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  • 1. Abram, Emese
    et al.
    Gajdatsy, Gabor
    Hermann, Peter
    Ujhelyi, Ferenc
    Borbely, Judit
    Shen, James Zhijian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    The colour of monolithic zirconia restorations determined by spectrophotometric examination2019In: Advances in Applied Ceramics: Structural, Functional and Bioceramics, ISSN 1743-6753, E-ISSN 1743-6761, Vol. 118, no 1-2, p. 3-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this in vitro study is to examine the optical effects of monolithic zirconia of different translucency and thickness, combined with substrates of different colours. Materials and methods: Zirconia specimens of two colours (A2P1, WHITE) were used for the study, three try-in pastes (Variolink Esthetic); substrates were prepared from nine types of materials (six VITA SIMULATE, three metals). Measurements were carried out at the Faculty of Atomic Physics of the Technical University of Budapest with the state-of-the-art PerkinElmer (R) Lambda 1050 spectrophotometer. Results: The colouring of zirconia has a major effect on dE values resulting in different colour perceptibility and acceptability. Try-in pastes, however, have no significant effects overall. Conclusion: Applying coloured zirconia is highly eligible for preparing aesthetic crowns as their substrate-covering effect makes it possible to reproduce the desired colour. Uncoloured zirconia nonetheless is unaffected by the substrate material, especially above a certain layer thickness.

  • 2. Chaim, R.
    et al.
    Marder, R.
    Estournes, C.
    Shen, Zhijian James
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Densification and preservation of ceramic nanocrystalline character by spark plasma sintering2012In: Advances in Applied Ceramics: Structural, Functional and Bioceramics, ISSN 1743-6753, E-ISSN 1743-6761, Vol. 111, no 5-6, p. 280-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spark plasma sintering is a hot pressing technique where rapid heating by dc electric pulses is used simultaneously with applied pressure. Thus, spark plasma sintering is highly suitable for rapid densification of ceramic nanoparticles and preservation of the final nanostructure. A considerable portion of the shrinkage during densification of the green compact of nanoparticles in the first and intermediate stages of sintering occurs during heating by particle rearrangement by sliding and rotation. Further densification to the final stage of sintering takes place by either plastic yield or diffusional processes. Full densification in the final stage of sintering is associated with diffusional processes only. Nanoparticle sliding and rotation during heating may also lead to grain coalescence, with much faster kinetics than normal grain growth at higher temperatures. Based on existing models for particle rearrangement and sliding, the contributions of these processes in conjunction with nanoparticle properties and process parameters were highlighted.

  • 3. Han, Jianmin
    et al.
    Zhao, Jing
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Shen, Zhijian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Zirconia ceramics in metal-free implant dentistry2017In: Advances in Applied Ceramics: Structural, Functional and Bioceramics, ISSN 1743-6753, E-ISSN 1743-6761, Vol. 116, no 3, p. 138-150Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of their outstanding mechanical properties, chemical stability, and biocompatibility, 3-mol % yttria-stabilised tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (3Y-TZP), known as zirconia ceramics in dentistry, are an important choice for various types of prosthesis. In addition to extensive use for crown and bridge construction, considerable interest has been generated for applications in implant dentistry, including full-contour zirconia crowns as supra-constructions, zirconia abutments, and novel zirconia implants. However, their use among dentist and researchers is controversial, especially compared with the well-established implants made of titanium alloys. As a latecomer, the merits and limitations of 3Y-TZP are awaiting careful investigation. Design, manufacturing, and clinical operation guidelines are urgently needed. The aim of this review was to address the present status of the application of zirconia ceramics related to implant dentistry by analysing the published data from both in vitro and in vivo studies. Suggestions are provided for potential improvements and suitable applications of zirconia ceramics in metal-free implant dentistry.

