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  • 1.
    Caretta, Martina Angela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    “Credit plus” microcredit schemes: a key to women's adaptive capacity2014In: Climate and Development, ISSN 1756-5529, E-ISSN 1756-5537, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 179-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the provision of “credit plus” training activities, conditionally and jointly with microloans by Equity Bank and by Swedish non-governmental organization Vi-Skogen in the area of Kisumu, Kenya to women's groups as a key to improving women's capacity to adapt to climate change. Groups received training in small business administration and agroforestry, which produced positive outcomes or a virtuous spiral in their families' economy, well-being and in their intra-household bargaining power. In agroforestry and new farming practices, group training enhanced the women's set of planned adaptation strategies. In a context where formal financial institutions are still reluctant to provide credit to subsistence farmers, this case study shows the beneficial effects that credit would generate for women's adaptive capacity.

  • 2.
    Hallding, Karl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Li, Ying
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Wang, Lan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Chen, Yong
    Learning from previous failures: scaling up biogas production in the Chinese countryside2012In: Climate and Development, ISSN 1756-5529, E-ISSN 1756-5537, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 199-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is part of a special issue with the aim of assessing the potential for Sustainable Development – Policies and Measures (SD-PAM) to stimulate developing country commitments in a future climate regime. In China, agricultural waste products, particularly manure from animal husbandry, represent a local source of rural energy, which can possibly be utilised through simple biogas digesters, thereby promoting rural development. For at least 50 years China has promoted this among farmers’ not only with the goal of providing local clean energy for rural development, but also to improve health and reduce pressure on fuelwood. Until the early 2000s these policies failed or had limited impact, although substantial subsidy-based programmes in the past decade have led to considerable growth. However, our field trip interviews suggest that this growth hides deep-rooted problems. For biogas to fulfil its potential, it is crucial that the policy adapts to the changing realities of Chinese livestock production. Arguably, policies to promote rural biogas combine development goals with mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in a way that matches well with an SD-PAM mechanism. There are two main ways in which China could benefit from submitting its rural biogas policies to an SD-PAM-based regime. Such a biogas programme could get access to technology and funding for large-scale biogas systems and/or opportunities to sell credits. However, it would need to adapt to the international requirements and to accept international monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV). Alternatively, China could register its rural biogas programme as a unilateral SD-PAM, with less strict MRV requirements. This may win China recognition for its domestic policies, but would then not provide a mechanism for bringing international knowhow or possible financing to China.

  • 3.
    Hoffmaister, Juan P.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Román, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Pursuing the link between development and climate change adaptation: the case of rice production in Mozambique2012In: Climate and Development, ISSN 1756-5529, E-ISSN 1756-5537, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 234-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study applies programme theory to analyse ways in which adaptation to climate change may emerge as a consequence of development polices, specifically by examining the case of rice production in Mozambique. The case study indicates that adaptation and development interact better when policies are designed to integrate different needs, and that existing processes like the National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPA) can help to mainstream adaptation into development policies while keeping objectives separate. The assessment shows that synergies between development and adaptation can be promoted to increase adaptive capacity and implement adaptation measures. A Sustainable Development Policies and Measures (SD-PAM) mechanism, similar to the one more commonly discussed for mitigation, can also be used to identify, finance and monitor adaptation through development activities. NAPAs can further facilitate the identification of common resources, leverage mechanisms and activities required for success in adaptation and development interventions. Adaptation can be integrated into development interventions, as well as into institutional arrangements, resource management and legal frameworks. Integration of adaptation can also support sustainable development through a systemic consideration of the assumptions and interventions in development policies. The implementation of adaptation could be advanced through targeted development interventions that create traceable adaptation benefits through mechanisms that incentivize and support sustainable development policies and measures.

  • 4.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    et al.
    Center for Climate Science and Policy Research and Department of Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University.
    Mickwitz, Per
    Finnish Environment Institute.
    Román, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through development policies: a framework for analysing policy interventions2012In: Climate and Development, ISSN 1756-5529, E-ISSN 1756-5537, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 175-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creating incentives to promote sustainable development with climate benefits as side effects is the aim of several policy proposals in international politics. Recently, such proposals surface in the negotiations of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions by developing countries (NAMAs). We label such policy instruments Sustainable Development – Policies and Measures (SD-PAMs) after a previously proposed mechanism in the negotiations. In this article an approach for analysing such policy proposals before they have been adopted is developed. The approach is based on reconstructing intervention theories of the proposal(s), highlighting the assumptions about the leverage mechanisms through which change is supposed to occur and the assumptions about the actions through which the interventions are presumed to be implemented. The use of value chains is applied to identify what aspects of a socio-technical system the policies and measures are targeting. Provided international and national institutions to register, control and support implementation, SD-PAMs are expected to provide incentive to voluntary mitigation actions and provide increased possibilities of financing or access to new technologies for implementation. SD-PAMs incentivized by the carbon credits require a too intricate institutional framework to make it effective, compared to those aiming for funding or technology transfer.

