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  • 1. Albouy, Camille
    et al.
    Archambault, Philippe
    Appeltans, Ward
    Araujo, Miguel B.
    Beauchesne, David
    Cazelles, Kevin
    Cirtwill, Alyssa R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Fortin, Marie-Josee
    Galiana, Nuria
    Leroux, Shawn J.
    Pellissier, Loik
    Poisot, Timothee
    Stouffer, Daniel B.
    Wood, Spencer A.
    Gravel, Dominique
    The marine fish food web is globally connected2019In: Nature Ecology & Evolution, E-ISSN 2397-334X, Vol. 3, no 8, p. 1153-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The productivity of marine ecosystems and the services they provide to humans are largely dependent on complex interactions between prey and predators. These are embedded in a diverse network of trophic interactions, resulting in a cascade of events following perturbations such as species extinction. The sheer scale of oceans, however, precludes the characterization of marine feeding networks through de novo sampling. This effort ought instead to rely on a combination of extensive data and inference. Here we investigate how the distribution of trophic interactions at the global scale shapes the marine fish food web structure. We hypothesize that the heterogeneous distribution of species ranges in biogeographic regions should concentrate interactions in the warmest areas and within species groups. We find that the inferred global metaweb of marine fish-that is, all possible potential feeding links between co-occurring species-is highly connected geographically with a low degree of spatial modularity. Metrics of network structure correlate with sea surface temperature and tend to peak towards the tropics. In contrast to open-water communities, coastal food webs have greater interaction redundancy, which may confer robustness to species extinction. Our results suggest that marine ecosystems are connected yet display some resistance to perturbations because of high robustness at most locations.

  • 2. Bloch, Natasha
    et al.
    Corral-López, Alberto
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Buechel, Severine D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Kotrschal, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Mank, Judith E.
    Early neurogenomic response associated with variation in guppy female mate preference2018In: Nature Ecology & Evolution, E-ISSN 2397-334X, Vol. 2, no 11, p. 1772-1781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the evolution of mate choice requires dissecting the mechanisms of female preference, particularly how these differ among social contexts and preference phenotypes. Here, we studied the female neurogenomic response after only 10 min of mate exposure in both a sensory component (optic tectum) and a decision-making component (telencephalon) of the brain. By comparing the transcriptional response between females with and without preferences for colourful males, we identified unique neurogenomic elements associated with the female preference phenotype that are not present in females without preference. A network analysis revealed different properties for this response at the sensory-processing and the decision-making levels, and we show that this response is highly centralized in the telencephalon. Furthermore, we identified an additional set of genes that vary in expression across social contexts, beyond mate evaluation. We show that transcription factors among these loci are predicted to regulate the transcriptional response of the genes we found to be associated with female preference.

  • 3. Capek, P. T.
    et al.
    Manzoni, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Kastovska, E.
    Wild, B.
    Diakova, K.
    Barta, J.
    Schnecker, J.
    Blasi, C.
    Martikainen, P. J.
    Alves, R. J. E.
    Guggenberger, G.
    Gentsch, N.
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Palmtag, Juri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Mikutta, R.
    Shibistova, O.
    Urich, T.
    Schleper, C.
    Richter, A.
    Santruckova, H.
    A plant-microbe interaction framework explaining nutrient effects on primary production2018In: Nature Ecology & Evolution, E-ISSN 2397-334X, Vol. 2, no 10, p. 1588-1596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most terrestrial ecosystems, plant growth is limited by nitrogen and phosphorus. Adding either nutrient to soil usually affects primary production, but their effects can be positive or negative. Here we provide a general stoichiometric framework for interpreting these contrasting effects. First, we identify nitrogen and phosphorus limitations on plants and soil microorganisms using their respective nitrogen to phosphorus critical ratios. Second, we use these ratios to show how soil microorganisms mediate the response of primary production to limiting and non-limiting nutrient addition along a wide gradient of soil nutrient availability. Using a meta-analysis of 51 factorial nitrogen-phosphorus fertilization experiments conducted across multiple ecosystems, we demonstrate that the response of primary production to nitrogen and phosphorus additions is accurately predicted by our stoichiometric framework. The only pattern that could not be predicted by our original framework suggests that nitrogen has not only a structural function in growing organisms, but also a key role in promoting plant and microbial nutrient acquisition. We conclude that this stoichiometric framework offers the most parsimonious way to interpret contrasting and, until now, unresolved responses of primary production to nutrient addition in terrestrial ecosystems.

