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  • 1. Berry, Z. Carter
    et al.
    Evaristo, Jaivime
    Moore, Georgianne
    Poca, María
    Steppe, Kathy
    Verrot, Lucile
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. University of Aberdeen, UK.
    Asbjornsen, Heidi
    Borma, Laura S.
    Bretfeld, Mario
    Herve-Fernandez, Pedro
    Seyfried, Mark
    Schwendenmann, Luitgard
    Sinacore, Katherine
    De Wispelaere, Lien
    McDonnell, Jeffrey
    The two water worlds hypothesis: Addressing multiple working hypotheses and proposing a way forward2018In: Ecohydrology, ISSN 1936-0584, E-ISSN 1936-0592, Vol. 11, no 3, article id e1843Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies using water isotopes have shown that trees and streams appear to return distinct water pools to the hydrosphere. Cryogenically extracted plant and soil water isotopic signatures diverge from the meteoric water lines, suggesting that plants would preferentially use bound soil water, while mobile soil water that infiltrates the soil recharges groundwater and feeds streamflow all plots on meteoric water lines. These findings have been described under the two water worlds (TWW) hypothesis. In spite of growing evidence for the TWW hypothesis, several questions remain unsolved within the scope of this framework. Here, we address the TWW as a null hypothesis and further assess the following: (a) the theoretical biophysical feasibility for two distinct water pools to exist, (b) plant and soil processes that could explain the different isotopic composition between the two water pools, and (c) methodological issues that could explain the divergent isotopic signatures. Moreover, we propose a way forward under the framework of the TWW hypothesis, proposing alternative perspectives and explanations, experiments to further test them, and methodological advances that could help illuminate this quest. We further highlight the need to improve our sampling resolution of plants and soils across time and space. We ultimately propose a set of key priorities for future research to improve our understanding of the ecohydrological processes controlling water flows through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum.

  • 2. Hamel, Perrine
    et al.
    Riveros-Iregui, Diego
    Ballari, Daniela
    Browning, Trevor
    Célleri, Rolando
    Chandler, David
    Chun, Kwok Pan
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Jacobs, Suzanne
    Jasechko, Scott
    Johnson, Mark
    Krishnaswamy, Jagdish
    Poca, María
    Pompeu, Patrícia Vieira
    Rocha, Humberto
    Watershed services in the humid tropics: Opportunities from recent advances in ecohydrology2018In: Ecohydrology, ISSN 1936-0584, E-ISSN 1936-0592, Vol. 11, no 3, article id e1921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to increasing pressures on water resources, watershed services management programs are implemented throughout the tropics. These programs aim to promote land management activities that enhance the quantity and quality of water available to local communities. The success of these programs hinges on our ability to (a) understand the impacts of watershed interventions on ecohydrology; (b) model these impacts and design efficient management programs; and (c) develop strategies to overcome barriers to practical policy development, including resource limitations or the absence of baseline data. In this paper, we review opportunities in ecohydrological science that will help address these three challenges. The opportunities are grouped into measurement techniques, modelling approaches, and access to resources in our hyperconnected world. We then assess management implications of both the knowledge gaps and the new research developments related to the effect of land management. Overall, we stress the importance of policy-relevant knowledge for implementing efficient and equitable watershed services programs in the tropics.

  • 3.
    Rockström, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Falkenmark, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Allan, T.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gordon, Line
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jagerskog, A.
    Kummu, M.
    Lannerstad, M.
    Meybeck, M.
    Molden, D.
    Postel, S.
    Savenije, H. H. G.
    Svedin, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Turton, A.
    Varis, O.
    The unfolding water drama in the Anthropocene: towards a resilience-based perspective on water for global sustainability2014In: Ecohydrology, ISSN 1936-0584, E-ISSN 1936-0592, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 1249-1261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human influence on the global hydrological cycle is now the dominant force behind changes in water resources across the world and in regulating the resilience of the Earth system. The rise in human pressures on global freshwater resources is in par with other anthropogenic changes in the Earth system (from climate to ecosystem change), which has prompted science to suggest that humanity has entered a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene. This paper focuses on the critical role of water for resilience of social-ecological systems across scales, by avoiding major regime shifts away from stable environmental conditions, and in safeguarding life-support systems for human wellbeing. It highlights the dramatic increase of water crowding: near-future challenges for global water security and expansion of food production in competition with carbon sequestration and biofuel production. It addresses the human alterations of rainfall stability, due to both land-use changes and climate change, the ongoing overuse of blue water, reflected in river depletion, expanding river basin closure, groundwater overexploitation and water pollution risks. The rising water turbulence in the Anthropocene changes the water research and policy agenda, from a water-resource efficiency to a water resilience focus. This includes integrated land and water stewardship to sustain wetness-dependent ecological functions at the landscape scale and a stronger emphasis on green water management for ecosystem services. A new paradigm of water governance emerges, encouraging land-use practices that explicitly take account of the multifunctional roles of water, with adequate attention to planetary freshwater boundaries and cross-scale interactions.

