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  • 1. Erhardt, Tobias
    et al.
    Bigler, Matthias
    Federer, Urs
    Gfeller, Gideon
    Leuenberger, Daiana
    Stowasser, Olivia
    Röthlisberger, Regine
    Schüpbach, Simon
    Ruth, Urs
    Twarloh, Birthe
    Wegner, Anna
    Goto-Azuma, Kumiko
    Kuramoto, Takayuki
    Kjaer, Helle A.
    Vallelonga, Paul T.
    Siggaard-Andersen, Marie-Louise
    Hansson, Margareta E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Benton, Ailsa K.
    Fleet, Louise G.
    Mulvaney, Rob
    Thomas, Elizabeth R.
    Abram, Nerilie
    Stocker, Thomas F.
    Fischer, Hubertus
    High-resolution aerosol concentration data from the Greenland NorthGRIP and NEEM deep ice cores2022In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 1215-1231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Records of chemical impurities from ice cores enable us to reconstruct the past deposition of aerosols onto polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. Through this they allow us to gain insight into changes of the source, transport and deposition processes that ultimately determine the deposition flux at the coring location. However, the low concentrations of the aerosol species in the ice and the resulting high risk of contamination pose a formidable analytical challenge, especially if long, continuous and highly resolved records are needed. Continuous flow analysis, CFA, the continuous melting, decontamination and analysis of ice-core samples has mostly overcome this issue and has quickly become the de facto standard to obtain high-resolution aerosol records from ice cores after its inception at the University of Bern in the mid-1990s.

    Here, we present continuous records of calcium (Ca2+), sodium (Na+), ammonium (NH+4), nitrate (NO-3) and electrolytic conductivity at 1 mm depth resolution from the NGRIP (North Greenland Ice Core Project) and NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling) ice cores produced by the Bern Continuous Flow Analysis group in the years 2000 to 2011 (Erhardt et al., 2021). Both of the records were previously used in a number of studies but were never published in full 1 mm resolution. Alongside the 1 mm datasets we provide decadal averages, a detailed description of the methods, relevant references, an assessment of the quality of the data and its usable resolution. Along the way we will also give some historical context on the development of the Bern CFA system.

  • 2.
    Ghajarnia, Navid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Thorslund, Josefin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Åhlén, Imenne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Anaya-Acevedo, Jesus A.
    Blanco-Libreros, Juan F.
    Borja, Sonia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Chalov, Sergey
    Chalova, Aleksandra
    Chun, Kwok P.
    Clerici, Nicola
    Desormeaux, Amanda
    Garfield, Bethany B.
    Girard, Pierre
    Gorelits, Olga
    Hansen, Amy
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Labbaci, Adnane
    Livsey, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Maneas, Giorgos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Navarino Environmental Observatory, Greece.
    McCurley Pisarello, Kathryn
    Palomino-Ángel, Sebastián
    Pietroń, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. WSP Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Price, René M.
    Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.
    Salgado, Jorge
    Sannel, A. Britta K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Seifollahi-Aghmiuni, Samaneh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Sjöberg, Ylva
    Terskii, Pavel
    Vigouroux, Guillaume
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Licero-Villanueva, Lucia
    Zamora, David
    Data for wetlandscapes and their changes around the world2020In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 1083-1100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geography and associated hydrological, hydroclimate and land-use conditions and their changes determine the states and dynamics of wetlands and their ecosystem services. The influences of these controls are not limited to just the local scale of each individual wetland but extend over larger landscape areas that integrate multiple wetlands and their total hydrological catchment - the wetlandscape. However, the data and knowledge of conditions and changes over entire wetlandscapes are still scarce, limiting the capacity to accurately understand and manage critical wetland ecosystems and their services under global change. We present a new Wetlandscape Change Information Database (WetCID), consisting of geographic, hydrological, hydroclimate and land-use information and data for 27 wetlandscapes around the world. This combines survey-based local information with geographic shapefiles and gridded datasets of large-scale hydroclimate and land-use conditions and their changes over whole wetlandscapes. Temporally, WetCID contains 30-year time series of data for mean monthly precipitation and temperature and annual land-use conditions. The survey-based site information includes local knowledge on the wetlands, hydrology, hydroclimate and land uses within each wetlandscape and on the availability and accessibility of associated local data. This novel database (available through PANGAEA https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.907398; Ghajarnia et al., 2019) can support site assessments; cross-regional comparisons; and scenario analyses of the roles and impacts of land use, hydroclimatic and wetland conditions, and changes in whole-wetlandscape functions and ecosystem services.

  • 3. Goni, Maria Fernanda Sanchez
    et al.
    Desprat, Stephanie
    Daniau, Anne-Laure
    Bassinot, Frank C.
    Polanco-Martinez, Josue M.
    Harrison, Sandy P.
    Allen, Judy R. M.
    Anderson, R. Scott
    Behling, Hermann
    Bonnefille, Raymonde
    Burjachs, Francesc
    Carrion, Jose S.
    Cheddadi, Rachid
    Clark, James S.
    Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie
    Mustaphi, Colin. J. Courtney
    Debusk, Georg H.
    Dupont, Lydie M.
    Finch, Jemma M.
    Fletcher, William J.
    Giardini, Marco
    Gonzalez, Catalina
    Gosling, William D.
    Grigg, Laurie D.
    Grimm, Eric C.
    Hayashi, Ryoma
    Helmens, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Heusser, Linda E.
    Hill, Trevor
    Hope, Geoffrey
    Huntley, Brian
    Igarashi, Yaeko
    Irino, Tomohisa
    Jacobs, Bonnie
    Jimenez-Moreno, Gonzalo
    Kawai, Sayuri
    Kershaw, A. Peter
    Kumon, Fujio
    Lawson, Ian T.
    Ledru, Marie-Pierre
    Lezine, Anne-Marie
    Liew, Ping Mei
    Magri, Donatella
    Marchant, Robert
    Margari, Vasiliki
    Mayle, Francis E.
    McKenzie, G. Merna
    Moss, Patrick
    Mueller, Stefanie
    Mueller, Ulrich C.
    Naughton, Filipa
    Newnham, Rewi M.
    Oba, Tadamichi
    Perez-Obiol, Ramon
    Pini, Roberta
    Ravazzi, Cesare
    Roucoux, Katy H.
    Rucina, Stephen M.
    Scott, Louis
    Takahara, Hikaru
    Tzedakis, Polichronis C.
    Urrego, Dunia H.
    van Geel, Bas
    Valencia, B. Guido
    Vandergoes, Marcus J.
    Vincens, Annie
    Whitlock, Cathy L.
    Willard, Debra A.
    Yamamoto, Masanobu
    The ACER pollen and charcoal database: a global resource to document vegetation and fire response to abrupt climate changes during the last glacial period2017In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 679-695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quaternary records provide an opportunity to examine the nature of the vegetation and fire responses to rapid past climate changes comparable in velocity and magnitude to those expected in the 21st-century. The best documented examples of rapid climate change in the past are the warming events associated with the Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) cycles during the last glacial period, which were sufficiently large to have had a potential feedback through changes in albedo and greenhouse gas emissions on climate. Previous reconstructions of vegetation and fire changes during the D-O cycles used independently constructed age models, making it difficult to compare the changes between different sites and regions. Here, we present the ACER (Abrupt Climate Changes and Environmental Responses) global database, which includes 93 pollen records from the last glacial period (73-15 ka) with a temporal resolution better than 1000 years, 32 of which also provide charcoal records. A harmonized and consistent chronology based on radiometric dating (C-14, U-234/Th-230, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), Ar-40/Ar-39-dated tephra layers) has been constructed for 86 of these records, although in some cases additional information was derived using common control points based on event stratigraphy. The ACER database compiles metadata including geospatial and dating information, pollen and charcoal counts, and pollen percentages of the characteristic biomes and is archived in Microsoft Access (TM) at https://doi. org/10.1594/PANGAEA. 870867.