  • 4. Ji, Bin
    et al.
    Alrayes, Abed Alganyi
    Zhao, Jing
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Feng, Yunzhi
    Shen, Zhijian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Grinding and polishing efficiency of a novel self-glazed zirconia versus the conventional dry-pressed and sintered zirconia ceramics2019In: Advances in Applied Ceramics: Structural, Functional and Bioceramics, ISSN 1743-6753, E-ISSN 1743-6761, Vol. 118, no 1-2, p. 46-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The grinding and polishing efficiency of self-glazed zirconia and Zenostar zirconia, prepared by wet and dry approaches, respectively, were evaluated. Each sample was divided into two subgroups (n = 5). One was ground, and the other was polished by following the clinical adjustment protocol. Statistics were analysed by independent t-test to a significance level of p < .05. More material was ground off in self-glazed zirconia than in Zenostar zirconia (p < .05) during the same period, especially during the coarse grinding procedure (p < .05), whereas the grinding efficiency in fine grinding stage was not significantly different (p > .05). The polishing efficiency of the whole and of the fine polishing procedure of the two kinds of zirconia was significantly different (p < .05). It thus can be concluded that grinding and polishing efficiency of a novel self-glazed zirconia is significantly higher than that of the conventional Zenostar zirconia.

  • 5.
    Li, Duan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Hu, Jianfeng
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Zhang, J. -Z
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Xi'An University of Architecture & Technology, Xian, China.
    Ma, J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Shen, Zhijian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Tsing Hua University, Beijing, China.
    Densification as an exothermic process revealed by rapid high temperature consolidation of BaTiO3 nanopowder2014In: Advances in Applied Ceramics: Structural, Functional and Bioceramics, ISSN 1743-6753, E-ISSN 1743-6761, Vol. 113, no 4, p. 251-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Densification is an exothermic process according to the classical sintering theories; however, it has never been explored experimentally. In the present work, such heat release was successfully detected from nanosized BaTiO3 nanopowder compact, which was rapidly consolidated by spark plasma sintering. A reduction of total power consumption was observed immediately when rapid densification occurred. The effects of the deviation of overall electric resistance on total power consumption were analysed. The temperature at which a falling inflection point of the power supply was observed can be used as an indicator of the minimum temperature required for densification. This would be of help for defining the 'kinetic window' for processing of nanoceramics in sintering practice.

  • 6.
    Li, Duan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). National University of Defense Technology, People’s Republic of China.
    Liu, Yongsheng
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Northwestern Polytechnical University, People’s Republic of China.
    Zhong, Yuan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Liu, Leifeng
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Adolfsson, Erik
    Shen, Zhijian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Dense and strong ZrO2 ceramics fully densified in <15 min2019In: Advances in Applied Ceramics: Structural, Functional and Bioceramics, ISSN 1743-6753, E-ISSN 1743-6761, Vol. 118, no 1-2, p. 23-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crack-free zirconia ceramics were consolidated via sintering by intense thermal radiation (SITR) approach at 1600-1700 degrees C for 3-5 min. The resulted ceramic bulks can achieve a relative density up to 99.6% with a grain size of 300-1200 nm. Their bending strength, Vickers hardness and indentation toughness values are up to 1244 +/- 139 MPa, 13.3 +/- 0.3 GPa and 5.5 +/- 0.1 MPa m(1/2), respectively. Quantitative Raman and XRD analysis show the presence of minor m phase on the natural surface (<7%), fracture surface (<10%) and indentation areas (<15%). It reveals that the SITR method is efficient for rapidly manufacturing zirconia ceramics with desired density, fine grained microstructure and good mechanical properties that are strongly demanded in dental applications.