  • 4. Dakos, Vasilis
    et al.
    Matthews, Blake
    Hendry, Andrew P.
    Levine, Jonathan
    Loeuille, Nicolas
    Norberg, Jon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nosil, Patrik
    Scheffer, Marten
    De Meester, Luc
    Ecosystem tipping points in an evolving world2019In: Nature Ecology & Evolution, E-ISSN 2397-334X, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 355-362Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is growing concern over tipping points arising in ecosystems because of the crossing of environmental thresholds. Tipping points lead to abrupt and possibly irreversible shifts between alternative ecosystem states, potentially incurring high societal costs. Trait variation in populations is central to the biotic feedbacks that maintain alternative ecosystem states, as they govern the responses of populations to environmental change that could stabilize or destabilize ecosystem states. However, we know little about how evolutionary changes in trait distributions over time affect the occurrence of tipping points and even less about how big-scale ecological shifts reciprocally interact with trait dynamics. We argue that interactions between ecological and evolutionary processes should be taken into account in order to understand the balance of feedbacks governing tipping points in nature.

  • 5. De Frenne, Pieter
    et al.
    Zellweger, Florian
    Rodríguez-Sánchez,, Francisco
    Scheffers, Brett R.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Luoto, Miska
    Vellend, Mark
    Verheyen, Kris
    Lenoir, Jonathan
    Global buffering of temperatures under forest canopies2019In: Nature Ecology & Evolution, E-ISSN 2397-334X, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 744-749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Macroclimate warming is often assumed to occur within forests despite the potential for tree cover to modify microclimates. Here, using paired measurements, we compared the temperatures under the canopy versus in the open at 98 sites across 5 continents. We show that forests function as a thermal insulator, cooling the understory when ambient temperatures are hot and warming the understory when ambient temperatures are cold. The understory versus open temperature offset is magnified as temperatures become more extreme and is of greater magnitude than the warming of land temperatures over the past century. Tree canopies may thus reduce the severity of warming impacts on forest biodiversity and functioning.

  • 6.
    Galaz, Victor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Dauriach, Alice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Fichtner, Jan
    Tax havens and global environmental degradation2018In: Nature Ecology & Evolution, E-ISSN 2397-334X, Vol. 2, no 9, p. 1352-1357Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The release of classified documents in the past years have offered a rare glimpse into the opaque world of tax havens and their role in the global economy. Although the political, economic and social implications related to these financial secrecy jurisdictions are known, their role in supporting economic activities with potentially detrimental environmental consequences have until now been largely ignored. Here, we combine quantitative analysis with case descriptions to elaborate and quantify the connections between tax havens and the environment, both in global fisheries and the Brazilian Amazon. We show that while only 4% of all registered fishing vessels are currently flagged in a tax haven, 70% of the known vessels implicated in illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing are, or have been, flagged under a tax haven jurisdiction. We also find that between October 2000 and August 2011, 68% of all investigated foreign capital to nine focal companies in the soy and beef sectors in the Brazilian Amazon was transferred through one, or several, known tax havens. This represents as much as 90-100% of foreign capital for some companies investigated. We highlight key research challenges for the academic community that emerge from our findings and present a set of proposed actions for policy that would put tax havens on the global sustainability agenda.

  • 7.
    Humphreys, Aelys M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Royal Botanic Gardens, UK.
    Govaerts, Rafaël
    Ficinski, Sarah Z.
    Lughadha, Eimear Nic
    Vorontsova, Maria S.
    Global dataset shows geography and life form predict modern plant extinction and rediscovery2019In: Nature Ecology & Evolution, E-ISSN 2397-334X, Vol. 3, no 7, p. 1043-1047Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most people can name a mammal or bird that has become extinct in recent centuries, but few can name a recently extinct plant. We present a comprehensive, global analysis of modern extinction in plants. Almost 600 species have become extinct, at a higher rate than background extinction, but almost as many have been erroneously declared extinct and then been rediscovered. Reports of extinction on islands, in the tropics and of shrubs, trees or species with narrow ranges are least likely to be refuted by rediscovery. Plant extinctions endanger other organisms, ecosystems and human well-being, and must be understood for effective conservation planning.

  • 8. Knief, Ulrich
    et al.
    Bossu, Christen M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Uppsala University, Sweden; University of California, USA.
    Saino, Nicola
    Hansson, Bengt
    Poelstra, Jelmer
    Vijay, Nagarjun
    Weissensteiner, Matthias
    Wolf, Jochen B. W.
    Epistatic mutations under divergent selection govern phenotypic variation in the crow hybrid zone2019In: Nature Ecology & Evolution, E-ISSN 2397-334X, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 570-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of genetic barriers opposing interspecific gene flow is key to the origin of new species. Drawing from information on over 400 admixed genomes sourced from replicate transects across the European hybrid zone between all-black carrion crows and grey-coated hooded crows, we decipher the interplay between phenotypic divergence and selection at the molecular level. Over 68% of plumage variation was explained by epistasis between the gene NDP and a similar to 2.8-megabase region on chromosome 18 with suppressed recombination. Both pigmentation loci showed evidence for divergent selection resisting introgression. This study reveals how few, large-effect loci can govern prezygotic isolation and shield phenotypic divergence from gene flow.