  • 4.
    Holmlund, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Antarctic Bedmap data: Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable (FAIR) sharing of 60 years of ice bed, surface, and thickness data2023In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 2695-2710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the key components of this research has been the mapping of Antarctic bed topography and ice thickness parameters that are crucial for modelling ice flow and hence for predicting future ice loss and the ensuing sea level rise. Supported by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), the Bedmap3 Action Group aims not only to produce new gridded maps of ice thickness and bed topography for the international scientific community, but also to standardize and make available all the geophysical survey data points used in producing the Bedmap gridded products. Here, we document the survey data used in the latest iteration, Bedmap3, incorporating and adding to all of the datasets previously used for Bedmap1 and Bedmap2, including ice bed, surface and thickness point data from all Antarctic geophysical campaigns since the 1950s. More specifically, we describe the processes used to standardize and make these and future surveys and gridded datasets accessible under the Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable (FAIR) data principles. With the goals of making the gridding process reproducible and allowing scientists to re-use the data freely for their own analysis, we introduce the new SCAR Bedmap Data Portal (https://bedmap.scar.org, last access: 1 March 2023) created to provide unprecedented open access to these important datasets through a web-map interface. We believe that this data release will be a valuable asset to Antarctic research and will greatly extend the life cycle of the data held within it. Data are available from the UK Polar Data Centre: https://data.bas.ac.uk (last access: 5 May 2023 ). See the Data availability section for the complete list of datasets.

  • 5.
    Johansson, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Sweden.
    Berglund, S.
    Lindborg, Tobias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Petrone, J.
    van As, D.
    Gustafsson, L.-G.
    Näslund, Jens-Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Sweden.
    Laudon, H.
    Hydrological and meteorological investigations in a periglacial lake catchment near Kangerlussuaq, west Greenland - presentation of a new multi-parameter data set2015In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 93-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few hydrological studies have been conducted in Greenland, other than on glacial hydrology associated with the ice sheet. Understanding permafrost hydrology and hydroclimatic change and variability, however, provides key information for understanding climate change effects and feedbacks in the Arctic landscape. This paper presents a new, extensive, and detailed hydrological and meteorological open access data set, with high temporal resolution from a 1.56 km(2) permafrost catchment, with a lake underlain by a through-talik close to the ice sheet in the Kangerlussuaq region, western Greenland. The paper describes the hydrological site investigations and utilized equipment, as well as the data collection and processing. The investigations were performed between 2010 and 2013. The high spatial resolution, within the investigated area, of the data set makes it highly suitable for various detailed hydrological and ecological studies on catchment scale. The data set is available for all users via the PANGAEA database, http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.836178.

  • 6. Kuhn, McKenzie A.
    et al.
    Varner, Ruth K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. University of New Hampshire, USA.
    Bastviken, David
    Crill, Patrick
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    MacIntyre, Sally
    Turetsky, Merritt
    Walter Anthony, Katey
    McGuire, Anthony D.
    Olefeldt, David
    BAWLD-CH4: a comprehensive dataset of methane fluxes from boreal and arctic ecosystems2021In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 13, no 11, p. 5151-5189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methane (CH4) emissions from the boreal and arctic region are globally significant and highly sensitive to climate change. There is currently a wide range in estimates of high-latitude annual CH4 fluxes, where estimates based on land cover inventories and empirical CH4 flux data or process models (bottom-up approaches) generally are greater than atmospheric inversions (top-down approaches). A limitation of bottom-up approaches has been the lack of harmonization between inventories of site-level CH4 flux data and the land cover classes present in high-latitude spatial datasets. Here we present a comprehensive dataset of small-scale, surface CH4 flux data from 540 terrestrial sites (wetland and non-wetland) and 1247 aquatic sites (lakes and ponds), compiled from 189 studies. The Boreal-Arctic Wetland and Lake Methane Dataset (BAWLD-CH4) was constructed in parallel with a compatible land cover dataset, sharing the same land cover classes to enable refined bottom-up assessments. BAWLD-CH4 includes information on site-level CH4 fluxes but also on study design (measurement method, timing, and frequency) and site characteristics (vegetation, climate, hydrology, soil, and sediment types, permafrost conditions, lake size and depth, and our determination of land cover class). The different land cover classes had distinct CH4 fluxes, resulting from definitions that were either based on or co-varied with key environmental controls. Fluxes of CH4 from terrestrial ecosystems were primarily influenced by water table position, soil temperature, and vegetation composition, while CH4 fluxes from aquatic ecosystems were primarily influenced by water temperature, lake size, and lake genesis. Models could explain more of the between-site variability in CH4 fluxes for terrestrial than aquatic ecosystems, likely due to both less precise assessments of lake CH4 fluxes and fewer consistently reported lake site characteristics. Analysis of BAWLD-CH4 identified both land cover classes and regions within the boreal and arctic domain, where future studies should be focused, alongside methodological approaches. Overall, BAWLD-CH4 provides a comprehensive dataset of CH4 emissions from high-latitude ecosystems that are useful for identifying research opportunities, for comparison against new field data, and model parameterization or validation.

  • 7. Lindborg, Tobias
    et al.
    Rydberg, Johan
    Tröjbom, Mats
    Berglund, Sten
    Johansson, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB), Sweden.
    Löfgren, Anders
    Saetre, Peter
    Nordén, Sara
    Sohlenius, Gustav
    Andersson, Eva
    Petrone, Johannes
    Borgiel, Micke
    Kautsky, Ulrik
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Biogeochemical data from terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in a periglacial catchment, West Greenland2016In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 439-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming is expected to be most pronounced in the Arctic where permafrost thaw and release of old carbon may provide an important feedback mechanism to the climate system. To better understand and predict climate effects and feedbacks on the cycling of elements within and between ecosystems in northern latitude landscapes, a thorough understanding of the processes related to transport and cycling of elements is required. A fundamental requirement to reach a better process understanding is to have access to high-quality empirical data on chemical concentrations and biotic properties for a wide range of ecosystem domains and functional units (abiotic and biotic pools). The aim of this study is therefore to make one of the most extensive field data sets from a periglacial catchment readily available that can be used both to describe present-day periglacial processes and to improve predictions of the future. Here we present the sampling and analytical methods, field and laboratory equipment and the resulting biogeochemical data from a state-of-the-art whole-ecosystem investigation of the terrestrial and aquatic parts of a lake catchment in the Kangerlussuaq region, West Greenland. This data set allows for the calculation of whole-ecosystem mass balance budgets for a long list of elements, including carbon, nutrients and major and trace metals. The data set is freely available and can be downloaded from PANGAEA: doi: 10.1594/PANGAEA.860961.

  • 8. Lindbäck, K.
    et al.
    Pettersson, R.
    Doyle, S. H.
    Helanow, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Jansson, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Kristensen, S. S.
    Stenseng, L.
    Forsberg, R.
    Hubbard, A. L.
    High-resolution ice thickness and bed topography of a land-terminating section of the Greenland Ice Sheet2014In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 331-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present ice thickness and bed topography maps with a high spatial resolution (250-500 m) of a land-terminating section of the Greenland Ice Sheet derived from ground-based and airborne radar surveys. The data have a total area of similar to 12 000 km(2) and cover the whole ablation area of the outlet glaciers of Isunnguata Sermia, Russell, Leverett, Orkendalen and Isorlersuup up to the long-term mass balance equilibrium line altitude at similar to 1600m above sea level. The bed topography shows highly variable subglacial trough systems, and the trough of Isunnguata Sermia Glacier is overdeepened and reaches an elevation of similar to 500m below sea level. The ice surface is smooth and only reflects the bedrock topography in a subtle way, resulting in a highly variable ice thickness. The southern part of our study area consists of higher bed elevations compared to the northern part. The compiled data sets of ground-based and airborne radar surveys cover one of the most studied regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet and can be valuable for detailed studies of ice sheet dynamics and hydrology. The combined data set is freely available at doi:10.1594/pangaea.830314.

