by certain behaviors and obligations (4). The authors suggest that saliva sharing between individuals is a cue that young children use to infer thick relationships, and that these inferences are based on evolutionary processes that have shaped how young children interpret the social world.

  • 43. Fermi LAT Collaboration,
    et al.
    Abdo, A. A.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Axelsson, M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Baughman, B. M.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Brez, A.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Burnett, T. H.
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cecchi, C.
    Çelik, Ö.
    Chaty, S.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Cominsky, L. R.
    Conrad, J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Corbel, S.
    Corbet, R.
    Dermer, C. D.
    de Palma, F.
    Digel, S. W.
    do Couto e Silva, E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dubois, R.
    Dubus, G.
    Dumora, D.
    Farnier, C.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Focke, W. B.
    Fortin, P.
    Frailis, M.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giavitto, G.
    Giebels, B.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M.-H.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Hill, A. B.
    Hjalmarsdotter, L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Horan, D.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Jackson, M. S.
    Jóhannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, T. J.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kawai, N.
    Kerr, M.
    Knödlseder, J.
    Kocian, M. L.
    Koerding, E.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Latronico, J.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Madejski, G. M.
    Makeev, A.
    Marchand, L.
    Marelli, M.
    Max-Moerbeck, W.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McColl, N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Meurer, C.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Migliari, S.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Omodei, N.
    Ong, R. A.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Paneque, D.
    Parent, D.
    Pelassa, V.
    Pepe, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Pooley, G.
    Porter, T. A.
    Pottschmidt, K.
    Rainò, S.
    Rando, R.
    Ray, P. S.
    Razzano, M.
    Rea, N.
    Readhead, A.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Richards, J. L.
    Rochester, L. S.
    Rodriguez, J.
    Rodriguez, A. Y.
    Romani, R. W.
    Ryde, F.
    Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.
    Sander, A.
    Saz Parkinson, P. M.
    Sgrò, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, D. A.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spinelli, P.
    Starck, J.-L.
    Stevenson, M.
    Strickman, M. S.
    Suson, D. J.
    Takahashi, H.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Tomsick, J. A.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Tramacere, A.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vilchez, N.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Wang, P.
    Wilms, J.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. W.
    Ylinen, T.
    Ziegler, M.
    Modulated High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from the Microquasar Cygnus X-32009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 326, no 5959, p. 1512-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microquasars are accreting black holes or neutron stars in binary systems with associated relativistic jets. Despite their frequent outburst activity, they have never been unambiguously detected emitting high-energy gamma rays. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has detected a variable high-energy source coinciding with the position of the x-ray binary and microquasar Cygnus X-3. Its identification with Cygnus X-3 is secured by the detection of its orbital period in gamma rays, as well as the correlation of the LAT flux with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The gamma-ray emission probably originates from within the binary system, opening new areas in which to study the formation of relativistic jets.

  • 44. France, Kevin
    et al.
    McCray, Richard
    Heng, Kevin
    Kirshner, Robert P.
    Challis, Peter
    Bouchet, Patrice
    Crotts, Arlin
    Dwek, Eli
    Fransson, Claes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Garnavich, Peter M.
    Larsson, Josefin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Lawrence, Stephen S.
    Lundqvist, Peter
    Panagia, Nino
    Pun, Chun S. J.
    Smith, Nathan
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Sonneborn, George
    Stocke, John T.
    Wang, Lifan
    Wheeler, J. Craig
    Observing Supernova 1987A with the Refurbished Hubble Space Telescope2010In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 329, no 5999, p. 1624-1627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), conducted since 1990, now offer an unprecedented glimpse into fast astrophysical shocks in the young remnant of supernova 1987A. Comparing observations taken in 2010 with the use of the refurbished instruments on HST with data taken in 2004, just before the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph failed, we find that the Ly alpha and H alpha lines from shock emission continue to brighten, whereas their maximum velocities continue to decrease. We observe broad, blueshifted Ly alpha, which we attribute to resonant scattering of photons emitted from hot spots on the equatorial ring. We also detect N v lambda lambda 1239, 1243 angstrom line emission, but only to the red of Ly alpha. The profiles of the N v lines differ markedly from that of H alpha, suggesting that the N4+ ions are scattered and accelerated by turbulent electromagnetic fields that isotropize the ions in the collisionless shock.

