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  • 1. Bigalke, Janna M.
    et al.
    Aibara, Shintaro
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Roth, Robert
    Dahl, Göran
    Gordon, Euan
    Dorbéus, Sarah
    Amunts, Alexey
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sandmark, Jenny
    Cryo-EM structure of the activated RET signaling complex reveals the importance of its cysteine-rich domain2019In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 5, no 7, article id eaau4202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Signaling through the receptor tyrosine kinase RET is essential during normal development. Both gain- and loss-of-function mutations are involved in a variety of diseases, yet the molecular details of receptor activation have remained elusive. We have reconstituted the complete extracellular region of the RET signaling complex together with Neurturin (NRTN) and GFR alpha 2 and determined its structure at 5.7-angstrom resolution by cryo-EM. The proteins form an assembly through RET-GFR alpha 2 and RET-NRTN interfaces. Two key interaction points required for RET extracellular domain binding were observed: (i) the calcium-binding site in RET that contacts GFR alpha 2 domain 3 and (ii) the RET cysteine-rich domain interaction with NRTN. The structure highlights the importance of the RET cysteine-rich domain and allows proposition of a model to explain how complex formation leads to RET receptor dimerization and its activation. This provides a framework for targeting RET activity and for further exploration of mechanisms underlying neurological diseases.

  • 2.
    Blasiak, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Wabnitz, Colette C. C.
    Sundström, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Corporate control and global governance of marine genetic resources2018In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 4, no 6, article id eaar5237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Who owns ocean biodiversity? This is an increasingly relevant question, given the legal uncertainties associated with the use of genetic resources from areas beyond national jurisdiction, which cover half of the Earth's surface. We accessed 38 million records of genetic sequences associated with patents and created a database of 12,998 sequences extracted from 862 marine species. We identified >1600 sequences from 91 species associated with deepsea and hydrothermal vent systems, reflecting commercial interest in organisms from remote ocean areas, as well as a capacity to collect and use the genes of such species. A single corporation registered 47% of all marine sequences included in gene patents, exceeding the combined share of 220 other companies (37%). Universities and their commercialization partners registered 12%. Actors located or headquartered in 10 countries registered 98% of all patent sequences, and 165 countries were unrepresented. Our findings highlight the importance of inclusive participation by all states in international negotiations and the urgency of clarifying the legal regime around access and benefit sharing of marine genetic resources. We identify a need for greater transparency regarding species provenance, transfer of patent ownership, and activities of corporations with a disproportionate influence over the patenting of marine biodiversity. We suggest that identifying these key actors is a critical step toward encouraging innovation, fostering greater equity, and promoting better ocean stewardship.

  • 3. Bratman, Gregory N.
    et al.
    Anderson, Christopher B.
    Berman, Marc G.
    Cochran, Bobby
    de Vries, Sjerp
    Flanders, Jon
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Frumkin, Howard
    Gross, James J.
    Hartig, Terry
    Kahn, Peter H.
    Kuo, Ming
    Lawler, Joshua J.
    Levin, Phillip S.
    Lindahl, Therese
    Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas
    Mitchell, Richard
    Ouyang, Zhiyun
    Roe, Jenny
    Scarlett, Lynn
    Smith, Jeffrey R.
    van den Bosch, Matilda
    Wheeler, Benedict W.
    White, Mathew P.
    Zheng, Hua
    Daily, Gretchen C.
    Nature and mental health: An ecosystem service perspective2019In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 5, no 7, article id eaax0903Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing body of empirical evidence is revealing the value of nature experience for mental health. With rapid urbanization and declines in human contact with nature globally, crucial decisions must be made about how to preserve and enhance opportunities for nature experience. Here, we first provide points of consensus across the natural, social, and health sciences on the impacts of nature experience on cognitive functioning, emotional well-being, and other dimensions of mental health. We then show how ecosystem service assessments can be expanded to include mental health, and provide a heuristic, conceptual model for doing so.

  • 4. Cedernaes, Jonathan
    et al.
    Schonke, Milena
    Orzechowski Westholm, Jakub
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Mi, Jia
    Chibalin, Alexander
    Voisin, Sarah
    Osler, Megan
    Vogel, Heike
    Hornaeus, Katarina
    Dickson, Suzanne L.
    Lind, Sara Bergstrom
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Schioth, Helgi B.
    Zierath, Juleen R.
    Benedict, Christian
    Acute sleep loss results in tissue-specific alterations in genome-wide DNA methylation state and metabolic fuel utilization in humans2018In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 4, no 8, article id eaar8590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Curtailed sleep promotes weight gain and loss of lean mass in humans, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated the genomic and physiological impact of acute sleep loss in peripheral tissues by obtaining adipose tissue and skeletal muscle after one night of sleep loss and after one full night of sleep. We find that acute sleep loss alters genome-wide DNA methylation in adipose tissue, and unbiased transcriptome-, protein-, and metabolite-level analyses also reveal highly tissue-specific changes that are partially reflected by altered metabolite levels in blood. We observe transcriptomic signatures of inflammation in both tissues following acute sleep loss, but changes involving the circadian clock are evident only in skeletal muscle, and we uncover molecular signatures suggestive of muscle breakdown that contrast with an anabolic adipose tissue signature. Our findings provide insight into how disruption of sleep and circadian rhythms may promote weight gain and sarcopenia.