  • 9.
    Martens, Jannik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Romankevich, Evgeny
    Semiletov, Igor
    Wild, Birgit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    van Dongen, Bart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. University of Manchester, UK.
    Vonk, Jorien
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Tesi, Tommaso
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. National Research Council, Italy.
    Shakhova, Natalia
    Dudarev, Oleg
    Kosmach, Denis
    Vetrov, Alexander
    Lobkovsky, Leopold
    Belyaev, Nikolay
    Macdonald, Robie W.
    Pieńkowski, Anna J.
    Eglinton, Timothy
    Haghipour, Negar
    Dahle, Salve
    Carroll, Michael L.
    Åström, Emmelie K. L.
    Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.
    Cooper, Lee W.
    Possnert, Göran
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    CASCADE - The Circum-Arctic Sediment CArbon DatabasE2021In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 2561-2572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogeochemical cycling in the semi-enclosed Arctic Ocean is strongly influenced by land-ocean transport of carbon and other elements and is vulnerable to environmental and climate changes. Sediments of the Arctic Ocean are an important part of biogeochemical cycling in the Arctic and provide the opportunity to study present and historical input and the fate of organic matter (e.g., through permafrost thawing). Comprehensive sedimentary records are required to compare differences between the Arctic regions and to study Arctic biogeochemical budgets. To this end, the Circum-Arctic Sediment CArbon DatabasE (CASCADE) was established to curate data primarily on concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and OC isotopes (delta C-13, Delta C-14) yet also on total N (TN) as well as terrigenous biomarkers and other sediment geochemical and physical properties. This new database builds on the published literature and earlier unpublished records through an extensive international community collaboration. This paper describes the establishment, structure and current status of CASCADE. The first public version includes OC concentrations in surface sediments at 4244 oceanographic stations including 2317 with TN concentrations, 1555 with delta C-13-OC values and 268 with Delta C-14-OC values and 653 records with quantified terrigenous biomarkers (high-molecular-weight n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids and lignin phenols). CASCADE also includes data from 326 sediment cores, retrieved by shallow box or multi-coring, deep gravity/piston coring, or sea-bottom drilling. The comprehensive dataset reveals large-scale features of both OC content and OC sources between the shelf sea recipients. This offers insight into release of pre-aged terrigenous OC to the East Siberian Arctic shelf and younger terrigenous OC to the Kara Sea. Circum-Arctic sediments thereby reveal patterns of terrestrial OC remobilization and provide clues about thawing of permafrost. CASCADE enables synoptic analysis of OC in Arctic Ocean sediments and facilitates a wide array of future empirical and modeling studies of the Arctic carbon cycle. The database is openly and freely available online (https://doi.org/10.17043/cascade; Martens et al., 2021), is provided in various machine-readable data formats (data tables, GIS shapefile, GIS raster), and also provides ways for contributing data for future CASCADE versions. We will continuously update CASCADE with newly published and contributed data over the foreseeable future as part of the database management of the Bolin Centre for Climate Research at Stockholm University.

  • 10. Muster, Sina
    et al.
    Roth, Kurt
    Langer, Moritz
    Lange, Stephan
    Aleina, Fabio Cresto
    Bartsch, Annett
    Morgenstern, Anne
    Grosse, Guido
    Jones, Benjamin
    Sannel, A. Britta K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Sjöberg, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Günther, Frank
    Andresen, Christian
    Veremeeva, Alexandra
    Lindgren, Prajna R.
    Bouchard, Frédéric
    Lara, Mark J.
    Fortier, Daniel
    Charbonneau, Simon
    Virtanen, Tarmo A.
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Palmtag, Juri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Siewert, Matthias B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Riley, William J.
    Koven, Charles D.
    Boike, Julia
    PeRL: a circum-Arctic Permafrost Region Pond and Lake database2017In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 317-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ponds and lakes are abundant in Arctic permafrost lowlands. They play an important role in Arctic wetland ecosystems by regulating carbon, water, and energy fluxes and providing freshwater habitats. However, ponds, i. e., waterbodies with surface areas smaller than 1.0 x 10(4) m(2), have not been inventoried on global and regional scales. The Permafrost Region Pond and Lake (PeRL) database presents the results of a circum-Arctic effort to map ponds and lakes from modern (2002-2013) high-resolution aerial and satellite imagery with a resolution of 5m or better. The database also includes historical imagery from 1948 to 1965 with a resolution of 6m or better. PeRL includes 69 maps covering a wide range of environmental conditions from tundra to boreal regions and from continuous to discontinuous permafrost zones. Waterbody maps are linked to regional permafrost landscape maps which provide information on permafrost extent, ground ice volume, geology, and lithology. This paper describes waterbody classification and accuracy, and presents statistics of waterbody distribution for each site. Maps of permafrost landscapes in Alaska, Canada, and Russia are used to extrapolate waterbody statistics from the site level to regional landscape units. PeRL presents pond and lake estimates for a total area of 1.4 x 10(6) km(2) across the Arctic, about 17% of the Arctic lowland (<300ma. s.l.) land surface area. PeRL waterbodies with sizes of 1.0 x 10(6) m(2) down to 1.0 x 10(2) m(2) contributed up to 21% to the total water fraction. Waterbody density ranged from 1.0 x 10 to 9.4 x 10(1) km(-2). Ponds are the dominant waterbody type by number in all landscapes representing 45-99% of the total waterbody number. The implementation of PeRL size distributions in land surface models will greatly improve the investigation and projection of surface inundation and carbon fluxes in permafrost lowlands. Waterbody maps, study area boundaries, and maps of regional permafrost landscapes including detailed metadata are available at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.868349.

  • 11. Olefeldt, David
    et al.
    Hovemyr, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Kuhn, McKenzie A.
    Bastviken, David
    Bohn, Theodore J.
    Connolly, John
    Crill, Patrick
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Euskirchen, Eugénie S.
    Finkelstein, Sarah A.
    Genet, Hélène
    Grosse, Guido
    Harris, Lorna
    Heffernan, Liam
    Helbig, Manuel
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Hutchins, Ryan
    Juutinen, Sari
    Lara, Mark J.
    Malhotra, Avni
    Manies, Kristen
    McGuire, A. David
    Natali, Susan M.
    O'Donnell, Jonathan A.
    Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.
    Räsänen, Aleksi
    Schädel, Christina
    Sonnentag, Oliver
    Strack, Maria
    Tank, Suzanne E.
    Treat, Claire
    Varner, Ruth K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. University of New Hampshire, USA.
    Virtanen, Tarmo
    Warren, Rebecca K.
    Watts, Jennifer D.
    The Boreal-Arctic Wetland and Lake Dataset (BAWLD)2021In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 13, no 11, p. 5127-5149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methane emissions from boreal and arctic wetlands, lakes, and rivers are expected to increase in response to warming and associated permafrost thaw. However, the lack of appropriate land cover datasets for scaling field-measured methane emissions to circumpolar scales has contributed to a large uncertainty for our understanding of present-day and future methane emissions. Here we present the BorealArctic Wetland and Lake Dataset (BAWLD), a land cover dataset based on an expert assessment, extrapolated using random forest modelling from available spatial datasets of climate, topography, soils, permafrost conditions, vegetation, wetlands, and surface water extents and dynamics. In BAWLD, we estimate the fractional coverage of five wetland, seven lake, and three river classes within 0.5 x 0.5 degrees grid cells that cover the northern boreal and tundra biomes (17 % of the global land surface). Land cover classes were defined using criteria that ensured distinct methane emissions among classes, as indicated by a co-developed comprehensive dataset of methane flux observations. In BAWLD, wetlands occupied 3.2 x 10(6) km(2) (14 % of domain) with a 95 % confidence interval between 2.8 and 3.8 x 10(6) km(2). Bog, fen, and permafrost bog were the most abundant wetland classes, covering similar to 28 % each of the total wetland area, while the highest-methane-emitting marsh and tundra wetland classes occupied 5 % and 12 %, respectively. Lakes, defined to include all lentic open-water ecosystems regardless of size, covered 1.4 x 10(6) km(2) (6 % of domain). Low-methane-emitting large lakes (>10 km(2)) and glacial lakes jointly represented 78 % of the total lake area, while high-emitting peatland and yedoma lakes covered 18 % and 4 %, respectively. Small (<0.1 km(2)) glacial, peatland, and yedoma lakes combined covered 17 % of the total lake area but contributed disproportionally to the overall spatial uncertainty in lake area with a 95 % confidence interval between 0.15 and 0.38 x 10(6) km(2). Rivers and streams were estimated to cover 0.12 x 10(6) km(2) (0.5 % of domain), of which 8 % was associated with high-methane-emitting headwaters that drain organic-rich landscapes. Distinct combinations of spatially co-occurring wetland and lake classes were identified across the BAWLD domain, allowing for the mapping of wetscapes that have characteristic methane emission magnitudes and sensitivities to climate change at regional scales. With BAWLD, we provide a dataset which avoids double-accounting of wetland, lake, and river extents and which includes confidence intervals for each land cover class. As such, BAWLD will be suitable for many hydrological and biogeochemical modelling and upscaling efforts for the northern boreal and arctic region, in particular those aimed at improving assessments of current and future methane emissions.