  • 5.
    Remling, Elise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Persson, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Who is adaptation for? Vulnerability andadaptation benefits in proposals approved by the UNFCCC Adaptation Fund2015In: Climate and Development, ISSN 1756-5529, E-ISSN 1756-5537, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 16-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the Adaptation Fund (AF) became operational in 2007, there has been a vivid discussion about equity and efficiency in how resources (predicted to be scarce) are governed and allocated. One complicating factor is that allocation is often discussed between countries rather than between sub-national causes and groups, and while this approach follows from the UNFCCC context, it is problematic because it ignores the fact that vulnerability is a locally contextualized phenomenon. This paper empirically analyses the portrayal of vulnerability and adaptation benefits in project proposals approved by the AF, and thereby comments on the normative principles of equity and efficiency when allocating funds to developing countries and their vulnerable communities. It does this by evaluating actual decisions made by the AF, which has been operating for some time. We qualitatively analyse all proposals approved as of December 2012 by the Fund's Board. First, we compare the ways that ‘particular vulnerability’ is justified or not, especially in light of the minimal guidance available. Second, we compare project proponent's statements (or lack thereof) on economic, social, and environmental benefits arising from the suggested projects, and who they would accrue to. Lessons learned with regard to allocation will also be important for the development of the Green Climate Fund, considering that resources are likely to be scarce for some time in comparison with predicted funding needs.

  • 6.
    Román, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Introduction: SD-PAM and the potential of promoting climate action through development policies2012In: Climate and Development, ISSN 1756-5529, E-ISSN 1756-5537, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 167-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This viewpoint introduces the broader purpose and conceptual premises of the larger research project that makes up this special issue. It starts off from two emerging strands in the international climate policy debate – i.e. (1) the notion that climate change action may be driven by other development priorities; and (2) the growing skepticism regarding the UN system's capacity to deliver effective climate policies – and raises the broader question as to whether development-driven climate action could be incentivized through an internationally agreed upon mechanism within UNFCCC. The concrete objective of the project is to identify the opportunities and challenges of a future Sustainable DevelopmentPolicies and Measures (SD-PAM) mechanism, the latter being a precursor for National Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA). To achieve this objective the project holds the following traits. First, it introduces intervention theory as the guiding theoretical framework for all empirical studies. Second, it combines an analysis of the suggested SD-PAM mechanism with selected case studies of potential national SD-PAM projects in Brazil (bio-energy), China (transportation and biogas production) and Mozambique (agriculture). The broader ambition is to identify the circumstances under which development policies may serve as a vehicle for effective climate change mitigation and adaptation

  • 7.
    Román, Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Hoffmaister, Juan P.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Climate and development: the potential for climate cobenefits in the Mozambican rice sector2012In: Climate and Development, ISSN 1756-5529, E-ISSN 1756-5537, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 219-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the opportunities and pitfalls of linking a future Sustainable Development – Policies and Measures (SD-PAM) mechanism to Mozambican rice policies. It concludes that there are various ways in which the ambition to increase the production of rice can also reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Moreover, the analysis suggests that an SD-PAM mechanism may be instrumental in supporting this type of co-benefits. This implies that the pursuit of development policies as a precursor for climate mitigation is valid also for the agricultural sector and, similarly, least developed countries (LDCs) may have a role to play. Three traits of the LDC setting will influence the design of a future SD-PAM mechanism. One is the way contextual factors influence individual policy programmes. Another is the need for capacity building in its broader sense, which then emerges as another leverage mechanism in addition to funding, credits and technology transfer. Finally, it requires the recognition that GHG mitigation in LDCs is not about reducing emissions in an absolute sense but, rather, a question of changing development paths and thereby avoiding future GHG emissions

  • 8.
    Román, Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Center for Climate Science and Policy Research and Department of Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University.
    Mickwitz, Per
    Finnish Environment Institute.
    Development policies as a vehicle for addressing climate change2012In: Climate and Development, ISSN 1756-5529, E-ISSN 1756-5537, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 251-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article summarizes the findings of an international research effort, presented in this Special Issue, intended to identify the opportunities and challenges in creating institutional arrangements that could lock in, and exploit, a dynamic in which development policies alter socio-technical systems and indirectly promote various climate activities. In doing so, it also introduces and assesses intervention theory as a novel approach to analyse the link between international institutions and national policies. The conclusions are based on an analysis of Sustainable Development – Policies and Measures (SD-PAM), a precursor to National Appropriate Mitigation Action, a suggested mechanism in the current climate negotiations, built around a set of national case studies in Brazil, China and Mozambique, covering a diverse set of sectors – biofuels, bioenergy, agriculture and transportation. The article concludes that a mechanism like SD-PAM could play a vital role in promoting the changes in socio-technical systems necessary to meet the 2°C target defined as a precondition to avoid dangerous climate change. Most critically, it constitutes a means to provide recognition for national activities that are otherwise not viewed as climate policies. This could in turn generate (1) new commitments; (2) additional direct funding; (3) indirect financing in the form of tradable permits; and (4) different forms of technology transfer.

  • 9. Schomer, Inka
    et al.
    van Asselt, Harro
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Scaling up carbon finance through CDM Programmes of Activities: challenges for low-income household energy projects in South Africa2012In: Climate and Development, ISSN 1756-5529, E-ISSN 1756-5537, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 327-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The experience with the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) so far has shown that there are significant challenges in making the mechanism work for energy projects in households. Programmes of Activities (PoA) have been hailed as a new opportunity to address these challenges by transcending the CDM's single-site approach. Applying insights from research on energy projects in low-income households in South Africa, this article suggests that the successful use of PoA in developing countries is contingent on establishing an appropriate institutional framework, building local capacity, increasing institutional learning around project development, and harmonising evolving carbon finance mechanism. The article demonstrates that the concept of PoA has opened up new opportunities for implementing CDM projects and scaling up mitigation, but that the approach is only effective when situated in a context where diverse stakeholders address the multi-faceted requirements for scaling up carbon mitigation, including among other things, establishing enabling policy frameworks, exploring additional funding options, and developing appropriate methodological approaches.

1 - 9 of 9
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