  • 45. Frantz, Laurent A. F.
    et al.
    Mullin, Victoria E.
    Pionnier-Capitan, Maud
    Lebrasseur, Ophélie
    Ollivier, Morgane
    Perri, Angela
    Linderholm, Anna
    Mattiangeli, Valeria
    Teasdale, Matthew D.
    Dimopoulos, Evangelos A.
    Tresset, Anne
    Duffraisse, Marilyne
    McCormick, Finbar
    Bartosiewicz, László
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Gál, Erika
    Nyerges, Éva A.
    Sablin, Mikhail V.
    Bréhard, Stéphanie
    Mashkour, Marjan
    Balaşescu, Adrian
    Gillet, Benjamin
    Hughes, Sandrine
    Chassaing, Olivier
    Hitte, Christophe
    Vigne, Jean-Denis
    Dobney, Keith
    Hänni, Catherine
    Bradley, Daniel G.
    Larson, Greger
    Genomic and archaeological evidence suggests a dual origin of domestic dogs2016In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 352, no 6290, p. 1228-1231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The geographic and temporal origins of dogs remain controversial. We generated genetic sequences from 59 ancient dogs and a complete (28x) genome of a late Neolithic dog (dated to similar to 4800 calendar years before the present) from Ireland. Our analyses revealed a deep split separating modern East Asian and Western Eurasian dogs. Surprisingly, the date of this divergence (similar to 14,000 to 6400 years ago) occurs commensurate with, or several millennia after, the first appearance of dogs in Europe and East Asia. Additional analyses of ancient and modern mitochondrial DNA revealed a sharp discontinuity in haplotype frequencies in Europe. Combined, these results suggest that dogs may have been domesticated independently in Eastern and Western Eurasia from distinct wolf populations. East Eurasian dogs were then possibly transported to Europe with people, where they partially replaced European Paleolithic dogs.

  • 46. Freire, P. C. C.
    et al.
    Abdo, A. A.
    Ajello, M.
    Allafort, A.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Camilo, F.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Cecchi, C.
    Celik, O.
    Charles, E.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cognard, I.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Cominsky, L. R.
    de Palma, F.
    Dermer, C. D.
    do Couto e Silva, E.
    Dormody, M.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dubois, R.
    Dumora, D.
    Espinoza, C. M.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Ferrara, E. C.
    Focke, W. B.
    Fortin, P.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Grove, J. E.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hadasch, D.
    Harding, A. K.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, T. J.
    Johnston, S.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Keith, M.
    Kerr, M.
    Knoedlseder, J.
    Kramer, M.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Latronico, L.
    Lee, S. -H
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Lyne, A. G.
    Manchester, R. N.
    Marelli, M.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nakamori, T.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Okumura, A.
    Omodei, N.
    Orlando, E.
    Ozaki, M.
    Paneque, D.
    Parent, D.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Pierbattista, M.
    Piron, F.
    Porter, T. A.
    Raino, S.
    Ransom, S. M.
    Ray, P. S.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Ritz, S.
    Romani, R. W.
    Roth, M.
    Sadrozinski, H. F. -W
    Parkinson, P. M. Saz
    Sgro, C.
    Shannon, R.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, D. A.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spinelli, P.
    Stappers, B. W.
    Suson, D. J.
    Takahashi, H.
    Tanaka, T.
    Tauris, T. M.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Theureau, G.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Thorsett, S. E.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Troja, E.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Van Etten, A.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Venter, C.
    Vianello, G.
    Vilchez, N.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Wang, P.
    Wood, K. S.
    Yang, Zhaoyu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Ziegler, M.
    Zimmer, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Fermi Detection of a Luminous gamma-Ray Pulsar in a Globular Cluster2011In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 334, no 6059, p. 1107-1110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the Fermi Large Area Telescope's detection of gamma-ray (>100 mega-electron volts) pulsations from pulsar J1823-3021A in the globular cluster NGC 6624 with high significance (similar to 7 sigma). Its gamma-ray luminosity, L(gamma) = (8.4 +/- 1.6) x 10(34) ergs per second, is the highest observed for any millisecond pulsar (MSP) to date, and it accounts for most of the cluster emission. The nondetection of the cluster in the off-pulse phase implies that it contains <32 gamma-ray MSPs, not similar to 100 as previously estimated. The gamma-ray luminosity indicates that the unusually large rate of change of its period is caused by its intrinsic spin-down. This implies that J1823-3021A has the largest magnetic field and is the youngest MSP ever detected and that such anomalous objects might be forming at rates comparable to those of the more normal MSPs.

  • 47. Frishkoff, Luke O.
    et al.
    Karp, Daniel S.
    M'Gonigle, Leithen K.
    Mendenhall, Chase D.
    Zook, Jim
    Kremen, Claire
    Hadly, Elizabeth A.
    Daily, Gretchen C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stanford University, USA; Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Sweden.
    Loss of avian phylogenetic diversity in neotropical agricultural systems2014In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 345, no 6202, p. 1343-1346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Habitat conversion is the primary driver of biodiversity loss, yet little is known about how it is restructuring the tree of life by favoring some lineages over others. We combined a complete avian phylogeny with 12 years of Costa Rican bird surveys (118,127 detections across 487 species) sampled in three land uses: forest reserves, diversified agricultural systems, and intensive monocultures. Diversified agricultural systems supported 600 million more years of evolutionary history than intensive monocultures but 300 million fewer years than forests. Compared with species with many extant relatives, evolutionarily distinct species were extirpated at higher rates in both diversified and intensive agricultural systems. Forests are therefore essential for maintaining diversity across the tree of life, but diversified agricultural systems may help buffer against extreme loss of phylogenetic diversity.

