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  • 1.
    Fang, Tony
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Schaumburg, Josephine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    International business negotiations in Brazil2017In: Journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 591-605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study was to explore an innovative strategy for studying the Brazilian negotiator's unique and paradoxical characteristics from a cultural point of view to acquire a better understanding of the nature of international business negotiations in Brazil. Design/methodology/approach - The study is of a qualitative nature, using a multiple-case study design at three levels (small-, medium-and large-scale negotiations). Interviews were conducted with Brazilian and German managers to capture the emic-etic view of the Brazilian negotiator. The Strategic Trinity Model was developed to assess the behavior of the Brazilian negotiator in agreement with three metaphors: African Capoeirista, Portuguese Bureaucrat and Indigenous Warrior. Findings - The three roles African Capoeirista, Portuguese Bureaucrat and Indigenous Warrior comprised similar as well as contradicting characteristics. The Brazilian negotiator chose naturally and even paradoxically from these role features, effectively negotiating any given situation, context and time. During the pre-and post-negotiation phases, traits of the African Capoeirista and Indigenous Warrior were the most salient. During the formal negotiation phase, however, the characteristics of the African Capoeirista and Portuguese Bureaucrat dominated. Research limitations/implications - International business negotiations in Brazil call for an in-depth comprehension of the paradoxical roles that local negotiators take on to achieve better negotiation outcomes. Originality/value - The present study unveiled the contradicting Brazilian negotiating style in international business negotiations, thus acquiring a better understanding of the negotiation process in the Brazilian market.

  • 2.
    Gummesson, Evert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Marketing.
    All Research Is Interpretive!2003In: Journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 18, no 6-7, p. 482-492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article advocates recognition of interpretive elements in business research and the need for improvement of the researcher’s interpretive skills. The scientific tradition specifically concerned with interpretation is called hermeneutics. However, interpretation exists in all types of scientific studies, be they quantitative or qualitative. The article presents lessons from hermeneutics and spells out the interpretive content of research in general and with specific focus on business-to-business marketing. Interpretive methods, when applied to business, are characterized by efforts to understand the complexity of the business world and its products, services and markets, and to add meaning to strategies, actions and events. A set of methods designated interactive research is discussed. These are more inspired by the humanities, sociology, anthropology and modern natural sciences than by the social sciences research paradigm as it is currently applied in most mainstream research in marketing.

  • 3.
    Gummesson, Evert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Marketing.
    Return on Relationships (ROR): the Value of Relationship Marketing and CRM in Business-to-Business Contexts2004In: Journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 136-148Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Gummesson, Evert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    The theory/practice gap in B2B marketing: reflections and search for solutions2014In: Journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 29, no 7-8, p. 619-625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study was to suggest pragmatic ways of dealing with the business-to-business (B2B) theory/practice gap. Design/methodology/approach - Reflecting on experience both as a researcher and practitioner. Findings - B2B marketing is characterized by complexity. There is no straight way to harmonize the relationship between its theory and practice but there are ways to make the two benefit from each other. A dilemma is that academics and practitioners are rewarded for different types of achievements. Research limitations/implications - Scholars can be made aware of the need for close involvement through action research and case theory to secure access to high-quality data in a complex B2B reality, and to their mission to contribute better real world based theory. Practical implications - The article can make practitioners aware of the value of grand theory to improve the pragmatic use of mid-range theory as it materializes in models, checklists and heuristics. Originality/value - The simultaneous emphasis on explicit and tacit knowledge in both theory generation and practice, and a framework of theory generation that sorts out substantive, mid-range and grand theory relationships.

  • 5.
    Gummesson, Evert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Polese, Francesco
    B2B is not and island2009In: Journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 24, no 5-6, p. 337-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – With B2B (business-to-business) and new developments in marketing as the springboard, to emphasize the necessity of heeding complexity and context by addressing marketing as a coherent, relational system.

    Methodology/approach – Conceptual analysis based on new developments in marketing, network theory, and case study research; and the thesis that any company or marketing situation directly or indirectly embraces both B2B and B2C (business-to-consumer) issues.

    Findings – First, recent marketing theory points to the need for a network and systems approach to marketing and to changing roles between suppliers and customers. Two of these developments, many-to-many marketing as a broadening of relationship marketing (RM) and CRM (customer relationship management), and the service dominant logic (S-D logic) stress C2B (consumer-to-business) and C2C (customer-to-customer) interaction, exposing the customer’s active role. Second, a practitioner contribution, the cross-disciplinary IBM service science program, is enrolling academic research and education in the development of more functional and seamless service systems that work in real settings. Third, the conventional divide in goods and services marketing is conceptually dissolved in favor of supplier-customer interaction leading to value propositions and co-creation of value.