  • 12.
    Palmtag, Juri
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Obu, Jaroslav
    Kuhry, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Richter, Andreas
    Siewert, Matthias B.
    Weiss, Niels
    Westermann, Sebastian
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    A high spatial resolution soil carbon and nitrogen dataset for the northern permafrost region based on circumpolar land cover upscaling2022In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 4095-4110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soils in the northern high latitudes are a key component in the global carbon cycle; the northern permafrost region covers 22 % of the Northern Hemisphere land surface area and holds almost twice as much carbon as the atmosphere. Permafrost soil organic matter stocks represent an enormous long-term carbon sink which is in risk of switching to a net source in the future. Detailed knowledge about the quantity and the mechanisms controlling organic carbon storage is of utmost importance for our understanding of potential impacts of and feedbacks on climate change. Here we present a geospatial dataset of physical and chemical soil properties calculated from 651 soil pedons encompassing more than 6500 samples from 16 different study areas across the northern permafrost region. The aim of our dataset is to provide a basis to describe spatial patterns in soil properties, including quantifying carbon and nitrogen stocks. There is a particular need for spatially distributed datasets of soil properties, including vertical and horizontal distribution patterns, for modeling at local, regional, or global scales. This paper presents this dataset, describes in detail soil sampling; laboratory analysis, and derived soil geochemical parameters; calculations; and data clustering. Moreover, we use this dataset to estimate soil organic carbon and total nitrogen storage estimates in soils in the northern circumpolar permafrost region (17.9×106 km2) using the European Space Agency's (ESA's) Climate Change Initiative (CCI) global land cover dataset at 300 m pixel resolution. We estimate organic carbon and total nitrogen stocks on a circumpolar scale (excluding Tibet) for the 0–100 and 0–300 cm soil depth to be 380 and 813 Pg for carbon, and 21 and 55 Pg for nitrogen, respectively. Our organic carbon estimates agree with previous studies, with most recent estimates of 1000 Pg (−170 to +186 Pg) to 300 cm depth. Two separate datasets are freely available on the Bolin Centre Database repository (https://doi.org/10.17043/palmtag-2022-pedon-1, Palmtag et al., 2022a; and https://doi.org/10.17043/palmtag-2022-spatial-1, Palmtag et al., 2002b).

  • 13. Petrone, Johannes
    et al.
    Sohlenius, Gustav
    Johansson, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, Sweden.
    Lindborg, Tobias
    Näslund, Jens-Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, Sweden.
    Strömgren, Mårten
    Brydsten, Lars
    Using ground-penetrating radar, topography and classification of vegetation to model the sediment and active layer thickness in a periglacial lake catchment, western Greenland2016In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 663-677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The geometries of a catchment constitute the basis for distributed physically based numerical modeling of different geoscientific disciplines. In this paper results from ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements, in terms of a 3-D model of total sediment thickness and active layer thickness in a periglacial catchment in western Greenland, are presented. Using the topography, the thickness and distribution of sediments are calculated. Vegetation classification and GPR measurements are used to scale active layer thickness from local measurements to catchment-scale models. Annual maximum active layer thickness varies from 0.3m in wetlands to 2.0m in barren areas and areas of exposed bedrock. Maximum sediment thickness is estimated to be 12.3m in the major valleys of the catchment. A method to correlate surface vegetation with active layer thickness is also presented. By using relatively simple methods, such as probing and vegetation classification, it is possible to upscale local point measurements to catchment-scale models, in areas where the upper subsurface is relatively homogeneous. The resulting spatial model of active layer thickness can be used in combination with the sediment model as a geometrical input to further studies of subsurface mass transport and hydrological flow paths in the periglacial catchment through numerical modeling. The data set is available for all users via the PANGAEA database, doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.845258.

  • 14. Rasmussen, Sune Olander
    et al.
    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe
    Fischer, Hubertus
    Fuhrer, Katrin
    Hansen, Steffen Bo
    Hansson, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Hvidberg, Christine S.
    Jonsell, Ulf
    Kipfstuhl, Sepp
    Ruth, Urs
    Schwander, Jakob
    Siggaard-Andersen, Marie-Louise
    Sinnl, Giulia
    Steffensen, Jorgen Peder
    Svensson, Anders M.
    Vinther, Bo M.
    Ice-core data used for the construction of the Greenland Ice-Core Chronology 2005 and 2021 (GICC05 and GICC21)2023In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 3351-3364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We here describe, document, and make available a wide range of data sets used for annual-layer identification in ice cores from DYE-3, GRIP, NGRIP, NEEM, and EGRIP. The data stem from detailed measurements performed both on the main deep cores and shallow cores over more than 40 years using many different setups developed by research groups in several countries and comprise both discrete measurements from cut ice samples and continuous-flow analysis data.

    The data series were used for counting annual layers 60 000 years back in time during the construction of the Greenland Ice-Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05) and/or the revised GICC21, which currently only reaches 3800 years back. Now that the underlying data are made available (listed in Table 1) we also release the individual annual-layer positions of the GICC05 timescale which are based on these data sets.

    We hope that the release of the data sets will stimulate further studies of the past climate taking advantage of these highly resolved data series covering a large part of the interior of the Greenland ice sheet.

  • 15.
    Rimondini, Lukas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Gumbricht, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Ahlstrom, Anders
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Mapping of peatlands in the forested landscape of Sweden using lidar-based terrain indices2023In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 3473-3482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, northern peatlands are major carbon deposits with important implications for the climate system. It is therefore crucial to understand their spatial occurrence, especially in the context of peatland degradation by land cover change and climate change. This study was aimed at mapping peatlands in the forested landscape of Sweden by modelling soil data against lidar-based terrain indices. Machine learning methods were used to produce nationwide raster maps at 10 m spatial resolution indicating the presence or not of peatlands. Four different definitions of peatlands were examined: 30, 40, 50 and 100 cm thickness of the organic horizon. Depending on peatland definition, testing with a hold-out dataset indicated an accuracy of 0.89-0.91 and Matthew's correlation coefficient of 0.79-0.81. The final maps showed a national forest peatland extent of 60 292-71 996 km(2), estimates which are in the range of previous studies employing traditional soil maps. In conclusion, these results emphasize the possibilities of mapping boreal peatlands with lidar-based terrain indices. The final peatland maps are publicly available at (Rimondini et al., 2023) and may be employed for spatial planning, estimating carbon stocks and evaluating climate change mitigation strategies.