  • 48. Garibaldi, Lucas A.
    et al.
    Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf
    Winfree, Rachael
    Aizen, Marcelo A.
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Cunningham, Saul A.
    Kremen, Claire
    Carvalheiro, Luisa G.
    Harder, Lawrence D.
    Afik, Ohad
    Bartomeus, Ignasi
    Benjamin, Faye
    Boreux, Virginie
    Cariveau, Daniel
    Chacoff, Natacha P.
    Dudenhoeffer, Jan H.
    Freitas, Breno M.
    Ghazoul, Jaboury
    Greenleaf, Sarah
    Hipolito, Juliana
    Holzschuh, Andrea
    Howlett, Brad
    Isaacs, Rufus
    Javorek, Steven K.
    Kennedy, Christina M.
    Krewenka, Kristin M.
    Krishnan, Smitha
    Mandelik, Yael
    Mayfield, Margaret M.
    Motzke, Iris
    Munyuli, Theodore
    Nault, Brian A.
    Otieno, Mark
    Petersen, Jessica
    Pisanty, Gideon
    Potts, Simon G.
    Rader, Romina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Ricketts, Taylor H.
    Rundlof, Maj
    Seymour, Colleen L.
    Schueepp, Christof
    Szentgyoergyi, Hajnalka
    Taki, Hisatomo
    Tscharntke, Teja
    Vergara, Carlos H.
    Viana, Blandina F.
    Wanger, Thomas C.
    Westphal, Catrin
    Williams, Neal
    Klein, Alexandra M.
    Wild Pollinators Enhance Fruit Set of Crops Regardless of Honey Bee Abundance2013In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 339, no 6127, p. 1608-1611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diversity and abundance of wild insect pollinators have declined in many agricultural landscapes. Whether such declines reduce crop yields, or are mitigated by managed pollinators such as honey bees, is unclear. We found universally positive associations of fruit set with flower visitation by wild insects in 41 crop systems worldwide. In contrast, fruit set increased significantly with flower visitation by honey bees in only 14% of the systems surveyed. Overall, wild insects pollinated crops more effectively; an increase in wild insect visitation enhanced fruit set by twice as much as an equivalent increase in honey bee visitation. Visitation by wild insects and honey bees promoted fruit set independently, so pollination by managed honey bees supplemented, rather than substituted for, pollination by wild insects. Our results suggest that new practices for integrated management of both honey bees and diverse wild insect assemblages will enhance global crop yields.

  • 49.
    Goobar, Ariel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Amanullah, Rahman
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Kulkarni, S. R.
    Nugent, P. E.
    Johansson, Joel
    Steidel, C.
    Law, D.
    Mörtsell, Edvard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Quimby, Robert
    Blagorodnova, N.
    Brandeker, A.
    Cao, Y.
    Cooray, A.
    Ferretti, Raphael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Fremling, Christoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Hangard, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Kasliwai, M.
    Kupfer, T.
    Lunnan, R.
    Masci, F.
    Miller, A. A.
    Nayyeri, H.
    Neill, J. D.
    Ofek, E. O.
    Papadogiannakis, Seméli
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Petrushevska, Tanja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Ravi, V.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Sullivan, M.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Walters, R.
    Wilson, D.
    Yan, L.
    Yaron, O.
    iPTF16geu: A multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova2017In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 356, no 6335, p. 291-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the discovery of a multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova, iPTF16geu (SN 2016geu), at redshift z = 0.409. This phenomenon was identified because the light from the stellar explosion was magnified more than 50 times by the curvature of space around matter in an intervening galaxy. We used high-spatial-resolution observations to resolve four images of the lensed supernova, approximately 0.3 arc seconds from the center of the foreground galaxy. The observations probe a physical scale of ~1 kiloparsec, smaller than is typical in other studies of extragalactic gravitational lensing. The large magnification and symmetric image configuration imply close alignment between the lines of sight to the supernova and to the lens. The relative magnifications of the four images provide evidence for substructures in the lensing galaxy.

  • 50. Griesmann, Maximilian
    et al.
    Chang, Yue
    Liu, Xin
    Song, Yue
    Haberer, Georg
    Crook, Matthew B.
    Billault-Penneteau, Benjamin
    Lauressergues, Dominique
    Keller, Jean
    Imanishi, Leandro
    Roswanjaya, Yuda Purwana
    Kohlen, Wouter
    Pujic, Petar
    Battenberg, Kai
    Alloisio, Nicole
    Liang, Yuhu
    Hilhorst, Henk
    Salgado, Marco G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hocher, Valerie
    Gherbi, Hassen
    Svistoonoff, Sergio
    Doyle, Jeff J.
    He, Shixu
    Xu, Yan
    Xu, Shanyun
    Qu, Jing
    Gao, Qiang
    Fang, Xiaodong
    Fu, Yuan
    Normand, Philippe
    Berry, Alison M.
    Wall, Luis G.
    Ane, Jean-Michel
    Pawlowski, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Xu, Xun
    Yang, Huanming
    Spannagl, Manuel
    Mayer, Klaus F. X.
    Wong, Gane Ka-Shu
    Parniske, Martin
    Delaux, Pierre-Marc
    Cheng, Shifeng
    Phylogenomics reveals multiple losses of nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis2018In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 361, no 6398, article id 1743Article in journal (Refereed)
123 1 - 50 of 132
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