  • 5. Cook, Edward R.
    et al.
    Seager, Richard
    Kushnir, Yochanan
    Briffa, Keith R.
    Buntgen, Ulf
    Frank, David
    Krusic, Paul J.
    Tegel, Willy
    van der Schrier, Gerard
    Andreu-Hayles, Laia
    Baillie, Mike
    Baittinger, Claudia
    Bleicher, Niels
    Bonde, Niels
    Brown, David
    Carrer, Marco
    Cooper, Richard
    Cufar, Katarina
    Dittmar, Christoph
    Esper, Jan
    Griggs, Carol
    Gunnarson, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Guenther, Bjorn
    Gutierrez, Emilia
    Haneca, Kristof
    Helama, Samuli
    Herzig, Franz
    Heussner, Karl-Uwe
    Hofmann, Jutta
    Janda, Pavel
    Kontic, Raymond
    Kose, Nesibe
    Kyncl, Tomas
    Levanic, Tom
    Linderholm, Hans
    Manning, Sturt
    Melvin, Thomas M.
    Miles, Daniel
    Neuwirth, Burkhard
    Nicolussi, Kurt
    Nola, Paola
    Panayotov, Momchil
    Popa, Ionel
    Rothe, Andreas
    Seftigen, Kristina
    Seim, Andrea
    Svarva, Helene
    Svoboda, Miroslav
    Thun, Terje
    Timonen, Mauri
    Touchan, Ramzi
    Trotsiuk, Volodymyr
    Trouet, Valerie
    Walder, Felix
    Wazny, Tomasz
    Wilson, Rob
    Zang, Christian
    Old World megadroughts and pluvials during the Common Era2015In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 1, no 10, article id e1500561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate model projections suggest widespread drying in the Mediterranean Basin and wetting in Fennoscandia in the coming decades largely as a consequence of greenhouse gas forcing of climate. To place these and other Old World climate projections into historical perspective based on more complete estimates of natural hydroclimatic variability, we have developed the Old World Drought Atlas (OWDA), a set of year-to-year maps of tree-ring reconstructed summer wetness and dryness over Europe and the Mediterranean Basin during the Common Era. The OWDA matches historical accounts of severe drought and wetness with a spatial completeness not previously available. In addition, megadroughts reconstructed over north-central Europe in the 11th and mid-15th centuries reinforce other evidence from North America and Asia that droughts were more severe, extensive, and prolonged over Northern Hemisphere land areas before the 20th century, with an inadequate understanding of their causes. The OWDA provides new data to determine the causes of Old World drought and wetness and attribute past climate variability to forced and/or internal variability.

  • 6.
    Corral-López, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Bloch, Natasha I.
    Kotrschal, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    van der Bijl, Wouter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Buechel, Severine D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Mank, Judith E.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Female brain size affects the assessment of male attractiveness during mate choice2017In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 3, article id e1601990Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mate choice decisions are central in sexual selection theory aimed to understand how sexual traits evolve and their role in evolutionary diversification. We test the hypothesis that brain size and cognitive ability are important for accurate assessment of partner quality and that variation in brain size and cognitive ability underlies variation in mate choice. We compared sexual preference in guppy female lines selected for divergence in relative brain size, which we have previously shown to have substantial differences in cognitive ability. In a dichotomous choice test, large-brained and wild-type females showed strong preference for males with color traits that predict attractiveness in this species. In contrast, small-brained females showed no preference for males with these traits. In-depth analysis of optomotor response to color cues and gene expression of key opsins in the eye revealed that the observed differences were not due to differences in visual perception of color, indicating that differences in the ability to process indicators of attractiveness are responsible. We thus provide the first experimental support that individual variation in brain size affects mate choice decisions and conclude that differences in cognitive ability may be an important underlying mechanism behind variation in female mate choice.

  • 7.
    Dasari, Sanjeev
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Andersson, August
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bikkina, Srinivas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Holmstrand, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Budhavant, Krishnakant
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Maldives Climate Observatory at Hanimaadhoo (MCOH), Republic of the Maldives; Indian Institute of Sciences (IISC), India.
    Satheesh, Sreedharan
    Asmi, Eija
    Kesti, Jutta
    Backman, John
    Salam, Abdus
    Bisht, Deewan Singh
    Tiwari, Suresh
    Hameed, Zahid
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Photochemical degradation affects the light absorption of water-soluble brown carbon in the South Asian outflow2019In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 5, no 1, article id eaau8066Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light-absorbing organic aerosols, known as brown carbon (BrC), counteract the overall cooling effect of aerosols on Earth's climate. The spatial and temporal dynamics of their light-absorbing properties are poorly constrained and unaccounted for in climate models, because of limited ambient observations. We combine carbon isotope forensics (delta C-13) with measurements of light absorption in a conceptual aging model to constrain the loss of light absorptivity (i.e., bleaching) of water-soluble BrC (WS-BrC) aerosols in one of the world's largest BrC emission regions-South Asia. On this regional scale, we find that atmospheric photochemical oxidation reduces the light absorption of WS-BrC by similar to 84% during transport over 6000 km in the Indo-Gangetic Plain, with an ambient first-order bleaching rate of 0.20 +/- 0.05 day(-1) during over-ocean transit across Bay of Bengal to an Indian Ocean receptor site. This study facilitates dynamic parameterization of WS-BrC absorption properties, thereby constraining BrC climate impact over South Asia.