  • 16. Saunois, M.
    et al.
    Bousquet, P.
    Poulter, B.
    Peregon, A.
    Ciais, P.
    Canadell, J. G.
    Dlugokencky, E. J.
    Etiope, G.
    Bastviken, D.
    Houweling, S.
    Janssens-Maenhout, G.
    Tubiello, F. N.
    Castaldi, S.
    Jackson, R. B.
    Alexe, M.
    Arora, V. K.
    Beerling, D. J.
    Bergamaschi, P.
    Blake, D. R.
    Brailsford, G.
    Brovkin, V.
    Bruhwiler, L.
    Crevoisier, C.
    Crill, Patrick
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Covey, K.
    Curry, C.
    Frankenberg, C.
    Gedney, N.
    Höglund-Isaksson, L.
    Ishizawa, M.
    Ito, A.
    Joos, F.
    Kim, H. -S
    Kleinen, T.
    Krummel, P.
    Lamarque, J. -F
    Langenfelds, R.
    Locatelli, R.
    Machida, T.
    Maksyutov, S.
    McDonald, K. C.
    Marshall, J.
    Melton, J. R.
    Morino, I.
    Naik, V.
    O'Doherty, S.
    Parmentier, F. -JW.
    Patra, P. K.
    Peng, C.
    Peng, S.
    Peters, G. P.
    Pison, I.
    Prigent, C.
    Prinn, R.
    Ramonet, M.
    Riley, W. J.
    Saito, M.
    Santini, M.
    Schroeder, R.
    Simpson, I. J.
    Spahni, R.
    Steele, P.
    Takizawa, A.
    Thornton, Brett F.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Tian, H.
    Tohjima, Y.
    Viovy, N.
    Voulgarakis, A.
    van Weele, M.
    van der Werf, G. R.
    Weiss, R.
    Wiedinmyer, C.
    Wilton, D. J.
    Wiltshire, A.
    Worthy, D.
    Wunch, D.
    Xu, X.
    Yoshida, Y.
    Zhang, B.
    Zhang, Z.
    Zhu, Q.
    The global methane budget 2000–20122016In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 697-751Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global methane (CH4) budget is becoming an increasingly important component for managing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. This relevance, due to a shorter atmospheric lifetime and a stronger warming potential than carbon dioxide, is challenged by the still unexplained changes of atmospheric CH4 over the past decade. Emissions and concentrations of CH4 are continuing to increase, making CH4 the second most important human-induced greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Two major difficulties in reducing uncertainties come from the large variety of diffusive CH4 sources that overlap geographically, and from the destruction of CH4 by the very short-lived hydroxyl radical (OH). To address these difficulties, we have established a consortium of multi-disciplinary scientists under the umbrella of the Global Carbon Project to synthesize and stimulate research on the methane cycle, and producing regular (∼ biennial) updates of the global methane budget. This consortium includes atmospheric physicists and chemists, biogeochemists of surface and marine emissions, and socio-economists who study anthropogenic emissions. Following Kirschke et al. (2013), we propose here the first version of a living review paper that integrates results of top-down studies (exploiting atmospheric observations within an atmospheric inverse-modelling framework) and bottom-up models, inventories and data-driven approaches (including process-based models for estimating land surface emissions and atmospheric chemistry, and inventories for anthropogenic emissions, data-driven extrapolations). For the 2003–2012 decade, global methane emissions are estimated by top-down inversions at 558 Tg CH4 yr−1, range 540–568. About 60 % of global emissions are anthropogenic (range 50–65 %). Since 2010, the bottom-up global emission inventories have been closer to methane emissions in the most carbon-intensive Representative Concentrations Pathway (RCP8.5) and higher than all other RCP scenarios. Bottom-up approaches suggest larger global emissions (736 Tg CH4 yr−1, range 596–884) mostly because of larger natural emissions from individual sources such as inland waters, natural wetlands and geological sources. Considering the atmospheric constraints on the top-down budget, it is likely that some of the individual emissions reported by the bottom-up approaches are overestimated, leading to too large global emissions. Latitudinal data from top-down emissions indicate a predominance of tropical emissions (∼ 64 % of the global budget, < 30° N) as compared to mid (∼ 32 %, 30–60° N) and high northern latitudes (∼ 4 %, 60–90° N). Top-down inversions consistently infer lower emissions in China (∼ 58 Tg CH4 yr−1, range 51–72, −14 %) and higher emissions in Africa (86 Tg CH4 yr−1, range 73–108, +19 %) than bottom-up values used as prior estimates. Overall, uncertainties for anthropogenic emissions appear smaller than those from natural sources, and the uncertainties on source categories appear larger for top-down inversions than for bottom-up inventories and models. The most important source of uncertainty on the methane budget is attributable to emissions from wetland and other inland waters. We show that the wetland extent could contribute 30–40 % on the estimated range for wetland emissions. Other priorities for improving the methane budget include the following: (i) the development of process-based models for inland-water emissions, (ii) the intensification of methane observations at local scale (flux measurements) to constrain bottom-up land surface models, and at regional scale (surface networks and satellites) to constrain top-down inversions, (iii) improvements in the estimation of atmospheric loss by OH, and (iv) improvements of the transport models integrated in top-down inversions. The data presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (http://doi.org/10.3334/CDIAC/GLOBAL_METHANE_BUDGET_2016_V1.1) and the Global Carbon Project.

