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  • 1.
    Beckley, Amber L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Age at immigration and crime in Stockholm using sibling comparisons2015In: Social Science Research, ISSN 0049-089X, E-ISSN 1096-0317, Vol. 53, p. 239-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past Swedish research has shown that immigrants arriving in the receiving country at an older age are less likely to commit crime than immigrants arriving at a younger age. Segmented assimilation theory argues that the family and neighborhood may be important factors affecting how age at immigration and crime are related to one another. This study used population-based register data on foreign-background males from Stockholm to test the effect of age at immigration on crime. Potential confounding from. the family and neighborhood was addressed using variables and modeling strategies. Initial results, using variables to control for confounding, showed that people who immigrated around age 4 were the most likely to be suspected of a crime. When controlling for unmeasured family characteristics, it seemed that a later age at immigration was tied to a lower likelihood of crime, which does not corroborate past research findings. The effect of age at immigration, however, was not statistically significant. The results imply that future research on entire families may be a worthwhile endeavor.

  • 2.
    Billingsley, Sunnee
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Drefahl, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Ghilagaber, Gebrenegus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    An application of diagonal reference models and time-varying covariates in social mobility research on mortality and fertility2018In: Social Science Research, ISSN 0049-089X, E-ISSN 1096-0317, Vol. 75, p. 73-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In social mobility research, the diagonal reference model (DRM) is argued to best isolate the effect of social mobility from origin and destination status effects. In demographic research, standard analyses of the duration until an event occurs rely heavily on the appropriate use of covariates that change over time. We apply these best-practice methods to the study of social mobility and demographic outcomes in Sweden using register data that covers the years 1996–2012. The mortality analysis includes 1,024,142 women and 747,532 men and the fertility analysis includes 191,142 women and 164,368 men. We identify the challenges inherent in this combination and present strategies with an application to how social mobility is related to both fertility and mortality. Our application is successful at incorporating all requirements related to these methods. Our findings suggest, however, that certain data characteristics, such as a relatively high share of missing data, can be problematic. We also find that controlling for origin and destination status generally provides acceptable estimates of the mobility association in the specific case of Sweden and the relationship between social mobility and both fertility and mortality.

  • 3. Bursell, Moa
    et al.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Diversity preferences among employees and ethnoracial workplace segregation2018In: Social Science Research, ISSN 0049-089X, E-ISSN 1096-0317, Vol. 74, p. 62-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethno-racial workplace segregation increases already existing ethno-racial inequality. While previous research has identified discriminatory employers as drivers of workplace segregation, this study addresses the role of the employees. Sociological and social psychological theory suggest that people prefer to surround themselves with people who positively confirm their social identity or who contribute with higher group status. Through web-based surveys, we measure employee attitudes and preferences concerning ethno-racial workplace diversity, to what extent they differ by ethnicity/race, and if they contain intersectional patterns. Thereafter, we use simulation models to analyze the consequences for workplace segregation that these preferences would have, if realized. The main survey results showed that all ethno-racial groups favored their own in-group as colleagues, especially European Americans. As a secondary choice, the respondents preferred the out-group with the highest labor market status. Intersectional patterns were identified, as minority women were preferred as colleagues over minority men. Our simulation model, based on the results of two surveys on stated vs. indirectly revealed preferences, showed that employee preferences were at best not diverse enough to desegregate workplaces. When based on the most common preferences (i.e. excluding a few outliers), the simulations even suggested that these preferences can cause segregation. We relate these findings to Schelling's model of segregation.

  • 4. Grönlund, Anne
    et al.
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Devaluation, crowding or skill specificity?: Exploring the mechanisms behind the lower wages in female professions2013In: Social Science Research, ISSN 0049-089X, E-ISSN 1096-0317, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 1006-1017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A conspicuous finding in research on the gender wage gap is that wages are related to the percentage females in an occupation (percent F). Three mechanisms have been suggested to explain this relationship: a devaluation of women's work, a crowding of women into a limited number of occupations, and a female disadvantage in the accumulation of specific human capital. In this analysis, based on data from the Swedish Level of Living Survey of 2000 (n = 2915), we distinguish between these mechanisms using measures of devaluation (Treiman's prestige scale), crowding (employee dependence on current employer) and specific human capital (on-the-job training). The results show that all the indicators are related to percent F, but not in a linear fashion, and that the percent F-effect on wages is overstated and misspecified. Female-dominated occupations stand out with lower wages than both male-dominated and gender-integrated occupations and this is not explained by any of our measures. Thus, if the hypotheses on segregation and wages should be sustained, they must be further specified and new measures must be found to prove their worth.