  • 8. Edgar, Graham J.
    et al.
    Alexander, Timothy J.
    Lefcheck, Jonathan S.
    Bates, Amanda E.
    Kininmonth, Stuart J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of the South Pacific, Fiji Islands.
    Thomson, Russell J.
    Duffy, J. Emmett
    Costello, Mark J.
    Stuart-Smith, Rick D.
    Abundance and local-scale processes contribute to multi-phyla gradients in global marine diversity2017In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 10, article id e1700419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among themost enduring ecological challenges is an integrated theory explaining the latitudinal biodiversity gradient, including discrepancies observed at different spatial scales. Analysis of Reef Life Survey data for 4127 marine species at 2406 coral and rocky sites worldwide confirms that the total ecoregion richness peaks in low latitudes, near +15 degrees N and -15 degrees S. However, although richness at survey sites is maximal near the equator for vertebrates, it peaks at high latitudes for large mobile invertebrates. Site richness for different groups is dependent on abundance, which is in turn correlated with temperature for fishes and nutrients for macroinvertebrates. We suggest that temperature-mediated fish predation and herbivory have constrained mobile macroinvertebrate diversity at the site scale across the tropics. Conversely, at the ecoregion scale, richness responds positively to coral reef area, highlighting potentially huge global biodiversity losses with coral decline. Improved conservation outcomes require management frameworks, informed by hierarchical monitoring, that cover differing site- and regional-scale processes across diverse taxa, including attention to invertebrate species, which appear disproportionately threatened by warming seas.

  • 9. Elliott, Mark
    et al.
    Favre-Guilmard, Christine
    Liu, Sai Man
    Maignel, Jacquie
    Masuyer, Geoffrey
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Beard, Matthew
    Boone, Christopher
    Carre, Denis
    Kalinichev, Mikhail
    Lezmi, Stephane
    Mir, Imran
    Nicoleau, Camille
    Palan, Shilpa
    Perier, Cindy
    Raban, Elsa
    Zhang, Sicai
    Dong, Min
    Stenmark, Pål
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Lund University, Sweden.
    Krupp, Johannes
    Engineered botulinum neurotoxin B with improved binding to human receptors has enhanced efficacy in preclinical models2019In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 5, no 1, article id eaau7196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) products are common treatments for various disorders, there is only one commercial BoNT/B product, whose low potency, likely stemming from low affinity toward its human receptor synaptotagmin 2 (hSyt2), has limited its therapeutic usefulness. We express and characterize two full-length recombinant BoNT/B1 proteins containing designed mutations E1191M/S1199Y (rBoNT/B1(MY)) and E1191Q/S1199W (rBoNT/B1(QW)) that enhance binding to hSyt2. In preclinical models including human-induced pluripotent stem cell neurons and a humanized transgenic mouse, this increased hSyt2 affinity results in high potency, comparable to that of BoNT/A. Last, we solve the cocrystal structure of rBoNT/B1(MY) in complex with peptides of hSyt2 and its homolog hSyt1. We demonstrate that neuronal surface receptor binding limits the clinical efficacy of unmodified BoNT/B and that modified BoNT/B proteins have promising clinical potential.

  • 10.
    Hill, Jason
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rastas, Pasi
    Hornett, Emily A.
    Neethiraj, Ramprasad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Clark, Nathan
    Morehouse, Nathan
    de la Paz Celorio-Mancera, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Carnicer Cols, Jofre
    Dircksen, Heinrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Functional Morphology.
    Meslin, Camille
    Keehnen, Naomi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Pruisscher, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Sikkink, Kristin
    Vives, Maria
    Vogel, Heiko
    Wiklund, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Woronik, Alyssa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics. New York University, USA.
    Boggs, Carol L.
    Nylin, Sören
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Wheat, Christopher W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Unprecedented reorganization of holocentric chromosomes provides insights into the enigma of lepidopteran chromosome evolution2019In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 5, no 6, article id eaau3648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chromosome evolution presents an enigma in the mega-diverse Lepidoptera. Most species exhibit constrained chromosome evolution with nearly identical haploid chromosome counts and chromosome-level gene collinearity among species more than 140 million years divergent. However, a few species possess radically inflated chromosomal counts due to extensive fission and fusion events. To address this enigma of constraint in the face of an exceptional ability to change, we investigated an unprecedented reorganization of the standard lepidopteran chromosome structure in the green-veined white butterfly (Pieris napi). We find that gene content in P. napi has been extensively rearranged in large collinear blocks, which until now have been masked by a haploid chromosome number close to the lepidopteran average. We observe that ancient chromosome ends have been maintained and collinear blocks are enriched for functionally related genes suggesting both a mechanism and a possible role for selection in determining the boundaries of these genome-wide rearrangements.