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  • 17. Saunois, Marielle
    et al.
    Stavert, Ann R.
    Poulter, Ben
    Bousquet, Philippe
    Canadell, Josep G.
    Jackson, Robert B.
    Raymond, Peter A.
    Dlugokencky, Edward J.
    Houweling, Sander
    Patra, Prabir K.
    Ciais, Philippe
    Arora, Vivek K.
    Bastviken, David
    Bergamaschi, Peter
    Blake, Donald R.
    Brailsford, Gordon
    Bruhwiler, Lori
    Carlson, Kimberly M.
    Carrol, Mark
    Castaldi, Simona
    Chandra, Naveen
    Crevoisier, Cyril
    Crill, Patrick
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Covey, Kristofer
    Curry, Charles L.
    Etiope, Giuseppe
    Frankenberg, Christian
    Gedney, Nicola
    Hegglin, Michaela
    Hoglund-Isaksson, Lena
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Ishizawa, Misa
    Ito, Akihiko
    Janssens-Maenhout, Greet
    Jensen, Katherine M.
    Joos, Fortunat
    Kleinen, Thomas
    Krummel, Paul B.
    Langenfelds, Ray L.
    Laruelle, Goulven G.
    Liu, Licheng
    Machida, Toshinobu
    Maksyutov, Shamil
    McDonald, Kyle C.
    McNorton, Joe
    Miller, Paul A.
    Melton, Joe R.
    Morino, Isamu
    Muller, Jurek
    Murguia-Flores, Fabiola
    Naik, Vaishali
    Niwa, Yosuke
    Noce, Sergio
    Doherty, Simon O.
    Parker, Robert J.
    Peng, Changhui
    Peng, Shushi
    Peters, Glen P.
    Prigent, Catherine
    Prinn, Ronald
    Ramonet, Michel
    Regnier, Pierre
    Riley, William J.
    Rosentreter, Judith A.
    Segers, Arjo
    Simpson, Isobel J.
    Shi, Hao
    Smith, Steven J.
    Steele, L. Paul
    Thornton, Brett F.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Tian, Hanqin
    Tohjima, Yasunori
    Tubiello, Francesco N.
    Tsuruta, Aki
    Viovy, Nicolas
    Voulgarakis, Apostolos
    Weber, Thomas S.
    van Weele, Michiel
    van der Werf, Guido R.
    Weiss, Ray F.
    Worthy, Doug
    Wunch, Debra
    Yin, Yi
    Yoshida, Yukio
    Zhang, Wenxin
    Zhang, Zhen
    Zhao, Yuanhong
    Zheng, Bo
    Zhu, Qing
    Zhu, Qiuan
    Zhuang, Qianlai
    The Global Methane Budget 2000-20172020In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 1561-1623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding and quantifying the global methane (CH4) budget is important for assessing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. Atmospheric emissions and concentrations of CH4 continue to increase, making CH4 the second most important human-influenced greenhouse gas in terms of climate forcing, after carbon dioxide (CO2). The relative importance of CH4 compared to CO2 depends on its shorter atmospheric lifetime, stronger warming potential, and variations in atmospheric growth rate over the past decade, the causes of which are still debated. Two major challenges in reducing uncertainties in the atmospheric growth rate arise from the variety of geographically overlapping CH4 sources and from the destruction of CH4 by short-lived hydroxyl radicals (OH). To address these challenges, we have established a consortium of multidisciplinary scientists under the umbrella of the Global Carbon Project to synthesize and stimulate new research aimed at improving and regularly updating the global methane budget. Following Saunois et al. (2016), we present here the second version of the living review paper dedicated to the decadal methane budget, integrating results of top-down studies (atmospheric observations within an atmospheric inverse-modelling framework) and bottom-up estimates (including process-based models for estimating land surface emissions and atmospheric chemistry, inventories of anthropogenic emissions, and data-driven extrapolations). For the 2008-2017 decade, global methane emissions are estimated by atmospheric inversions (a top-down approach) to be 576 Tg CH4 yr(-1) (range 550-594, corresponding to the minimum and maximum estimates of the model ensemble). Of this total, 359 Tg CH4 yr(-1) or similar to 60 % is attributed to anthropogenic sources, that is emissions caused by direct human activity (i.e. anthropogenic emissions; range 336-376 Tg CH4 yr(-1) or 50 %-65 %). The mean annual total emission for the new decade (2008-2017) is 29 Tg CH4 yr(-1) larger than our estimate for the previous decade (2000-2009), and 24 Tg CH4 yr(-1) larger than the one reported in the previous budget for 2003-2012 (Saunois et al., 2016). Since 2012, global CH4 emissions have been tracking the warmest scenarios assessed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Bottom-up methods suggest almost 30 % larger global emissions (737 Tg CH4 yr(-1), range 594-881) than top-down inversion methods. Indeed, bottom-up estimates for natural sources such as natural wetlands, other inland water systems, and geological sources are higher than top-down estimates. The atmospheric constraints on the top-down budget suggest that at least some of these bottom-up emissions are overestimated. The latitudinal distribution of atmospheric observation-based emissions indicates a predominance of tropical emissions (similar to 65 % of the global budget, < 30 degrees N) compared to mid-latitudes (similar to 30 %, 30-60 degrees N) and high northern latitudes (similar to 4 %, 60-90 degrees N). The most important source of uncertainty in the methane budget is attributable to natural emissions, especially those from wetlands and other inland waters. Some of our global source estimates are smaller than those in previously published budgets (Saunois et al., 2016; Kirschke et al., 2013). In particular wetland emissions are about 35 Tg CH4 yr(-1) lower due to improved partition wetlands and other inland waters. Emissions from geological sources and wild animals are also found to be smaller by 7 Tg CH4 yr(-1) by 8 Tg CH4 yr(-1), respectively. However, the overall discrepancy between bottomup and top-down estimates has been reduced by only 5 % compared to Saunois et al. (2016), due to a higher estimate of emissions from inland waters, highlighting the need for more detailed research on emissions factors. Priorities for improving the methane budget include (i) a global, high-resolution map of water-saturated soils and inundated areas emitting methane based on a robust classification of different types of emitting habitats; (ii) further development of process-based models for inland-water emissions; (iii) intensification of methane observations at local scales (e.g., FLUXNET-CH4 measurements) and urban-scale monitoring to constrain bottom-up land surface models, and at regional scales (surface networks and satellites) to constrain atmospheric inversions; (iv) improvements of transport models and the representation of photochemical sinks in top-down inversions; and (v) development of a 3D variational inversion system using isotopic and/or co-emitted species such as ethane to improve source partitioning. The data presented here can be downloaded from https://doi.org/10.18160/GCP-CH4-2019 (Saunois et al., 2020) and from the Global Carbon Project.

  • 18. Schuster, U.
    et al.
    Watson, A. J.
    Bakker, D. C. E.
    de Boer, Agatha M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. University of East Anglia, England.
    Jones, E. M.
    Lee, G. A.
    Legge, O.
    Louwerse, A.
    Riley, J.
    Scally, S.
    Measurements of total alkalinity and inorganic dissolved carbon in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent Southern Ocean between 2008 and 20102014In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 175-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water column dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity were measured during five hydrographic sections in the Atlantic Ocean and Drake Passage. The work was funded through the Strategic Funding Initiative of the UK's Oceans2025 programme, which ran from 2007 to 2012. The aims of this programme were to establish the regional budgets of natural and anthropogenic carbon in the North Atlantic, the South Atlantic, and the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, as well as the rates of change of these budgets. This paper describes in detail the dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity data collected along east-west sections at 47 degrees N to 60 degrees N, 24.5 degrees N, and 24 degrees S in the Atlantic and across two Drake Passage sections. Other hydrographic and biogeochemical parameters were measured during these sections, and relevant standard operating procedures are mentioned here. Over 95% of dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity samples taken during the 24.5 degrees N, 24 degrees S, and the Drake Passage sections were analysed onboard and subjected to a first-level quality control addressing technical and analytical issues. Samples taken along 47 degrees N to 60 degrees N were analysed and subjected to quality control back in the laboratory. Complete post-cruise second-level quality control was performed using crossover analysis with historical data in the vicinity of measurements, and data were submitted to the CLIVAR and Carbon Hydrographic Data Office (CCHDO), the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and and will be included in the Global Ocean Data Analyses Project, version 2 (GLODAP 2), the upcoming update of Key et al. (2004).

  • 19. Shao, Zhibo
    et al.
    Foster, Rachel Ann
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Luo, Ya-Wei
    Global oceanic diazotroph database version 2 and elevated estimate of globaloceanic N2 fixation2023In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 3673-3709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine diazotrophs convert dinitrogen (N-2) gas into bioavailable nitrogen (N), supporting life in the global ocean. In 2012, the first version of the global oceanic diazotroph database (version 1) was published. Here, we present an updated version of the database (version 2), significantly increasing the number of in situ diazotrophic measurements from 13 565 to 55 286. Data points for N-2 fixation rates, diazotrophic cell abundance, and nifH gene copy abundance have increased by 184 %, 86 %, and 809 %, respectively. Version 2 includes two new data sheets for the nifH gene copy abundance of non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs and cell-specific N2 fixation rates. The measurements of N-2 fixation rates approximately follow a log-normal distribution in both version 1 and version 2. However, version 2 considerably extends both the left and right tails of the distribution. Consequently, when estimating global oceanic N-2 fixation rates using the geometric means of different ocean basins, version 1 and version 2 yield similar rates (43-57 versus 45-63 TgNyr (-1); ranges based on one geometric standard error). In contrast, when using arithmetic means, version 2 suggests a significantly higher rate of 223 +/- 30 TgNyr (-1) (mean +/- standard error; same hereafter) compared to version 1 (74 +/- 7 TgNyr (-1)). Specifically, substantial rate increases are estimated for the South Pacific Ocean (88 +/- 23 versus 20 +/- 2 TgNyr 1), primarily driven by measurements in the southwestern subtropics, and for the North Atlantic Ocean (40 +/- 9 versus 10 +/- 2 TgNyr (-1)). Moreover, version 2 estimates the N-2 fixation rate in the Indian Ocean to be 35 +/- 14 TgNyr (-1), which could not be estimated using version 1 due to limited data availability. Furthermore, a comparison of N-2 fixation rates obtained through different measurement methods at the same months, locations, and depths reveals that the conventional N-15(2) bubble method yields lower rates in 69% cases compared to the new N-15(2) dissolution method. This updated version of the database can facilitate future studies in marine ecology and biogeochemistry. The database is stored at the Figshare repository (https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.21677687; Shao et al., 2022).