    Research implications – B2B, B2C/C2B and C2C aspects are part of an integrated, complex context. Case study research and network theory allow researchers to let complexity and context come forward.  Network theory should be used in all marketing and not only on B2B. Definitions, categories and concepts in use need to be constantly evaluated as to validity and relevance for contemporary and future marketing. The conventional economic sectors (manufacturing, services, agriculture) are supplier-centric whereas marketing prescribes customer-centricity; consequently they should not be used in marketing. By focusing on continuous theory generation, an open source code and collaboration, “testing” and critiquing theory is superfluous; instead generate better theory to replace previous theory. Treat marketing as an aspect of all company activities; in a network every node and link can potentially affect any other part of a network.

    Practical implications – For marketers to better overview complexity and context of their specific marketing situations, to systematically observe relational phenomena and the customer’s role, and as a consequence better foresee opportunities and avoid mistakes in their marketing planning.

    Originality/value – In the light of new research and conceptualization, the article offers a network view which is only marginally represented in research and education in marketing. With bigger and more global systems and growing dependency on software and the Internet, the need to address integrated systems becomes urgent. In the new logic of service and value creation, marketing categories are being dissolved and the reductionism and linearity of Western science are being challenged in favor of a broader network approach. The dependency between B2B and B2C has been noted before but we go further and treat these as perspectives of a grander marketing context and not as independent categories. The analysis of B and C combinations displays the broadened role of customers in value networks. Goods and services are intertwined and can only be understood and handled in a unified context.

  • 6.
    Gustavsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Accounting.
    Aage, Lars-Johan
    Conceptualizing for managerial relevance in B2B research – A grounded theory approach2014In: Journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 29, no 7-8, p. 626-632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This study aims to formulate recommendations for business-to-business (B2B) researchers, with the potential to increase the extent to which B2B research is relevant to managers.

    Design/methodology/approach - These recommendations are derived from and inspired by the grounded theory methodology.

    Findings - In this article, we argue that conceptualizations which are potentially relevant to managers are those that discover new perspectives, simplify complexity, enable managers to take action and have an instant grab. To accomplish this as researchers, the authors emphasize fostering a beginner's mind, creating umbrella models, increasing the level of abstraction of concepts and finding the core process in data.

    Originality/value - In this article, we translate the basic principles within the grounded theory methodology into more general recommendations that can be used by B2B researchers.

  • 7. Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Marketing.
    Visualizing the value of service-based offerings: empirical findings from the manufacturing industry2012In: Journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 27, no 7, p. 538-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore strategies for visualizing the value of service-based offerings in a B2B context. By taking a process perspective on the offering life cycle, this paper also aims at distinguishing which visualization strategies are most appropriate using at which life-cycle stages.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study employed a qualitative, multiple-case study research design involving five manufacturing firms.

    Findings – Primary findings are that firms need to make use of several different visualization strategies depending on, among other things, the key stakeholders and also where the firm's offering is currently positioned in the service-based offering life cycle.

    Research limitations/implications – While the empirical data is from only one sector – i.e. manufacturing – managers from other B2B sectors should have an interest in the results and the key aspects identified. Further research could also establish linkages to performance metrics.

    Originality/value – Visualization strategies have been relatively rarely studied from a B2B perspective, and the process dimension, especially, is novel.

  • 8.
    Kumar, Nishant
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Yakhlef, Ali
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Validation of organizational innovation as a creative learning process2019In: Journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 643-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Previous studies on innovation tend to view innovation as consisting of a creative phase of novel and useful ideas, and a non-creative, or at least a less creative phase, as this considered to be the mere implementation and validation of the initially created ideas. In contrast, this paper aims to stress on the significance of the process of validating a new idea as being a creative, learning, exploratory process that shapes the degree of novelty of the innovation as a whole.

    Design/methodology/approach: In driving this argument, this study deductively builds on a theoretical pre-understanding derived from extant literature related to management innovation and organizational legitimacy, and inductively draws on information gleaned from three in-depth case studies.

    Findings: The study shows that the validation phase in the innovation process is a creative process, rather than just being a set of activities that relate to the mere execution of the created ideas. Viewing the validation process as an exploratory search for new knowledge, this study establishes a relationship between the form of knowledge mobilized, vertically within an organization or horizontally from outside, and the form of legitimation required. Validation based on internally generated knowledge is effective in terms of achieving pragmatic (efficiency-driven) objectives. Inter-organizational knowledge inflows are associated with cognitive legitimacy – a form of legitimacy that leads to changes in the stakeholders’ beliefs about a the product. In contradistinction, horizontal, socio–cultural inflows of knowledge are likely to improve on the product itself, thereby generating more traction for validation.