  • 11. Hochman, Assaf
    et al.
    Alpert, Pinhas
    Harpaz, Tzvi
    Saaroni, Hadas
    Messori, Gabriele
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology . Uppsala University, Sweden.
    A new dynamical systems perspective on atmospheric predictability: Eastern Mediterranean weather regimes as a case study2019In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 5, no 6, article id eaau0936Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The atmosphere is a chaotic system displaying recurrent large-scale configurations. Recent developments in dynamical systems theory allow us to describe these configurations in terms of the local dimension-a proxy for the active number of degrees of freedom-and persistence in phase space, which can be interpreted as persistence in time. These properties provide information on the intrinsic predictability of an atmospheric state. Here, this technique is applied to atmospheric configurations in the eastern Mediterranean, grouped into synoptic classifications (SCs). It is shown that local dimension and persistence, derived from reanalysis and CMIP5 models' daily sea-level pressure fields, can serve as an extremely informative qualitative method for evaluating the predictability of the different SCs. These metrics, combined with the SC transitional probability approach, may be a valuable complement to operational weather forecasts and effective tools for climate model evaluation. This new perspective can be extended to other geographical regions.

  • 12. Jemth, Per
    et al.
    Karlsson, Elin
    Vögeli, Beat
    Guzovsky, Brenda
    Andersson, Eva
    Hultqvist, Greta
    Dogan, Jakob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Güntert, Peter
    Riek, Roland
    Chi, Celestine N.
    Structure and dynamics conspire in the evolution of affinity between intrinsically disordered proteins2018In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 4, no 10, article id eaau4130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In every established species, protein-protein interactions have evolved such that they are fit for purpose. However, the molecular details of the evolution of new protein-protein interactions are poorly understood. We have used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate the changes in structure and dynamics during the evolution of a protein-protein interaction involving the intrinsically disordered CREBBP (CREB-binding protein) interaction domain (CID) and nuclear coactivator binding domain (NCBD) from the transcriptional coregulators NCOA (nuclear receptor coactivator) and CREBBP/p300, respectively. The most ancient low-affinity Cambrian-like [540 to 600 million years (Ma) ago] CID/NCBD complex contained less secondary structure and was more dynamic than the complexes from an evolutionarily younger Ordovician-Silurian fish ancestor (ca. 440 Ma ago) and extant human. The most ancient Cambrian-like CID/NCBD complex lacked one helix and several interdomain interactions, resulting in a larger solvent-accessible surface area. Furthermore, the most ancient complex had a high degree of millisecond-to-microsecond dynamics distributed along the entire sequences of both CID and NCBD. These motions were reduced in the Ordovician-Silurian CID/NCBD complex and further redistributed in the extant human CID/NCBD complex. Isothermal calorimetry experiments show that complex formation is enthalpically favorable and that affinity is modulated by a largely unfavorable entropic contribution to binding. Our data demonstrate how changes in structure and motion conspire to shape affinity during the evolution of a protein-protein complex and provide direct evidence for the role of structural, dynamic, and frustrational plasticity in the evolution of interactions between intrinsically disordered proteins.

  • 13. Jogenfors, Jonathan
    et al.
    Elhassan, Ashraf Mohamed
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Ahrens, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Bourennane, Mohamed
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Larsson, Jan-Åke
    Hacking the Bell test using classical light in energy-time entanglement-based quantum key distribution2015In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 1, no 11, article id e1500793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photonic systems based on energy-time entanglement have been proposed to test local realism using the Bell inequality. A violation of this inequality normally also certifies security of device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) so that an attacker cannot eavesdrop or control the system. We show how this security test can be circumvented in energy-time entangled systems when using standard avalanche photodetectors, allowing an attacker to compromise the system without leaving a trace. We reach Bell values up to 3.63 at 97.6% faked detector efficiency using tailored pulses of classical light, which exceeds even the quantum prediction. This is the first demonstration of a violation-faking source that gives both tunable violation and high faked detector efficiency. The implications are severe: the standard Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality cannot be used to show device-independent security for energy-time entanglement setups based on Franson's configuration. However, device-independent security can be reestablished, and we conclude by listing a number of improved tests and experimental setups that would protect against all current and future attacks of this type.

  • 14.
    Krzewińska, Maja
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Kılınç, Gülşah Merve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Juras, Anna
    Koptekin, Dilek
    Chylenski, Maciej
    Nikitin, Alexey G.
    Shcherbakov, Nikolai
    Shuteleva, Iia
    Leonova, Tatiana
    Kraeva, Liudmila
    Sungatov, Flarit A.
    Sultanova, Alfija N.
    Potekhina, Inna
    Łukasik, Sylwia
    Krenz-Niedbała, Marta
    Dalén, Love
    Sinika, Vitaly
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Storå, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Ancient genomes suggest the eastern Pontic-Caspian steppe as the source of western Iron Age nomads2018In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 4, no 10, article id eaat4457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For millennia, the Pontic-Caspian steppe was a connector between the Eurasian steppe and Europe. In this scene, multidirectional and sequential movements of different populations may have occurred, including those of the Eurasian steppe nomads. We sequenced 35 genomes (low to medium coverage) of Bronze Age individuals (Srubnaya-Alakulskaya) and Iron Age nomads (Cimmerians, Scythians, and Sarmatians) that represent four distinct cultural entities corresponding to the chronological sequence of cultural complexes in the region. Our results suggest that, despite genetic links among these peoples, no group can be considered a direct ancestor of the subsequent group. The nomadic populations were heterogeneous and carried genetic affinities with populations from several other regions including the Far East and the southern Urals. We found evidence of a stable shared genetic signature, making the eastern Pontic-Caspian steppe a likely source of western nomadic groups.