  • 20. Speetjens, Niek Jesse
    et al.
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Gumbricht, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Lantuit, Hugues
    Berghuijs, Wouter R.
    Pika, Philip A.
    Poste, Amanda
    Vonk, Jorien E.
    The pan-Arctic catchment database (ARCADE)2023In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 541-554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic is rapidly changing. Outside the Arctic, large-sample catchment databases have transformed catchment science from focusing on local case studies to more systematic studies of watershed functioning. Here we present an integrated pan-ARctic CAtchments summary DatabasE (ARCADE) of > 40 000 catchments that drain into the Arctic Ocean and range in size from 1 to 3.1 × 106 km2. These watersheds, delineated at a 90 m resolution, are provided with 103 geospatial, environmental, climatic, and physiographic catchment properties. ARCADE is the first aggregated database of pan-Arctic river catchments that also includes numerous small watersheds at a high resolution. These small catchments are experiencing the greatest climatic warming while also storing large quantities of soil carbon in landscapes that are especially prone to degradation of permafrost (i.e., ice wedge polygon terrain) and associated hydrological regime shifts. ARCADE is a key step toward monitoring the pan-Arctic across scales and is publicly available: https://doi.org/10.34894/U9HSPV (Speetjens et al., 2022).

  • 21. Stimmler, Peter
    et al.
    Goeckede, Mathias
    Elberling, Bo
    Natali, Susan
    Kuhry, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Perron, Nia
    Lacroix, Fabrice
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Sonnentag, Oliver
    Strauss, Jens
    Minions, Christina
    Sommer, Michael
    Schaller, Joerg
    Pan-Arctic soil element bioavailability estimations2023In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 1059-1075Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arctic soils store large amounts of organic carbon and other elements, such as amorphous silicon, silicon, calcium, iron, aluminum, and phosphorous. Global warming is projected to be most pronounced in the Arctic, leading to thawing permafrost which, in turn, changes the soil element availability. To project how biogeochemical cycling in Arctic ecosystems will be affected by climate change, there is a need for data on element availability. Here, we analyzed the amorphous silicon (ASi) content as a solid fraction of the soils as well as Mehlich III extractions for the bioavailability of silicon (Si), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), phosphorus (P), and aluminum (Al) from 574 soil samples from the circumpolar Arctic region. We show large differences in the ASi fraction and in Si, Ca, Fe, Al, and P availability among different lithologies and Arctic regions. We summarize these data in pan-Arctic maps of the ASi fraction and available Si, Ca, Fe, P, and Al concentrations, focusing on the top 100 cm of Arctic soil. Furthermore, we provide element availability values for the organic and mineral layers of the seasonally thawing active layer as well as for the uppermost permafrost layer. Our spatially explicit data on differences in the availability of elements between the different lithological classes and regions now and in the future will improve Arctic Earth system models for estimating current and future carbon and nutrient feedbacks under climate change (, Schaller and Goeckede, 2022).

  • 22. Tuinenburg, Obbe A.
    et al.
    Theeuwen, Jolanda J. E.
    Staal, Arie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Utrecht University, the Netherlands.
    High-resolution global atmospheric moisture connections from evaporation to precipitation2020In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 3177-3188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key Earth system process is the circulation of evaporated moisture through the atmosphere. Spatial connections between evaporation and precipitation affect the global and regional climates by redistributing water and latent heat. Through this atmospheric moisture recycling, land cover changes influence regional precipitation patterns, with potentially far-reaching effects on human livelihoods and biome distributions across the globe. However, a globally complete dataset of atmospheric moisture flows from evaporation to precipitation has been lacking so far. Here we present a dataset of global atmospheric moisture recycling on both 0.5 degrees and 1.0 degrees spatial resolution. We simulated the moisture flows between each pair of cells across all land and oceans for 2008-2017 and present their monthly climatological means. We applied the Lagrangian moisture tracking model UTrack, which is forced with ERAS reanalysis data on 25 atmospheric layers and hourly wind speeds and directions. Due to the global coverage of the simulations, a complete picture of both the upwind source areas of precipitation and downwind target areas of evaporation can be obtained. We show a number of statistics of global atmospheric moisture flows: land recycling, basin recycling, mean latitudinal and longitudinal flows, absolute latitudinal and longitudinal flows, and basin recycling for the 26 largest river basins. We find that, on average, 70 % of global land evaporation rains down over land, varying between 62 % and 74 % across the year; 51 % of global land precipitation has evaporated from land, varying between 36 % and 57 % across the year. The highest basin recycling occurs in the Amazon and Congo basins, with evaporation and precipitation recycling of 63 % and 36 % for the Amazon basin and 60 % and 47 % for the Congo basin. These statistics are examples of the potential usage of the dataset, which allows users to identify and quantify the moisture flows from and to any area on Earth, from local to global scales. The dataset is available at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.912710 (Tuinenburg et al., 2020).

  • 23. Valente, Andre
    et al.
    Sathyendranath, Shubha
    Brotas, Vanda
    Groom, Steve
    Grant, Michael
    Taberner, Malcolm
    Antoine, David
    Arnone, Robert
    Balch, William M.
    Barker, Kathryn
    Barlow, Ray
    Belanger, Simon
    Berthon, Jean-Francois
    Besiktepe, Sukru
    Brando, Vittorio
    Canuti, Elisabetta
    Chavez, Francisco
    Claustre, Herve
    Crout, Richard
    Frouin, Robert
    Garcia-Soto, Carlos
    Gibb, StuartW.
    Gould, Richard
    Hooker, Stanford
    Kahru, Mati
    Klein, Holger
    Kratzer, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Loisel, Hubert
    Mckee, David
    Mitchell, Brian G.
    Moisan, Tiffany
    Muller-Karger, Frank
    O'Dowd, Leonie
    Ondrusek, Michael
    Poulton, Alex J.
    Repecaud, Michel
    Smyth, Timothy
    Sosik, Heidi M.
    Twardowski, Michael
    Voss, Kenneth
    Werdell, Jeremy
    Wernand, Marcel
    Zibordi, Giuseppe
    A compilation of global bio-optical in situ data for ocean-colour satellite applications2016In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 235-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A compiled set of in situ data is important to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite-data records. Here we describe the data compiled for the validation of the ocean-colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The data were acquired from several sources (MOBY, BOUSSOLE, AERONET-OC, SeaBASS, NOMAD, MERMAID, AMT, ICES, HOT, GeP&CO), span between 1997 and 2012, and have a global distribution. Observations of the following variables were compiled: spectral remote-sensing reflectances, concentrations of chlorophyll a, spectral inherent optical properties and spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients. The data were from multi-project archives acquired via the open internet services or from individual projects, acquired directly from data providers. Methodologies were implemented for homogenisation, quality control and merging of all data. No changes were made to the original data, other than averaging of observations that were close in time and space, elimination of some points after quality control and conversion to a standard format. The final result is a merged table designed for validation of satellite-derived ocean-colour products and available in text format. Metadata of each in situ measurement (original source, cruise or experiment, principal investigator) were preserved throughout the work and made available in the final table. Using all the data in a validation exercise increases the number of matchups and enhances the representativeness of different marine regimes. By making available the metadata, it is also possible to analyse each set of data separately. The compiled data are available at doi: 10.1594/PANGAEA.854832 (Valente et al., 2015).

