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  • 1. Kumsa, Lemessa
    et al.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Gurmessa, Dessalegn
    Nemomissa, Sileshi
    Patch area and current coffee management determine woody plant diversity in patches of semi-forest coffee embedded in an agricultural matrix2016In: Global Ecology and Conservation, ISSN 2351-9894, Vol. 8, p. 230-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective conservation of biodiversity in patches of (semi-) natural vegetation is dependent on an understanding of the influence of management as well as spatial and temporal factors. In southwestern Ethiopia coffee generally grown under a rather dense layer of indigenous trees (so called semi-forest coffee - SFC) often in patches embedded in an open agricultural landscape. The aim of the study was to disentangle what governs the variation in species richness of woody species among such patches. We collected data on species and possible explanatory factors in 40 x 40 m plots centered in 40 SFC patches, measured the patch area for 1987 and 2013, and the amount of surrounding SFC-area for each patch. We recorded the number of coffee stems and the level of disturbance caused by slashing of the understory vegetation. Species richness of large coffee shade trees (>20 cm in diameter) was higher in larger patches with even slightly better fit of the statistical models when the historical area was taken into account. However, most species of large trees also occurred as seedlings showing that there is still a potential to conserve these species in the patches. Coffee management negatively affected the richness and density of woody species, especially in the intermediate size class (1.6-20 cm diameter). Disturbances accompanying coffee management such as slashing of the ground vegetation also negatively affected tree seedling density as well as species richness. There was no effect of connectivity on species richness. Based on the combination of these results we conclude that small patches of semi-forest coffee had fewer species of large trees, not because of a lack of tree seedlings, but probably because of differentiated local extinctions, perhaps during the time when the species were intermediate sized. To maintain the species richness of large trees in semi-forest coffee patches, the sites need to be actively managed.

  • 2.
    Mtwana Nordlund, Lina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Teaching ecology at university—Inspiration for change2016In: Global Ecology and Conservation, ISSN 2351-9894, Vol. 7, p. 174-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How do you, as a university lecturer, change from teacher-centered teaching to a more student-centered, active teaching? This paper aims to inspire you to make a change, big or small, to increase your students’ engagement and learning, by presenting suggestions on what you can do. The ideas and suggestions synthesized here are based on several different teaching philosophies and methods, which are well tested and shown to be effective in the right setting. The selection of suggestions is believed to be specifically suitable for ecology.

    The paper includes suggestions on how to plan a course or a lecture by setting a good learning environment. Both pre-lecture activities and during lecture activities are included, with a focus on activities to engage students and encourage increased discussion and reflections, as well as what to think about when choosing learning activities and how and why it is important to teach students to think and act like professionals in ecology. While changing teaching methods takes investment of time, time that is limited for many researchers, even small changes in your teaching can make big differences in learning, and the investment will hopefully pay back by making teaching more fun and rewarding. The suggestions presented are understandable without being be conversant in the ‘education literature’, but will provide you with a vocabulary of teaching activities that will be useful if you are inspired to find more information and learn more about teaching.

  • 3. Nord, Maria
    et al.
    Ranlund, Åsa
    Gustafsson, Lena
    Johansson, Victor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Pärt, Tomas
    Forslund, Pär
    The effectiveness of area protection to capture coastal bird richness and occurrence in the Swedish archipelago2019In: Global Ecology and Conservation, ISSN 2351-9894, Vol. 17, article id UNSP e00528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protected areas are a key component in biodiversity conservation strategies, but evaluations of how effective they are in capturing species diversity is lacking for many ecosystems. We compared different protection types (animal sanctuaries, nature reserves and unprotected areas) using data on species richness and occurrence of coastal breeding bird species in a large archipelago in the Baltic Sea. Data were from extensive inventories based on a grid with 1 x 1 km resolution covering 4646 km(2) on the East coast of Sweden. We focused on specialist species breeding exclusively in coastal habitats since these species are of specific conservation concern, but considered generalists, which also breeds in inland wetlands, as well. Animal sanctuaries had significantly higher species richness of specialist species than unprotected areas and nature reserves. Nature reserves had even lower richness of specialist species than unprotected areas. Further, a rarity-weighted diversity index showed that animal sanctuaries were better in capturing hotspots of bird diversity compared to nature reserves and unprotected areas. Hotspots, both protected and unprotected, were scattered throughout the entire archipelago. The rarity-weighted richness is therefore useful to identify gaps in the protected area network. Overall, we conclude that the establishment of animal sanctuaries has been a successful conservation measure for protecting specialist species in several aspects. Ongoing human exploitation of the Baltic archipelagos prompt further consideration of protecting still unprotected but species rich shorelines for the benefit of many coastal breeding birds. 

  • 4.
    Sanderson Bellamy, Angelina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Svensson, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    van den Brink, Paul J.
    Tedengren, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    What is in a label? Rainforest-Alliance certified banana production versus non-certified conventional banana production2016In: Global Ecology and Conservation, ISSN 2351-9894, Vol. 7, p. 39-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Export banana production in Latin America is pesticide intensive, receiving much negative publicity regarding human health problems and environmental degradation. The Rainforest Alliance (RA) certification scheme was established to certify farms that met a number of social, occupation health and environmental standards set by RA and their certifying body, the Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN). This study was one of the first, independent studies of the environmental impact of some of the principles set by RA and SAN. The study focuses on insect and bird diversity as an indicator of ecosystem health. Five RA certified farms, six non-RA certified farms, and five organic certified farms were sampled. The data was analyzed with RDA multivariate analyses and Monte Carlo permutation tests. The results showed that RA certified farms had less insect diversity compared to non-RA certified farms and that both farm types had less insect diversity than organic farms. There was little difference between RA and non-RA certified farms with regards bird community composition. Thus, organic farming conserves biodiversity, while alternative environmental labels (e.g. a Rainforest alliance seal) may not have any visible positive effect on in-farm biodiversity. This study points to the need for improvements in SAN certification standards to achieve improved environmental conditions.

  • 5.
    Svengren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Prettejohn, Mike
    Bunge, Donald
    Fundi, Peter
    Björklund, Mats
    Relatedness and genetic variation in wild and captive populations of Mountain Bongo in Kenya obtained from genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data2017In: Global Ecology and Conservation, ISSN 2351-9894, Vol. 11, p. 196-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To assess the relatedness and amount of genetic variation of wild and captive Mountain Bongo Tragelaphus eurycerus ssp. isaaci, both non-invasive and invasive samples were efficiently analyzed using SNP's. Mountain Bongo is estimated to remain in Kenyan forest with less than 96 individuals, possibly as low as 73 individuals, split in five subpopulations whereof four populations are isolated from each other. The genetic diversity of wild animals was studied using fecal samples, and using tissue samples from the 62 animals presently held captive at the Mount Kenya Wildlife Conservancy. In strategic conservation of the wild Mountain Bongo, the captive animals constitute a potential genetic input to wild populations. Our study shows there is still genetic variation in the wild population and that the subpopulations are to some extent genetically differentiated. This leads to an overall effective population size of around 14 in the wild population, which is good relative to the small population, but dangerously small for long-term, or even short-term, survival. Most individuals in the wild population were unrelated, while in the captive population most individuals were related at the level of half-sibs. The captive population still host genetic variation and is differentiated slightly to the wild population. Careful restocking from the captive populations could be an effective means to enhance the genetic variation in the wild, but most importantly make the dwindling population less vulnerable to stochastic events.

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