  • 15.
    Lade, Steven J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Australian National University, Australia.
    Haider, L. Jamila
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Engström, Gustav
    Schlüter, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Resilience offers escape from trapped thinking on poverty alleviation2017In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 5, article id 1603043Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The poverty trap concept strongly influences current research and policy on poverty alleviation. Financial or technological inputs intended to push the rural poor out of a poverty trap have had many successes but have also failed unexpectedly with serious ecological and social consequences that can reinforce poverty. Resilience thinking can help to (i) understand how these failures emerge from the complex relationships between humans and the ecosystems on which they depend and (ii) navigate diverse poverty alleviation strategies, such as transformative change, that may instead be required. First, we review commonly observed or assumed social-ecological relationships in rural development contexts, focusing on economic, biophysical, and cultural aspects of poverty. Second, we develop a classification of poverty alleviation strategies using insights from resilience research on social-ecological change. Last, we use these advances to develop stylized, multidimensional poverty trap models. The models show that (i) interventions that ignore nature and culture can reinforce poverty (particularly in agrobiodiverse landscapes), (ii) transformative change can instead open new pathways for poverty alleviation, and (iii) asset inputs may be effective in other contexts (for example, where resource degradation and poverty are tightly interlinked). Our model-based approach and insights offer a systematic way to review the consequences of the causal mechanisms that characterize poverty traps in different agricultural contexts and identify appropriate strategies for rural development challenges.

  • 16. Lavender, Sally L.
    et al.
    Walsh, Kevin J. E.
    Caron, Louis-Philippe
    King, Malcolm
    Monkiewicz, Sam
    Guishard, Mark
    Zhang, Qiong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Hunt, Barrie
    Estimation of the maximum annual number of North Atlantic tropical cyclones using climate models2018In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 4, no 8, article id eaat6509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using millennia-long climate model simulations, favorable environments for tropical cyclone formation are examined to determine whether the record number of tropical cyclones in the 2005 Atlantic season is close to the maximum possible number for the present climate of that basin. By estimating both the mean number of tropical cyclones and their possible year-to-year random variability, we find that the likelihood that the maximum number of storms in the Atlantic could be greater than the number of events observed during the 2005 season is less than 3.5%. Using a less restrictive comparison between simulated and observed climate with the internal variability accounted for, this probability increases to 9%; however, the estimated maximum possible number of tropical cyclones does not greatly exceed the 2005 total. Hence, the 2005 season can be used as a risk management benchmark for the maximum possible number of tropical cyclones in the Atlantic.

  • 17. Lehtipalo, Katrianne
    et al.
    Yan, Chao
    Dada, Lubna
    Bianchi, Federico
    Xiao, Mao
    Wagner, Robert
    Stolzenburg, Dominik
    Ahonen, Lauri R.
    Amorim, Antonio
    Baccarini, Andrea
    Bauer, Paulus S.
    Baumgartner, Bernhard
    Bergen, Anton
    Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin
    Breitenlechner, Martin
    Brilke, Sophia
    Buchholz, Angela
    Mazon, Stephany Buenrostro
    Chen, Dexian
    Chen, Xuemeng
    Dias, Antonio
    Dommen, Josef
    Draper, Danielle C.
    Duplissy, Jonathan
    Ehn, Mikael
    Finkenzeller, Henning
    Fischer, Lukas
    Frege, Carla
    Fuchs, Claudia
    Garmash, Olga
    Gordon, Hamish
    Hakala, Jani
    He, Xucheng
    Heikkinen, Liine
    Heinritzi, Martin
    Helm, Johanna C.
    Hofbauer, Victoria
    Hoyle, Christopher R.
    Jokinen, Tuija
    Kangasluoma, Juha
    Kerminen, Veli-Matti
    Kim, Changhyuk
    Kirkby, Jasper
    Kontkanen, Jenni
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Kuerten, Andreas
    Lawler, Michael J.
    Mai, Huajun
    Mathot, Serge
    Mauldin, Roy L.
    Molteni, Ugo
    Nichman, Leonid
    Nie, Wei
    Nieminen, Tuomo
    Ojdanic, Andrea
    Onnela, Antti
    Passananti, Monica
    Petaja, Tuukka
    Piel, Felix
    Pospisilova, Veronika
    Quelever, Lauriane L. J.
    Rissanen, Matti P.
    Rose, Clemence
    Sarnela, Nina
    Schallhart, Simon
    Schuchmann, Simone
    Sengupta, Kamalika
    Simon, Mario
    Sipila, Mikko
    Tauber, Christian
    Tome, Antonio
    Trostl, Jasmin
    Vaisanen, Olli
    Vogel, Alexander L.
    Volkamer, Rainer
    Wagner, Andrea C.
    Wang, Mingyi
    Weitz, Lena
    Wimmer, Daniela
    Ye, Penglin
    Ylisirnio, Arttu
    Zha, Qiaozhi
    Carslaw, Kenneth S.
    Curtius, Joachim
    Donahue, Neil M.
    Flagan, Richard C.
    Hansel, Armin
    Riipinen, Ilona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Virtanen, Annele
    Winkler, Paul M.
    Baltensperger, Urs
    Kulmala, Markku
    Worsnop, Douglas R.
    Multicomponent new particle formation from sulfuric acid, ammonia, and biogenic vapors2018In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 4, no 12, article id eaau5363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major fraction of atmospheric aerosol particles, which affect both air quality and climate, form from gaseous precursors in the atmosphere. Highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs), formed by oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds, are known to participate in particle formation and growth. However, it is not well understood how they interact with atmospheric pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur oxides (SOx) from fossil fuel combustion, as well as ammonia (NH3) from livestock and fertilizers. Here, we show how NOx suppresses particle formation, while HOMs, sulfuric acid, and NH3 have a synergistic enhancing effect on particle formation. We postulate a novel mechanism, involving HOMs, sulfuric acid, and ammonia, which is able to closely reproduce observations of particle formation and growth in daytime boreal forest and similar environments. The findings elucidate the complex interactions between biogenic and anthropogenic vapors in the atmospheric aerosol system.