  • 7. Li, Hezhen
    et al.
    Song, Lu
    Sun, Jialin
    Ma, Jing
    Shen, Zhijian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Tsinghua University, People’s Republic of China.
    Dental ceramic prostheses by stereolithography-based additive manufacturing: potentials and challenges2019In: Advances in Applied Ceramics: Structural, Functional and Bioceramics, ISSN 1743-6753, E-ISSN 1743-6761, Vol. 118, no 1-2, p. 30-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current method for making dental ceramic prostheses in a subtractive manner causes a severe waste of materials while requires excessive manual works that bring in the uncertainty for control of quality. The rapid development and commercialisation of additive manufacturing (AM) has aroused interest and wonders both in material and dental communities about their potentials and challenges in fabricating of ceramic prostheses in a materials-saving manner. In this work, AM approach was applied to fabricate the dental bridges and implants made of zirconia. The achieved geometries and dimensional accuracy are used to demonstrate the potential of this technique in fabricating of dental ceramic prostheses, whereas the observed macro and micro defects formed during the treatment process is used to reveal the challenges facing in order to adapt this technology into real dental practice. Suggestions are provided for future development of the technology, particularly on minimising the processing defects.

  • 8. Ren, Wen
    et al.
    Du, Faliang
    Shen, Zhijian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Wu, Zhe
    Yang, Xuechao
    Xu, Ge
    Guo, Lv-Hua
    The workflows of a novel self-glazed zirconia for dental prostheses fabrication: case reports2018In: Advances in Applied Ceramics: Structural, Functional and Bioceramics, ISSN 1743-6753, E-ISSN 1743-6761, Vol. 117, no 7, p. 406-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the clinical application of ceramic prostheses, micro-leakage, porcelain chipping, low-treatment efficiency and quality uncertainty have appeared as the major problems that dentists encountered. However, the full-contour zirconia monolithic prostheses have the potentials for solving the problems. It appears that the full-contour zirconia monolithic prostheses produced through the fully digital workflow can ensure that the restorations can be closely aligned with the abutment and be easy to adjust and to wear, thus to assure the stability and accuracy of occlusal, which are crucial to the ultimate integration of the full-contour zirconia monolithic prostheses by avoiding unfavourable grinding. The newly developed full digital approach can greatly simplify the previous workflow that involved many manual operations. It improves not only the treatment efficiency but also the reliability of the prostheses by avoiding manual operational mistakes.

  • 9. Shi, Andi
    et al.
    Wu, Zhe
    Huang, Jiangyong
    Liang, Qian
    Li, Qianqian
    Guo, Lvhua
    Shen, Zhijian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Wear performance of self-glazed zirconia crowns with different amount of occlusal adjustment after 6 months of clinical use2018In: Advances in Applied Ceramics: Structural, Functional and Bioceramics, ISSN 1743-6753, E-ISSN 1743-6761, Vol. 117, no 8, p. 445-451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of enamel wear on the antagonist occlusal surfaces caused by self-glazed zirconia crowns was compared with that caused by contralateral natural teeth. Thirteen self-glazed zirconia crowns were placed in situ. The impressions of self-glazed zirconia crowns, their antagonists and the control teeth were taken and scanned at baseline and 6-month follow-up. The patients were divided into two groups, the self-glazed crowns in one group were subjected to a large amount of grinding with well polishing (LaP group, n=7), while the other group required a little amount of grinding with well polishing (LiP group, n=6). Statistics were analysed by two-sided paired Student's t-tests to a significance level of p<.05. The results revealed that the maximum and mean enamel wear significantly different between the antagonists of self-glazed crowns and the control teeth (p<.05). Increased amount of enamel wear was found in LaP group (p<.05). The self-glazed zirconia crowns caused more enamel wear of antagonists than natural teeth after 6 months. Occlusal adjustment and polishing were considered as possible confounders which affected wear behaviour.

  • 10. Tidehag, Per
    et al.
    Shen, Zhijian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Digital dentistry calls the change of ceramics and ceramic processes2019In: Advances in Applied Ceramics: Structural, Functional and Bioceramics, ISSN 1743-6753, E-ISSN 1743-6761, Vol. 118, no 1-2, p. 83-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the start of the new digital impression-taking era which started around 2008 with the introduction of the 3M Lava COS, a slow transformation is gaining momentum and it looks as if this and next year will have a broad impact on the clinicians. From being merely a way of replacing impressions now the total digital workflow enters the industry. This means a whole new way of thinking and a new way to produce prosthetic work where a reproducible constant quality can be achieved. An obvious development of improved ceramic materials that simultaneously can satisfy the mechanical, bio- and aesthetic demands of the prostheses and the corresponding technologies for production that would work for the clinic digital workflow is out of the expertise of the dentists. This calls for a cross-disciplinary collaboration with the experts in the communities of ceramics and digital manufacturing.