    Research limitations/implications: This research is based on data collected from three firms only.

    Practical implications: The idea developed here can provide business organizations a better understanding of the validation process of management innovations. This study suggests that successful innovation often requires managers to be prepared to seek knowledge beyond the confines of their own organizations.

    Originality/value: This study contributes in three ways: it submits that there is a dynamic interplay between the moments of creation and validation, which is largely shaped by the novelty of the mobilized knowledge, depending on whether it is internal top–down or external horizontal; relatedly, the effectiveness of validation is shaped by the novelty of the knowledge garnered to justify the initial ideas; and the present paper has extended Suchman’s (1995) framework by linking the effectiveness of the various forms of legitimacy to the source of knowledge mobilized in the validation process.

  • 9.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Lindbergh, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Foreign market learning: an integrative model of its antecedents, processes and outcomes2019In: Journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 1248-1258Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to offer an integrative model of foreign market learning, including different learning processes, antecedents and outcomes. Design/methodology/approach - The paper makes a critical review of the relevant literature, drawing on a keywords-based search of three major databases and a range of other published work for a broader perspective on the subject. Findings - The resulting integrative model shows in a number of ways how companies can learn and benefit from differences in foreign markets and what results this can lead to. Research limitations/implications - The sample of subject-specific contributions to the literature may have been insufficient, and a wider selection of keywords to identify them might have captured a richer variety of concepts and opinions. Originality/value - The integrative model contributes to the literature on foreign market learning and innovation and serves as a basis for future studies and current management strategy.

  • 10.
    Nussipova, Gulnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Sörhammar, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Value formation with immersive technologies: an activity perspective2019In: Journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 483-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to contribute a framework that explains how value is formed during the usage of immersive technologies in industrial contexts.

    Design/methodology/approach - Drawing on activity theory and a customer-dominant logic, the authors tentatively develop an activity-centric framework for value formation enabled by physical and mental activities conducted by users of immersive technologies. The authors evaluate the framework through a case study focusing on the use of virtual reality (VR) in an industrial setting.

    Findings - The findings from the case study illustrate the tentative framework and specify how it is enacted by users in the studied context through three physical activities constituted by a set of actions and reflected in five emotional responses.

    Research limitations/implications - Both researchers and practitioners may use the framework presented in this paper as a guide for further academic and practical developments concerning the value of immersive technologies such as VR and augmented reality.

    Originality/value - The activity-centric framework contributes a novel perspective to the literature on value formation enabled by immersive technologies.

  • 11. Quero Gervilla, María José
    et al.
    Díaz-Mendez, Montserrat
    Gummesson, Evert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Balanced centricity and triads: strategies to reach ecosystem equilibrium in the arts sector2019In: Journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 447-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether triad structures, as the smallest unit of a network, can facilitate or inhibit the evolutioninto a service ecosystem. According to SD logic literature, the triad structure and the institutions that dominate the triads determine the evolutioninto ecosystem, remain as triad or die.“Balanced centricity”is considered a desirable institution that increases the possibility of transforming triadsinto ecosystems through marketing equilibrium.

    Design/methodology/approach – The authors apply a conceptual approach to develop a framework for deepening understanding about triads’structures from the institution’s perspective (balanced centricity). Qualitative case study research was conducted using different methods of datageneration including personal interviews and netnography analysis in the arts sector. Three case studies were developed, one for each triadstructure: Sothebýs, Patreon and Vibuk.

    Findings – New business models start being a triad, and it is a strategic option to evolve into an ecosystem. In this sense, authors argue forconsidering balanced centricity as an institution that enables the ecosystems to arise. From this perspective, balanced centricity can be considered astrategy that helps to balance and reach positive relationships among actors, enabling the process to become a “balance triad structure”.

    Research limitations/implications – The paper is a conceptual work that combines with an empirical approach. The empirical approach considersthree success cases on the arts context. Considering other contexts as different from arts industry would be useful to add new perspectives to thetheory development.

    Originality/value – The present paper defines a new form of triad“balanced triad structure”(BTS) and identifies categories depending on the waybalanced centricity institution is adopted, facilitating or inhibiting the future evolution into an ecosystem. Hitherto, previous papers have notputtogether these concepts that build on the triads and ecosystems theory to better understand triads management and facilitate the evolution ofthree-actor networks into ecosystems.

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