  • 18.
    Nawareg, Mohamed
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. University of Gdańsk, Poland.
    Muhammad, Sadiq
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Horodecki, Pawel
    Bourennane, Mohamed
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Superadditivity of two quantum information resources2017In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 9, article id e1602485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entanglement is one of the most puzzling features of quantum theory and a principal resource for quantum information processing. It is well known that in classical information theory, the addition of two classical information resources will not lead to any extra advantages. On the contrary, in quantuminformation, a spectacular phenomenon of the superadditivity of two quantum information resources emerges. It shows that quantum entanglement, which was completely absent in any of the two resources separately, emerges as a result of combining them together. We present the first experimental demonstration of this quantum phenomenon with two photonic three-partite nondistillable entangled states shared between three parties Alice, Bob, and Charlie, where the entanglement was completely absent between Bob and Charlie.

  • 19. Ottosson, Nina E.
    et al.
    Silverå Ejneby, Malin
    Wu, Xiongyu
    Yazdi, Samira
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Konradsson, Peter
    Lindahl, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab). KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Elinder, Fredrik
    A drug pocket at the lipid bilayer-potassium channel interface2017In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 10, article id e1701099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many pharmaceutical drugs against neurological and cardiovascular disorders exert their therapeutic effects by binding to specific sites on voltage-gated ion channels of neurons or cardiomyocytes. To date, all molecules targeting known ion channel sites bind to protein pockets that are mainly surrounded by water. We describe a lipid-protein drug-binding pocket of a potassium channel. We synthesized and electrophysiologically tested 125 derivatives, analogs, and related compounds to dehydroabietic acid. Functional data in combination with docking and molecular dynamics simulations mapped a binding site for small-molecule compounds at the interface between the lipid bilayer and the transmembrane segments S3 and S4 of the voltage-sensor domain. This fundamentally new binding site for small-molecule compounds paves the way for the design of new types of drugs against diseases caused by altered excitability.

  • 20.
    Poiana, Federica
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    von Ballmoos, Christoph
    Gonska, Nathalie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Blomberg, Margareta R. A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Ädelroth, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Splitting of the O-O bond at the heme-copper catalytic site of respiratory oxidases2017In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 6, article id e1700279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heme-copper oxidases catalyze the four-electron reduction of O-2 to H2O at a catalytic site that is composed of a heme group, a copper ion (Cu-B), and a tyrosine residue. Results from earlier experimental studies have shown that the O-O bond is cleaved simultaneously with electron transfer from a low-spin heme (heme a/b), forming a ferryl state (P-R; Fe4+= O2-, Cu-B(2+)-OH-). We show that with the Thermus thermophilus ba(3) oxidase, at low temperature (10 degrees C, pH 7), electron transfer from the low-spin heme b to the catalytic site is faster by a factor of similar to 10 (tau congruent to 11 mu s) than the formation of the P-R ferryl (t. 110 ms), which indicates that O-2 is reduced before the splitting of the O-O bond. Application of density functional theory indicates that the electron acceptor at the catalytic site is a high-energy peroxy state [Fe3+-O--O-(H+)], which is formed before the P-R ferryl. The rates of heme b oxidation and P-R ferryl formation were more similar at pH 10, indicating that the formation of the high-energy peroxy state involves proton transfer within the catalytic site, consistent with theory. The combined experimental and theoretical data suggest a general mechanism for O-2 reduction by heme-copper oxidases.

