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  • 1.
    Albrecht, James
    et al.
    Georgetown University.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Vroman, Susan
    Georgetown University.
    Unionization and the Evolution of the Wage Distribution in Sweden: 1968 to 20002011Ingår i: Industrial & labor relations review, ISSN 0019-7939, E-ISSN 2162-271X, Vol. 64, nr 5, s. 1039-1057Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the 1968, 1981, and 2000 Swedish Level of Living Surveys, the authors examine the evolution of the wage distribution in Sweden over the periods 1968–1981 and 1981–2000. The first period was the heyday of the Swedish solidarity wage policy with strong equalization clauses in the central wage agreements. During the second period, there was more flexibility for firms to adjust wages to reflect conditions such as labor shortages in particular fields. The authors find a remarkable narrowing of the wage distribution in the first period, but in the second period, wages grew more equally across the distribution. The authors decompose these changes in wages across the distribution into two components—those due to changes in the distribution of characteristics such as education and experience and those due to changes in the distribution of returns to those characteristics. They find that the wage compression between 1968 and 1981 was driven by changes in the distribution of returns, but between 1981 and 2000, the change in the distribution of returns had less of an effect on wage compression. 

  • 2.
    Arai, Mahmood
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Gartell, Marie
    Rödin, Magnus
    Özcan, Gülay
    Ethnic Stereotypes and Entry into Labor Market Programs2020Ingår i: Industrial & labor relations review, ISSN 0019-7939, E-ISSN 2162-271XArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors examine the impact of ethnic bias based on public employment officers' decisions when choosing whom to recommend for participation in a labor market program. On the basis of an experiment that uses job seekers' own portrait photographs, their recorded voices, and their real names, findings show that when recommending job seekers for labor market programs, female caseworkers are not affected by job seekers' appearance, but male caseworkers favor job seekers who are perceived to have a stereotypical Swedish appearance. Moreover, the authors find that, as intended by the guidelines of the Swedish Public Employment Service, both male and female caseworkers favor job seekers perceived, based on the job seekers' recorded voice, to have a foreign background. The authors' conclusions suggest that when no explicit guidelines are provided for addressing the impact of ethnic stereotypes on selection for training programs, a risk of bias based on ethnic stereotypes of physical appearance exists.

  • 3.
    Burn, Ian
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    The Relationship between Prejudice and Wage Penalties for Gay Men in the United States2020Ingår i: Industrial & labor relations review, ISSN 0019-7939, E-ISSN 2162-271X, Vol. 73, nr 3, s. 650-675Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article estimates the empirical relationship between prejudicial attitudes toward homosexuality and the wages of gay men in the United States. It combines data on prejudicial attitudes toward homosexuality from the General Social Survey with data on wages from the U.S. Decennial Censuses and American Community Surveys-both aggregated to the state level. The author finds that a one standard deviation increase in the share of individuals in a state who are prejudiced toward homosexuals is correlated with a decrease in the wages of gay men of between 2.7% and 4.0%. The results also suggest that the prejudice of managers is responsible for this correlation. The author finds that a one standard deviation increase in the share of the managers in a state who are prejudiced toward homosexuals is associated with a 1.9% decrease in the wages of gay men. The author finds no evidence that the wage penalty for gay men is correlated with the prejudice of customers or co-workers.

  • 4.
    Dube, Arindrajit
    et al.
    CWED, UC Berkeley.
    Kaplan, Ethan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Does Outsourcing Reduce Wages in the Low-Wage Service Occupations?: Evidence from Janitors and Guards2010Ingår i: Industrial & labor relations review, ISSN 0019-7939, E-ISSN 2162-271X, Vol. 63, nr 2, s. 287-306Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     Outsourcing of labor services grew substantially during the 1980s and 1990s and Was associated With lower wages, fewer benefits, and lower rates of unionization. The authors focus on two occupations for Which the), can identify outsourcing in those two decades using industry and occupation codes: janitors and guards. Across a wide array of specifications, the), find that the Outsourcing Wage penalty ranged from 4% to 7% for janitors and from 8% to 24% for guards. Their findings on health benefits mirror those on Wages. Evidence suggests that the outsourcing penalty Was not. due to compensating differentials for higher benefits or lower hours, skill differences, or the types 017 industries that outsourced. Rather, outsourcing seems to have reduced labor market rents for workers, especially for those in the upper half of the occupational Wage distribution. Industries With higher historical Wage premia Were more likely to outsource service work.

  • 5. Heyman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Svaleryd, Helena
    Vlachos, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Competition, Takeovers, and Gender Discrimination2013Ingår i: Industrial & labor relations review, ISSN 0019-7939, E-ISSN 2162-271X, Vol. 66, nr 2, s. 409-432Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Theories of taste-based discrimination predict that competitive pressures will drive discriminatory behavior out of the market. The authors analyze how firm takeovers and product market competition affect firms' gender composition and gender wage gap using detailed matched employer-employee data. Taking into account several endogeneity concerns while using a difference-in-difference framework, they find that the share of female employees increases as a result of an ownership change when product market competition is weak. Furthermore, a takeover reduces the gender wage gap. Although the estimated effects are small, the results support the main theoretical predictions.

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