  • 4. Tang, Jing
    et al.
    Miller, Paul A.
    Crill, Patrick M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Olin, Stefan
    Pilesjo, Petter
    Investigating the influence of two different flow routing algorithms on soil-water-vegetation interactions using the dynamic ecosystem model LPJ-GUESS2015In: Ecohydrology, ISSN 1936-0584, E-ISSN 1936-0592, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 570-583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares two flow routing algorithms' influences on ecohydrological estimations in a northern peatland catchment, within the framework of an arctic-enabled version of the dynamic ecosystem model LPJ-GUESS. Accurate hydrological estimations are needed to fully capture vegetation dynamics and carbon fluxes in the subarctic peatland enviroment. A previously proposed distributed hydrological method based on the single flow (SF) algorithm extracted topographic indices has shown to improve runoff estimations in LPJ-GUESS. This paper investigates model performance differences caused by two flow routing algorithms, and importantly both permafrost processes and peatland hydrology are included in the model. The newly developed triangular form-based multiple flow (TFM) is selected due to its improved consideration of flow continuity and more realistic flow estimation over flat surfaces. A variety of measured data is included to assess both hydrological and ecological accuracy, and the results demonstrate that the choice of flow algorithm does matter for mesoscale ecohydrology applications. The allowance of flow convergence and consideration of flow partition differences from different terrain forms in the TFM algorithm yield better correspondence with the observed hydrological processes and also carbon fluxes. By directing flow to only one downslope cell together with its poorer depiction of flow over flat areas, the SF algorithm can result in too high runoff estimations for low-flat regions and overestimate carbon uptake and release in the peatland. The results of this study also highlight the need for care when selecting flow routing algorithms for biogeochemical estimations, especially within hydrologically and climatically sensitive environments.

  • 5. Vico, Giulia
    et al.
    Thompson, Sally E.
    Manzoni, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Sweden .
    Molini, Annalisa
    Albertson, John D.
    Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S.
    Fay, Philip A.
    Feng, Xue
    Guswa, Andrew J.
    Liu, Hu
    Wilson, Tiffany G.
    Porporato, Amilcare
    Climatic, ecophysiological, and phenological controls on plant ecohydrological strategies in seasonally dry ecosystems2015In: Ecohydrology, ISSN 1936-0584, E-ISSN 1936-0592, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 660-681Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large areas in the tropics and at mid-latitudes experience pronounced seasonality and inter-annual variability in rainfall and hence water availability. Despite the importance of these seasonally dry ecosystems (SDEs) for the global carbon cycling and in providing ecosystem services, a unifying ecohydrological framework to interpret the effects of climatic variability on SDEs is still lacking. A synthesis of existing data about plant functional adaptations in SDEs, covering some 400 species, shows that leaf phenological variations, rather than physiological traits, provide the dominant control on plant-water-carbon interactions. Motivated by this result, the combined implications of leaf phenology and climatic variability on plant water use strategies are here explored with a minimalist model of the coupled soil water and plant carbon balances. The analyses are extended to five locations with different hydroclimatic forcing, spanning seasonally dry tropical climates (without temperature seasonality) and Mediterranean climates (exhibiting out of phase seasonal patterns of rainfall and temperature). The most beneficial leaf phenology in terms of carbon uptake depends on the climatic regime: evergreen species are favoured by short dry seasons or access to persistent water stores, whereas high inter-annual variability of rainy season duration favours the coexistence of multiple drought-deciduous phenological strategies. We conclude that drought-deciduousness may provide a competitive advantage in face of predicted declines in rainfall totals, while reduced seasonality and access to deep water stores may favour evergreen species. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  • 6. Wemple, Beverley C.
    et al.
    Browning, Trevor
    Ziegler, Alan D.
    Celi, Jorge
    Chun, Kwok Pan (Sun)
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Leite, Nei K.
    Ramchunder, Sorain J.
    Negishi, Junjiro N.
    Palomeque, Ximena
    Sawyer, Derek
    Ecohydrological disturbances associated with roads: Current knowledge, research needs, and management concerns with reference to the tropics2018In: Ecohydrology, ISSN 1936-0584, E-ISSN 1936-0592, Vol. 11, no 3, article id e1881Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roads are a pervasive form of disturbance with potential to negatively affect ecohydrological processes. Some of the most rapid growth in road networks is occurring in developing countries, particularly in the tropics, where political agendas are often focused on strengthening the economy, improving infrastructure, bolstering national security, achieving self-sufficiency, and increasing citizen well-being, often at the expense of the environment. We review what is known about road impacts on ecohydrological processes, focusing on aquatic systems, both temperate and tropical. We present seven cases that represent the broader trends of road development and impacts in tropical settings. Many of these process dynamics and impacts are not different from those experienced in temperate settings, although the magnitude of impacts in the tropics may be amplified with intense rainfall and lack of best management practices applied to road construction/maintenance. Impacts of roads in tropical settings may also be unique because of particular organisms or ecosystems affected. We outline a set of best practices to improve road network management and provide recommendations for adopting an agenda of research and road management in tropical settings. Importantly, we call for incorporation of transdisciplinary approaches to further study the effects of roads on ecohydrological processes in the tropics. Specific emphasis should also be placed on collaboration with governments and developers that are championing road development to help identify the drivers of road expansion and thresholds of negative impact, as well as methods of sustainable road construction and maintenance.

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