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  • 1.
    Fors, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Thorslund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Enduring inequality: educational disparities in health among the oldest old in Sweden 1992-20112015In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 91-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Although the past two decades have involved changes in the living conditions of the oldest old in Sweden, little is known about how health inequalities have developed in this group during the period. This study explores the educational disparities in a wide range of health outcomes among the oldest old in Sweden between 1992 and 2011.

    METHODS: The study uses the repeated cross-sectional design of the SWEOLD survey, a nationally representative survey of the oldest old in Sweden with comparable data from 1992, 2002, and 2011. The development of educational disparities in health was tracked across the three waves.

    RESULTS: The results show that although the prevalence of most health problems increased during the period, the prevalence of disability in activities of daily living decreased. Despite these changes, educational disparities in health remained largely unaffected.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study suggest that the association between education and health is remarkably robust. It prevailed into the oldest age groups, was consistently found for a wide range of health problems, and tended to be stable over extended periods of time.

  • 2.
    Fritzell, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Rehnberg, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Bacchus Hertzman, Jennie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Blomgren, Jenni
    Absolute or relative? A comparative analysis of the relationship between poverty and mortality2015In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 101-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We aimed to examine the cross-national and cross-temporal association between poverty and mortality, in particular differentiating the impact of absolute and relative poverty. We employed pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. Our measure of relative poverty was based upon the standard 60 % of median income. The measure of absolute, or fixed, poverty was based upon the US poverty threshold. Our analyses were conducted on data for 30 countries between 1978 and 2010, a total of 149 data points. We separately studied infant, child, and adult mortality. Our findings highlight the importance of relative poverty for mortality. Especially for infant and child mortality, we found that our estimates of fixed poverty is close to zero either in the crude models, or when adjusting for gross domestic product. Conversely, the relative poverty estimates increased when adjusting for confounders. Our results seemed robust to a number of sensitivity tests. If we agree that risk of death is important, the public policy implication of our findings is that relative poverty, which has close associations to overall inequality, should be a major concern also among rich countries.

  • 3.
    Rojas, Yerko
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Evictions and short-term all-cause mortality: a 3-year follow-up study of a middle-aged Swedish population2017In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 343-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    This study sets out to explore whether being forcibly removed from one’s home is related to all-cause mortality.

    Methods

    With the help of unique register data covering all middle-aged persons registered at the Swedish Enforcement Authority with a case closed by an eviction during the period 2009–2011 (n = 2092), evictees’ deaths from any cause that occurred within 3 years of the date of the eviction are compared with the all-cause mortality of a random sample of the Swedish population (n = 426,117). The analysis is based on penalized maximum likelihood logistic regressions.

    Results

    Those who had been evicted from their homes were found to be approximately one and a half times more likely to die from any cause than those who had not been exposed to this experience (OR = 1.59), controlling for several demographic, socio-economic and health conditions prior to the date of the eviction.

    Conclusions

    The results provide support for the notion that the experience of losing one’s dwelling place should be treated as a major life event in its own right, just like other well-established social stressors.

  • 4.
    Room, Robin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Mäkela, Pia
    Benegal, Vivek
    Greenfield, Thomas K.
    Hettige, Siri
    Tumwesigye, Nazarius M.
    Wilsnack, Richard
    Times to drink: cross-cultural variations in drinking in the rhythm of the week2012In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 107-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The time of drinking in terms of daytime versus evening and weekday versus weekend is charted for regular drinkers in 14 countries in Europe, Asia, Latin America, Africa and Oceania. National or regional adult population surveys from the GENACIS project. The weekly rhythm of drinking varies greatly between societies. Drinking was generally more likely after 5 p.m. and on weekends. To this extent, alcohol consumption is now regulated by a universal clock. The relation of time of day and of the week of drinking to problems from drinking varied between societies. Drinking at specific times was more likely to predict problems among men than women, though for men the particular time varied, while weekday evenings were the most problematic time for women. The relation of drinking at a particular time to problems in part reflected that heavy drinkers were more likely to be drinking at that time. There are commonalities across cultures in drinking by time of day and day of the week, but the implications of the timing for alcohol-related problems are fairly culture-specific.

  • 5. te Grotenhuis, Manfred
    et al.
    Pelzer, Ben
    Eisinga, Rob
    Nieuwenhuis, Rense
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Schmidt-Catran, Alexander
    Konig, Ruben
    When size matters: advantages of weighted effect coding in observational studies2017In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 163-167Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Virtanen, Pekka
    et al.
    Nummi, Tapio
    Lintonen, Tomi
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hägglöf, Bruno
    Hammarström, Anne
    Mental health in adolescence as determinant of alcohol consumption trajectories in the Northern Swedish Cohort2015In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 335-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to analyze whether poor mental health in adolescence predicts heavy alcohol consumption over the long term. Alcohol consumption in the population cohort (n = 1010) was surveyed at the ages of 16, 18, 21, 30 and 42. Utilizing latent class growth analysis, six consumption trajectories ranging from 'Late Onset Low' to 'Early Onset High' were defined and analyzed with respect to internalization (depressiveness and anxiousness) and externalization (truancy and vandalism) at age 16. Poor mental health predicted the Early Onset High trajectory (risk ratios in relation to the compliant trajectory 3.59 for anxiousness, 2.85 for depressiveness, 5.69 for truancy and 7.75 for externalized vandalism). Moreover, significant associations were found for the Early Onset Moderate and Early Onset Low trajectories. This is the first study to show an association between internalized mental health problems in adolescence and lifelong heavy drinking. The study also confirmed a strong association between externalized behavior and heavy drinking, indicating a need of preventive measures in this group. Nevertheless, the analyses demonstrated that most teenagers with mental health problems continue along a reasonable drinking trajectory.

  • 7.
    Östergren, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Lundberg, Olle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    The contribution of alcohol consumption and smoking to educational inequalities in life expectancy among Swedish men and women during 1991–20082018In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 41-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    To assess the level and changes in contribution of smoking and alcohol-related mortality to educational differences in life expectancy in Sweden.

    Methods

    We used register data on the Swedish population at ages 30–74 during 1991–2008. Cause of death was used to identify alcohol-related deaths, while smoking-related mortality was estimated using lung cancer mortality to indirectly assess the impact of smoking on all-cause mortality.

    Results

    Alcohol consumption and smoking contributed to educational differences in life expectancy. Alcohol-related mortality was higher among men and contributed substantially to inequalities among men and made a small (but increasing) contribution to inequalities among women. Smoking-related mortality decreased among men but increased among women, primarily among the low educated. At the end of the follow-up, smoking-related mortality were at similar levels among men and women. The widening gap in life expectancy among women could largely be attributed to smoking.

    Conclusions

    Smoking and alcohol consumption contribute to educational differences in life expectancy among men and women. The majority of the widening in the educational gap in mortality among women can be attributed to alcohol and smoking-related mortality.

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