  • 21. Reusch, Thorsten B. H.
    et al.
    Dierking, Jan
    Andersson, Helen C.
    Bonsdorff, Erik
    Carstensen, Jacob
    Casini, Michele
    Czajkowski, Mikolaj
    Hasler, Berit
    Hinsby, Klaus
    Hyytiäinen, Kari
    Johannesson, Kerstin
    Jomaa, Seifeddine
    Jormalainen, Veijo
    Kuosa, Harri
    Kurland, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Laikre, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    MacKenzie, Brian R.
    Margonski, Piotr
    Melzner, Frank
    Oesterwind, Daniel
    Ojaveer, Henn
    Refsgaard, Jens Christian
    Sandström, Annica
    Schwarz, Gerald
    Tonderski, Karin
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Zandersen, Marianne
    The Baltic Sea as a time machine for the future coastal ocean2018In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 4, no 5, article id eaar8195Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal global oceans are expected to undergo drastic changes driven by climate change and increasing anthropogenic pressures in coming decades. Predicting specific future conditions and assessing the best management strategies to maintain ecosystem integrity and sustainable resource use are difficult, because of multiple interacting pressures, uncertain projections, and a lack of test cases for management. We argue that the Baltic Sea can serve as a time machine to study consequences and mitigation of future coastal perturbations, due to its unique combination of an early history of multistressor disturbance and ecosystem deterioration and early implementation of cross-border environmental management to address these problems. The Baltic Sea also stands out in providing a strong scientific foundation and accessibility to long-term data series that provide a unique opportunity to assess the efficacy of management actions to address the breakdown of ecosystem functions. Trend reversals such as the return of top predators, recovering fish stocks, and reduced input of nutrient and harmful substances could be achieved only by implementing an international, cooperative governance structure transcending its complex multistate policy setting, with integrated management of watershed and sea. The Baltic Sea also demonstrates how rapidly progressing global pressures, particularly warming of Baltic waters and the surrounding catchment area, can offset the efficacy of current management approaches. This situation calls for management that is (i) conservative to provide a buffer against regionally unmanageable global perturbations, (ii) adaptive to react to new management challenges, and, ultimately, (iii) multisectorial and integrative to address conflicts associated with economic trade-offs.

  • 22. Revelli, A.
    et al.
    Sala, M. Moretti
    Monaco, G.
    Becker, P.
    Bohaty, L.
    Hermanns, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita). Universität zu Köln, Germany; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Koethe, T. C.
    Fröhlich, T.
    Warzanowski, P.
    Lorenz, T.
    Streltsov, S. V.
    van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.
    Khomskii, D. I.
    van den Brink, J.
    Grüninger, M.
    Resonant inelastic x-ray incarnation of Young's double-slit experiment2019In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 5, no 1, article id eaav4020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Young's archetypal double-slit experiment forms the basis for modern diffraction techniques: The elastic scattering of waves yields an interference pattern that captures the real-space structure. Here, we report on an inelastic incarnation of Young's experiment and demonstrate that resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) measures interference patterns, which reveal the symmetry and character of electronic excited states in the same way as elastic scattering does for the ground state. A prototypical example is provided by the quasi-molecular electronic structure of insulating Ba3CeIr2O9 with structural Ir dimers and strong spin-orbit coupling. The double slits in this resonant experiment are the highly localized core levels of the two Ir atoms within a dimer. The clear double-slit-type sinusoidal interference patterns that we observe allow us to characterize the electronic excitations, demonstrating the power of RIXS interferometry to unravel the electronic structure of solids containing, e.g., dimers, trimers, ladders, or other superstructures.

  • 23. Shan, Yuli
    et al.
    Guan, Dabo
    Hubacek, Klaus
    Zheng, Bo
    Davis, Steven J.
    Jia, Lichao
    Liu, Jianghua
    Liu, Zhu
    Fromer, Neil
    Mi, Zhifu
    Meng, Jing
    Deng, Xiangzheng
    Li, Yuan
    Lin, Jintai
    Schroeder, Heike
    Weisz, Helga
    Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Potsdam, Germany; Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany.
    City-level climate change mitigation in China2018In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 4, no 6, article id eaaq0390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As national efforts to reduce CO2 emissions intensify, policy-makers need increasingly specific, subnational information about the sources of CO2 and the potential reductions and economic implications of different possible policies. This is particularly true in China, a large and economically diverse country that has rapidly industrialized and urbanized and that has pledged under the Paris Agreement that its emissions will peak by 2030. We present new, city level estimates of CO2 emissions for 182 Chinese cities, decomposed into 17 different fossil fuels, 46 socioeconomic sectors, and 7 industrial processes. We find that more affluent cities have systematically lower emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP), supported by imports from less affluent, industrial cities located nearby. In turn, clusters of industrial cities are supported by nearby centers of coal or oil extraction. Whereas policies directly targeting manufacturing and electric power infrastructure would drastically undermine the GDP of industrial cities, consumption based policies might allow emission reductions to be subsidized by those with greater ability to pay. In particular, sector based analysis of each city suggests that technological improvements could be a practical and effective means of reducing emissions while maintaining growth and the current economic structure and energy system. We explore city-level emission reductions under three scenarios of technological progress to show that substantial reductions (up to 31%) are possible by updating a disproportionately small fraction of existing infrastructure.