  • 24. Valente, André
    et al.
    Kratzer, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Zibordi, Giuseppe
    A compilation of global bio-optical in situ data for ocean colour satellite applications – version three2022In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 14, no 12, p. 5737-5770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A global in situ data set for validation of ocean colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI) is presented. This version of the compilation, starting in 1997, now extends to 2021, which is important for the validation of the most recent satellite optical sensors such as Sentinel 3B OLCI and NOAA-20 VIIRS. The data set comprises in situ observations of the following variables: spectral remote-sensing reflectance, concentration of chlorophyll-a, spectral inherent optical properties, spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient, and total suspended matter. Data were obtained from multi-project archives acquired via open internet services or from individual projects acquired directly from data providers. Methodologies were implemented for homogenization, quality control, and merging of all data. Minimal changes were made on the original data, other than conversion to a standard format, elimination of some points, after quality control and averaging of observations that were close in time and space. The result is a merged table available in text format. Overall, the size of the data set grew with 148 432 rows, with each row representing a unique station in space and time (cf. 136 250 rows in previous version; Valente et al., 2019). Observations of remote-sensing reflectance increased to 68 641 (cf. 59 781 in previous version; Valente et al., 2019). There was also a near tenfold increase in chlorophyll data since 2016. Metadata of each in situ measurement (original source, cruise or experiment, principal investigator) are included in the final table. By making the metadata available, provenance is better documented and it is also possible to analyse each set of data separately. The compiled data are available at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.941318 (Valente et al., 2022).

  • 25. Valente, André
    et al.
    Sathyendranath, Shubha
    Brotas, Vanda
    Groom, Steve
    Grant, Michael
    Taberner, Malcolm
    Antoine, David
    Arnone, Robert
    Balch, William M.
    Barker, Kathryn
    Barlow, Ray
    Belanger, Simon
    Berthon, Jean-Francois
    Besiktepe, Suikru
    Borsheim, Yngve
    Bracher, Astrid
    Brando, Vittorio
    Canuti, Elisabetta
    Chavez, Francisco
    Cianca, Andres
    Claustre, Herve
    Clementson, Lesley
    Crout, Richard
    Frouin, Robert
    Garcia-Soto, Carlos
    Gibb, Stuart W.
    Gould, Richard
    Hooker, Stanford B.
    Kahru, Mati
    Kampel, Milton
    Klein, Holger
    Kratzer, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Kudela, Raphael
    Ledesma, Jesus
    Loisel, Hubert
    Matrai, Patricia
    McKee, David
    Mitchell, Brian G.
    Moisan, Tiffany
    Muller-Karger, Frank
    O'Dowd, Leonie
    Ondrusek, Michael
    Platt, Trevor
    Poulton, Alex J.
    Repecaud, Michel
    Schroeder, Thomas
    Smythe, Timothy
    Smythe-Wright, Denise
    Sosik, Heidi M.
    Twardowski, Michael
    Vellucci, Vincenzo
    Voss, Kenneth
    Werdell, Jeremy
    Wernand, Marcel
    Wright, Simon
    Zibordi, Giuseppe
    A compilation of global bio-optical in situ data for ocean-colour satellite applications - version two2019In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 1037-1068Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A global compilation of in situ data is useful to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite data records. Here we describe the data compiled for the validation of the ocean-colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The data were acquired from several sources (including, inter alia, MOBY, BOUSSOLE, AERONET-OC, SeaBASS, NOMAD, MERMAID, AMT, ICES, HOT and GeP&CO) and span the period from 1997 to 2018. Observations of the following variables were compiled: spectral remote-sensing reflectances, concentrations of chlorophyll a, spectral inherent optical properties, spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients and total suspended matter. The data were from multi-project archives acquired via open internet services or from individual projects, acquired directly from data providers. Methodologies were implemented for homogenization, quality control and merging of all data. No changes were made to the original data, other than averaging of observations that were close in time and space, elimination of some points after quality control and conversion to a standard format. The final result is a merged table designed for validation of satellite-derived ocean-colour products and available in text format. Metadata of each in situ measurement (original source, cruise or experiment, principal investigator) was propagated throughout the work and made available in the final table. By making the metadata available, provenance is better documented, and it is also possible to analyse each set of data separately. This paper also describes the changes that were made to the compilation in relation to the previous version (Valente et al., 2016). The compiled data are available at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.898188 (Valente et al., 2019).

  • 26. Wei, Xueqiong
    et al.
    Widgren, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Li, Beibei
    Ye, Yu
    Fang, Xiuqi
    Zhang, Chengpeng
    Chen, Tiexi
    Dataset of 1 km cropland cover from 1690 to 1999 in Scandinavia2021In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 3035-3056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatially explicit historical land cover datasets are essential not only for simulations of climate and environmental dynamics but also for projections of future land use, food security, climate, and biodiversity. However, widely used global datasets are developed for continental- to global-scale analysis and simulations. Their accuracy depends on the verification of more regional reconstruction results. This study collects cropland area data of each administrative unit (parish/municipality/county) in Scandinavia from multiple sources. The cropland area data are validated, calibrated, interpolated, and allocated into 1 km×1 km grid cells. Then, we develop a dataset with spatially explicit cropland area from 1690 to 1999. Results indicate that the cropland area increased from 1.82×106 ha to 6.71×106 ha from 1690 to 1950 and then decreased to 5.90×106 ha in 1999. Before 1810, cropland cover expanded in southern Scandinavia and remained stable in northern Scandinavia. From 1810 to 1910, northern Scandinavia experienced slight cropland expansion. The cropland area increased rapidly in the southern part of the study area before changing slightly. After 1950, the cropland areas began to decrease in most regions, especially in eastern Scandinavia. When comparing global datasets with this study, although the total Scandinavia cropland area is in agreement among SAGE (Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment), HYDE (History Database of the Global Environment ) 3.2, PJ (Pongratz Julia), and this study, the spatial patterns show considerable differences, except for in Denmark between HYDE 3.2 and this study. The dataset can be downloaded from https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.926591 (Wei et al., 2021).

    Download full text (pdf)
    Dataset Scandinavia 1690_1999
  • 27. Zhang, Zhen
    et al.
    Fluet-Chouinard, Etienne
    Jensen, Katherine
    McDonald, Kyle
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Gumbricht, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Carroll, Mark
    Prigent, Catherine
    Bartsch, Annett
    Poulter, Benjamin
    Development of the global dataset of Wetland Area and Dynamics for Methane Modeling (WAD2M)2021In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 2001-2023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seasonal and interannual variations in global wetland area are a strong driver of fluctuations in global methane (CH4) emissions. Current maps of global wetland extent vary in their wetland definition, causing substantial disagreement between and large uncertainty in estimates of wetland methane emissions. To reconcile these differences for large-scale wetland CH4 modeling, we developed the global Wetland Area and Dynamics for Methane Modeling (WAD2M) version 1.0 dataset at a similar to 25 km resolution at the Equator (0.25 degrees) at a monthly time step for 2000-2018. WAD2M combines a time series of surface inundation based on active and passive microwave remote sensing at a coarse resolution with six static datasets that discriminate inland waters, agriculture, shoreline, and non-inundated wetlands. We excluded all permanent water bodies (e.g., lakes, ponds, rivers, and reservoirs), coastal wetlands (e.g., mangroves and sea grasses), and rice paddies to only represent spatiotem-poral patterns of inundated and non-inundated vegetated wetlands. Globally, WAD2M estimates the long-term maximum wetland area at 13 :0 x 106 km(2) (13.0Mkm(2)), which can be divided into three categories: mean annual minimum of inundated and non-inundated wetlands at 3.5Mkm(2), seasonally inundated wetlands at 4.0Mkm(2) (mean annual maximum minus mean annual minimum), and intermittently inundated wetlands at 5.5Mkm(2) (long-term maximum minus mean annual maximum). WAD2M shows good spatial agreements with independent wetland inventories for major wetland complexes, i.e., the Amazon Basin lowlands and West Siberian lowlands, with Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.54 and 0.70 respectively among multiple wetland products. By evaluating the temporal variation in WAD2M against modeled prognostic inundation (i.e., TOPMODEL) and satellite observations of inundation and soil moisture, we show that it adequately represents interannual variation as well as the effect of El Nino-Southern Oscillation on global wetland extent. This wetland extent dataset will improve estimates of wetland CH4 fluxes for global-scale land surface modeling. The dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3998454 (Zhang et al., 2020).

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