  • 11. Zhang, Ranran
    et al.
    Xu, Nan
    Liu, Xujie
    Yan, Hao
    Ma, Jing
    Feng, Qingling
    Shen, Zhijian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Tsinghua University, People’s Republic of China.
    Dose-dependent enhancement of bioactivity by surface ZnO nanostructures on acid-etched pure titanium2019In: Advances in Applied Ceramics: Structural, Functional and Bioceramics, ISSN 1743-6753, E-ISSN 1743-6761, Vol. 118, no 3, p. 121-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc (Zn) is found to be essential in biologic osseous functions, and deficiency of Zn may cause delayed skeletal growth and osteoporosis. Additionally, Zn-based coatings are reported to be effective to promote the bioactivity of implants. In this study, we employed the hydrothermal treatment to incorporate Zn into the surface of acid-etched pure Ti. The process was conducted in ammonia solution with an increased Zn precursor concentration (0.0002M, 0.002M and 0.02M, respectively). XPS analysis demonstrated that the nanostructures were composed of ZnO. Proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells were enhanced dose-dependently, compared to those on the acid-etched pure Ti without ZnO nanostructures. This study addresses a favourable surface modification method to improve the bioactivity of implants.

  • 12. Zhang, Youdong
    et al.
    Han, Jian-min
    Zheng, Gang
    Lin, Hong
    Bai, Wei
    Zhao, Jing
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Shen, Zhijian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Fatigue behaviours of the zirconia dental restorations prepared by two manufacturing methods2017In: Advances in Applied Ceramics: Structural, Functional and Bioceramics, ISSN 1743-6753, E-ISSN 1743-6761, Vol. 116, no 7, p. 368-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fatigue behaviours were evaluated on a novel zirconia dental restoration known as self-glazed zirconia (SG), prepared by a precision additive 3D gel deposition approach, compared with a conventional zirconia (CZ) restoration, shaped by CNC milling of zirconia blanks made by cold isostatic pressing. Eight fixed partial dentures made by each method were subjected to fracture test, without or with the application of 5-million fatigue cycles, respectively. The processing defects, grain size, and t-m phase transformation were examined by SEM and XRD. The results revealed that the fracture force of the SG restorations was higher than that of the CZ restorations in both cases, which ascribed to the fact that more voids and larger grains in the conventional versus in the SG restorations. The t-m phase transformation was observed only on the fracture surfaces of both materials subjected to fatigue test. Both zirconia restorations meet the clinical requirement.

  • 13.
    Zou, Ji
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Zhong, Yuan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Eriksson, Mirva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Liu, Leifeng
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Shen, Zhijian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Tougher zirconia nanoceramics with less yttria2019In: Advances in Applied Ceramics: Structural, Functional and Bioceramics, ISSN 1743-6753, E-ISSN 1743-6761, Vol. 118, no 1-2, p. 9-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing the grain size in zirconia ceramics has shown to decrease its toughness by size-dependent stabilisation of the tetragonal phase that, in turn, hinders the stress-induced phase transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic. The stability of the tetragonal phase increases with the decrease of grain size but decreases with the reduction of the amount of yttria added, implying the need for adjustment of the yttria content when a nano-grained structure is of concern. In this study, low-yttria compositions were investigated. The ceramics were prepared with two sintering methods namely spark plasma sintering (SPS) and pressureless sintering. A clear tendency was noted for the indentation toughness increase with the reduction of yttria content, and a higher toughness achieved in as-SPSed samples in comparison with the annealed samples. The origins of the increased toughness were discussed in terms of yttria content, carbon contamination and increased oxygen vacancies after sintering at reducing atmosphere in SPS.

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