  • 5.
    Halldén, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Säve-Söderbergh, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Rosen, Asa
    Gender of the immediate manager and women's wages: The importance of managerial position2018In: Social Science Research, ISSN 0049-089X, E-ISSN 1096-0317, Vol. 72, p. 115-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One argument for increasing female representation in management is the expectation that female managers will be particularly beneficial for female employees through, e.g., role modeling, mentoring or providing other incentives to enhance female productivity. We explore this issue by analyzing the association between women's wages and the gender of their immediate managers using Swedish matched employee-employer data from 2010. Contrary to the expected positive association, we find that wages are overall 3% lower for female employees with a female instead of male manager. However, dividing the sample by managerial position and controlling for the sorting of employees with respect to, e.g., non-cognitive traits, work tasks, family commitment and establishment gender composition, the negative association is found only for female employees working for lower-level managers, not for women with a manager at the highest rank. One possible explanation could be a difference in decision-making power if lower-level female managers have more limited resources for their subordinates compared to lower-level male managers.

  • 6.
    Hällsten, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Social capital, friendship networks, and youth unemployment2017In: Social Science Research, ISSN 0049-089X, E-ISSN 1096-0317, Vol. 61, p. 234-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Youth unemployment is a contemporary social problem in many societies. Youths often have limited access to information about jobs and limited social influence, yet little is known about the relationship between social capital and unemployment risk among youth. We study the effect of social capital on unemployment risk in a sample of 19 year olds of Swedish, Iranian, and Yugoslavian origin living in Sweden (N = 1590). We distinguish between two dimensions of social capital: occupational contact networks and friendship networks. First, ego's unemployment is found to be strongly associated with friends' unemployment among individuals of Yugoslavian origins and individuals of Swedish origin, but not Iranian origin. Second, occupational contact networks reduce unemployment risks for all groups, but especially so for Iranians. The effect sizes of the two dimensions are similar and substantial: going from low to high values on these measures is associated with a difference of some 60-70 percent relative difference in unemployment risk. The findings are robust to a number of different model specifications, including a rich set of social origin controls, personality traits, educational performance, friends' characteristics, and friendship network characteristics, as well as controls for geographical employment patterns. A sensitivity simulation shows that homogeneity bias need to be very strong to explain away the effect.

  • 7. Rijken, Arieke
    et al.
    Thomson, Elizabeth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Partners’ relationship quality and childbearing2011In: Social Science Research, ISSN 0049-089X, E-ISSN 1096-0317, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 485-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the influence of partner relationship quality on childbearing. We are innovative in using relationship quality reports from both partners, drawing on the first and second wave of the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study. Thus, we can identify potential effects of discordant perceptions of the relationship on childbearing. We also pose a new hypothesis on the direction of the effect of relationship quality on fertility, predicting that medium levels of relationship quality result in the highest childbearing rates. Our results indicate that only women’s perceptions of relationship quality influence a first birth, whereas women’s and men’s perceptions affect second births. We do not find unique effects of disagreement in assessments of relationship quality; effects of partners’ perceptions are additive. Women reporting medium levels of relationship quality are most likely to have a(nother) child, whereas men with medium and high quality relationships are most likely to have a second child.

  • 8.
    Simpson, Brent
    et al.
    University of South Carolina.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    Mälardalen University and Stockholm University.
    A lay statistician explanation of minority discrimination2012In: Social Science Research, ISSN 0049-089X, E-ISSN 1096-0317, no 41, p. 637-645Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9. Simpson, Brent
    et al.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    A lay-statistician explanation of minority discrimination2012In: Social Science Research, ISSN 0049-089X, E-ISSN 1096-0317, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 637-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We outline a new explanation of discrimination against numerical minorities. In contrast to prior work that focuses on how the content of categories affects discrimination, our argument describes how the size of categories leads to discrimination. Specifically, we argue that, when comparing multiple categories, actors tend to view larger categories as more closely approximating an underlying population than smaller ones. As a result, a decision maker will tend to expect that members of a numerical majority are more likely to be what he/she is searching for, whether it is the best or worst candidate. We report the results of two studies designed to test these arguments. To demonstrate the generality of the proposed mechanism, Study 1 tested the argument in a non-social domain. Participants disproportionately favored the majority (vs. minority) category when searching for a single winning lottery ticket, and favored the minority category when the goal was to avoid a single losing ticket. Our second study supported an additional implication of the argument in a social domain: decision makers tended to rank highly qualified majority job candidates as better than equally qualified minority candidates, and relatively unqualified majority candidates as worse than equally unqualified minority candidates.

  • 10.
    Westerman, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Unequal involvement, unequal attainment? A theoretical reassessment and empirical analysis of the value of motivation in the labor market2018In: Social Science Research, ISSN 0049-089X, E-ISSN 1096-0317, Vol. 76, p. 169-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inequality has often been explained by stable individual traits or by the structural features of labor markets. This study argues that we also should consider task involvement when we account for labor market inequality. Three mechanisms derived from experimental research link task involvement to performance: individuals involved in tasks are more focused on the work process, are more dedicated to mastery and problem-solving, and have stronger product quality perseverance. Despite the significance of task involvement as a motivation, its potential implication for labor market inequality is so far rather unacknowledged. We aim to develop its theoretical implications in the labor market context and test the expectation that task involvement is related to wage attainment by analyzing representative data for Sweden (LNU) and Europe (ESS). We theoretically locate our account within relational sociology, emphasizing that wage inequality is determined by interactions between worker attributes and the features of work organizations.

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