  • 24.
    Sparrow, Katy J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. University of Rochester, USA.
    Kessler, John D.
    Southon, John R.
    Garcia-Tigreros, Fenix
    Schreiner, Kathryn M.
    Ruppel, Carolyn D.
    Miller, John B.
    Lehman, Scott J.
    Xu, Xiaomei
    Limited contribution of ancient methane to surface waters of the U.S. Beaufort Sea shelf2018In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 4, no 1, article id eaao4842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to warming climate, methane can be released to Arctic Ocean sediment and waters from thawing subsea permafrost and decomposing methane hydrates. However, it is unknown whether methane derived from this sediment storehouse of frozen ancient carbon reaches the atmosphere. We quantified the fraction of methane derived fromancient sources in shelf waters of the U.S. Beaufort Sea, a region that has both permafrost andmethane hydrates and is experiencing significant warming. Although the radiocarbon-methane analyses indicate that ancient carbon is being mobilized and emitted as methane into shelf bottom waters, surprisingly, we find that methane in surface waters is principally derived from modern-aged carbon. We report that at and beyond approximately the 30-m isobath, ancient sources that dominate in deep waters contribute, at most, 10 +/- 3% of the surface water methane. These results suggest that even if there is a heightened liberation of ancient carbon-sourced methane as climate change proceeds, oceanic oxidation and dispersion processes can strongly limit its emission to the atmosphere.

  • 25.
    Van Holt, Tracy
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Putz, Francis Edward
    Perpetuating the myth of the return of native forests2017In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 5, article id e1601768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vina et al. imply that native forests account for China's marked increase in tree cover and that tree plantations play a minimal role. All 71 tweets linked to the article reinforce the idea that China's native forests are returning, whereas a review of theirmethodology indicates that it is not likely accurate. Referring news articles (n = 19) were dominated by terms associated with native forests, whereas tree plantations were rarely mentioned.

  • 26.
    Winiger, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Barrett, T. E.
    Sheesley, R. J.
    Huang, L.
    Sharma, S.
    Barrie, Leonard A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Yttri, K. E.
    Evangeliou, N.
    Eckhardt, S.
    Stohl, A.
    Klimont, Z.
    Heyes, C.
    Semiletov, I. P.
    Dudarev, O.
    Charkin, A.
    Shakhova, N.
    Holmstrand, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Andersson, August
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Source apportionment of circum-Arctic atmospheric black carbon from isotopes and modeling2019In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 5, no 2, article id eaau8052Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Black carbon (BC) contributes to Arctic climate warming, yet source attributions are inaccurate due to lacking observational constraints and uncertainties in emission inventories. Year-round, isotope-constrained observations reveal strong seasonal variations in BC sources with a consistent and synchronous pattern at all Arctic sites. These sources were dominated by emissions from fossil fuel combustion in the winter and by biomass burning in the summer. The annual mean source of BC to the circum-Arctic was 39 +/- 10% from biomass burning. Comparison of transport-model predictions with the observations showed good agreement for BC concentrations, with larger discrepancies for (fossil/biomass burning) sources. The accuracy of simulated BC concentration, but not of origin, points to misallocations of emissions in the emission inventories. The consistency in seasonal source contributions of BC throughout the Arctic provides strong justification for targeted emission reductions to limit the impact of BC on climate warming in the Arctic and beyond.

  • 27. Xiao, Ya
    et al.
    Wiseman, Howard M.
    Xu, Jin-Shi
    Kedem, Yaron
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Li, Chuan-Feng
    Guo, Guang-Can
    Observing momentum disturbance in double-slit which-way measurements2019In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 5, no 6, article id eaav9547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Making a which-way measurement (WWM) to identify which slit a particle goes through in a double-slit apparatus will reduce the visibility of interference fringes. There has been a long-standing controversy over whether this can be attributed to an uncontrollable momentum transfer. Here, by reconstructing the Bohmian trajectories of single photons, we experimentally obtain the distribution of momentum change. For our WWM, the change we see is not a momentum kick that occurs at the point of the WWM, but rather one that nonclassically accumulates during the propagation of the photons. We further confirm a quantitative relation between the loss of visibility consequent on a WWM and the total (late-time) momentum disturbance. Our results emphasize the role of the Bohmian momentum in giving an intuitive picture of wave-particle duality and complementarity.

  • 28.
    Xu, Hongyi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Lebrette, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Clabbers, Max T. B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Zhao, Jingjing
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Griese, Julia J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Zou, Xiaodong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Högbom, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Solving a new R2lox protein structure by microcrystal electron diffraction2019In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 5, no 8, article id eaax4621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microcrystal electron diffraction (MicroED) has recently shown potential for structural biology. It enables the study of biomolecules from micrometer-sized 3D crystals that are too small to be studied by conventional x-ray crystallography. However, to date, MicroED has only been applied to redetermine protein structures that had already been solved previously by x-ray diffraction. Here, we present the first new protein structure-an R2lox enzyme-solved using MicroED. The structure was phased by molecular replacement using a search model of 35% sequence identity. The resulting electrostatic scattering potential map at 3.0-angstrom resolution was of sufficient quality to allow accurate model building and refinement. The dinuclear metal cofactor could be located in the map and was modeled as a heterodinuclear Mn/Fe center based on previous studies. Our results demonstrate that MicroED has the potential to become a widely applicable tool for revealing novel insights into protein structure and function.

1 - 28 of 28
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