  • 9. Monnahan, Patrick
    et al.
    Kolar, Filip
    Baduel, Pierre
    Sailer, Christian
    Koch, Jordan
    Horvath, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Laenen, Benjamin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Schmickl, Roswitha
    Paajanen, Pirita
    Šrámková, Gabriela
    Bohutínská, Magdalena
    Arnold, Brian
    Weisman, Caroline M.
    Marhold, Karol
    Slotte, Tanja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Bomblies, Kirsten
    Yant, Levi
    Pervasive population genomic consequences of genome duplication in Arabidopsis arenosa2019In: Nature Ecology & Evolution, E-ISSN 2397-334X, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 457-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ploidy-variable species allow direct inference of the effects of chromosome copy number on fundamental evolutionary processes. While an abundance of theoretical work suggests polyploidy should leave distinct population genomic signatures, empirical data remains sparse. We sequenced similar to 300 individuals from 39 populations of Arabidopsis arenosa, a naturally diploidautotetraploid species. We find that the impacts of polyploidy on population genomic processes are subtle yet pervasive, such as reduced efficiency of purifying selection, differences in linked selection and rampant gene flow from diploids. Initial masking of deleterious mutations, faster rates of nucleotide substitution and interploidy introgression likely conspire to shape the evolutionary potential of polyploids.

  • 10. Nallu, Sumitha
    et al.
    Hill, Jason A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Don, Kristine
    Sahagun, Carlos
    Zhang, Wei
    Meslin, Camille
    Snell-Rood, Emilie
    Clark, Nathan L.
    Morehouse, Nathan I.
    Bergelson, Joy
    Wheat, Christopher W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Kronforst, Marcus R.
    The molecular genetic basis of herbivory between butterflies and their host plants2018In: Nature Ecology & Evolution, E-ISSN 2397-334X, Vol. 2, no 9, p. 1418-1427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactions between herbivorous insects and their host plants are a central component of terrestrial food webs and a critical topic in agriculture, where a substantial fraction of potential crop yield is lost annually to pests. Important insights into plant-insect interactions have come from research on specific plant defences and insect detoxification mechanisms. Yet, much remains unknown about the molecular mechanisms that mediate plant-insect interactions. Here we use multiple genome-wide approaches to map the molecular basis of herbivory from both plant and insect perspectives, focusing on butterflies and their larval host plants. Parallel genome-wide association studies in the cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae, and its host plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, pinpointed a small number of butterfly and plant genes that influenced herbivory. These genes, along with much of the genome, were regulated in a dynamic way over the time course of the feeding interaction. Comparative analyses, including diverse butterfly/plant systems, showed a variety of genome-wide responses to herbivory, as well as a core set of highly conserved genes in butterflies as well as their host plants. These results greatly expand our understanding of the genomic causes and evolutionary consequences of ecological interactions across two of nature's most diverse taxa, butterflies and flowering plants.

  • 11.
    Troell, Max
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Malin, Jonell
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Henriksson, Patrik John Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. WorldFish, Malaysia.
    Ocean space for seafood2017In: Nature Ecology & Evolution, E-ISSN 2397-334X, Vol. 1, no 9, p. 1224-1225Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Tsuboi, Masahito
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. University of Oslo, Norway; The Graduate University of Advanced Studies, Japan.
    van der Bijl, Wouter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Kopperud, Bjørn Tore
    Erritzøe, Johannes
    Voje, Kjetil L.
    Kotrschal, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Yopak, Kara E.
    Collin, Shaun P.
    Iwaniuk, Andrew N.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Breakdown of brain-body allometry and the encephalization of birds and mammals2018In: Nature Ecology & Evolution, E-ISSN 2397-334X, Vol. 2, no 9, p. 1492-1500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The allometric relationship between brain and body size among vertebrates is often considered a manifestation of evolutionary constraints. However, birds and mammals have undergone remarkable encephalization, in which brain size has increased without corresponding changes in body size. Here, we explore the hypothesis that a reduction of phenotypic integration between brain and body size has facilitated encephalization in birds and mammals. Using a large dataset comprising 20,213 specimens across 4,587 species of jawed vertebrates, we show that the among-species (evolutionary) brain-body allometries are remarkably constant, both across vertebrate classes and across taxonomic levels. Birds and mammals, however, are exceptional in that their within-species (static) allometries are shallower and more variable than in other vertebrates. These patterns are consistent with the idea that birds and mammals have reduced allometric constraints that are otherwise ubiquitous across jawed vertebrates. Further exploration of ontogenetic allometries in selected taxa of birds, fishes and mammals reveals that birds and mammals have extended the period of fetal brain growth compared to fishes. Based on these findings, we propose that avian and mammalian encephalization has been contingent on increased variability in brain growth patterns.

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