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  • 1. Dixen, Karen
    et al.
    Basse, Astrid L.
    Murholm, Maria
    Isidor, Marie S.
    Hansen, Lillian H. L.
    Petersen, M. Christine H.
    Madsen, Lise
    Petrovic, Natasa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Nedergaard, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Quistorff, Bjorn
    Hansen, Jacob B.
    ERR gamma Enhances UCP1 Expression and Fatty Acid Oxidation in Brown Adipocytes2013In: Obesity, ISSN 1930-7381, E-ISSN 1930-739X, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 516-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are important regulators of energy metabolism. Here we investigated the hypothesis that ERR gamma impacts on differentiation and function of brown adipocytes. Design and Methods: We characterize the expression of ERR gamma in adipose tissues and cell models and investigate the effects of modulating ERR? activity on UCP1 gene expression and metabolic features of brown and white adipocytes. Results: ERR gamma was preferentially expressed in brown compared to white fat depots, and ERR gamma was induced during cold-induced browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue and brown adipogenesis. Overexpression of ERR gamma positively regulated uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression levels during brown adipogenesis. This ERR gamma-induced augmentation of UCP1 expression was independent of the presence of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1 (PGC-1 alpha) but was associated with increased rates of fatty acid oxidation in adrenergically stimulated cells. ERR? did not influence mitochondrial biogenesis, and its reduced expression in white adipocytes could not explain their low expression level of UCP1. Conclusions: Through its augmenting effect on expression of UCP1, ERR gamma may physiologically be involved in increasing the potential for energy expenditure in brown adipocytes, a function that is becoming of therapeutic interest.

  • 2. Gall, Kelly
    et al.
    van Zutven, Kim
    Lindström, Joanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Bentley, Caroline
    Gratwick-Sarll, Kassandra
    Harrison, Carmel
    Lewis, Vivienne
    Mond, Jonathan
    Obesity and emotional well-being in adolescents: Roles of body dissatisfaction, loss of control eating, and self-rated health2016In: Obesity, ISSN 1930-7381, E-ISSN 1930-739X, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 837-842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectiveWeak or inconsistent association between obesity and impairment in emotional well-being in population-based samples has led to efforts to identify mediating variables. This study examined the relative importance of body dissatisfaction (BD), loss of control (LOC) eating, and self-rated health (SRH) in mediating the association between obesity and impairment in emotional well-being in a school-based sample of adolescents (boys, n=437; girls, n=950). MethodsModerated mediation analysis was employed to assess the relative importance of the putative mediating variables and moderation of mediation effects by sex following the methods suggested by Hayes and coworkers. ResultsBD and SRH, but not LOC eating, were found to mediate the association between obesity and impairment in emotional well-being. Stronger mediation effects were observed for BD than for SRH. None of these results was moderated by sex. ConclusionsThe findings suggest that it may be important to target BD in obesity prevention and treatment programs in order to reduce the adverse impact of excess body weight on young people's emotional well-being.

  • 3. Holowko, Natalie
    et al.
    Jones, Mark
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tooth, Leigh
    Mishra, Gita
    Combined effect of education and reproductive history on weight trajectories of young Australian women: A longitudinal study2016In: Obesity, ISSN 1930-7381, E-ISSN 1930-739X, Vol. 24, no 10, p. 2224-2231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To investigate the combined effect of education and reproductive history on weight trajectory.

    Methods

    The association of education with weight trajectory (1996–2012) in relation to reproductive history was analyzed among 9,336 women (born 1973–1978) from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health using random effects models.

    Results

    Compared with women with a university degree/higher, lower-educated women were 2 kg heavier at baseline and gained an additional 0.24 kg/year. Giving birth was associated with an increase in weight which was more pronounced among women having their first birth <26 years of age (2.1 kg, 95% CI: 1.5–2.7), compared with 26 to 32 years or >32 years. While younger first-time mothers had a steeper weight trajectory (∼+0.16 kg/year, 95% CI: 0.1–0.3), this was less steep among lower-educated women. High-educated women with a second birth between 26 and 32 years had 0.9 kg decreased weight after this birth, while low-educated women gained 0.9 kg.

    Conclusions

    While the effect of having children on weight in young adulthood was minimal, women having their first birth <26 years of age had increased risk of weight gain, particularly primiparous women. Educational differences in weight persisted after accounting for reproductive history, suggesting a need to explore alternative mechanisms through which social differences in weight are generated.

  • 4. Oliveira, A.J.
    et al.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Lopes, C.S.
    Monteiro Ponce de Leon, A.
    The influence of social relationships on obesity: sex differences in a longitudinal study2013In: Obesity, ISSN 1930-7381, E-ISSN 1930-739X, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 1540-1547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the effect of five dimensions of social relationships on obesity and potential sex differences in these associations.

    Design and Methods: This study used longitudinal data from the Swedish Level of Living Surveys (LNU) in 1991 and 2000. The sample included 3,586 individuals. The dimensions of social relationships examined in this study include emotional support, frequency of visiting friends, marital status, marital status changes, and a Social Relationships Index (SRI). Obesity status was based on BMI (kg/m(2)) and calculated with self-reported measurements. The association between social relationships and the incidence of obesity after 9 years of follow-up was evaluated through Poisson regressions.Results: After controlling for confounders, we found that the lack of emotional support (RR = 1.98; 95% CI, 1.1-4.6) influenced the incidence of obesity among men. In addition, men with the lowest levels of SRI (RR = 2.22; 95% CI, 1.1-4.4) had an increased risk of being obese. Among women, SRI was not significantly associated with obesity. Women who changed their marital status from married to unmarried had lower risk of obesity (RR = 0.39; 95% CI, 0.2-0.9).

    Conclusions: This study provides evidence for the effect of social relationships on the incidence of obesity, with significant differences by sex.

  • 5.
    Xu, Tianwei
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Copenhagen, Denmark; National Research Center for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Clark, Alice J.
    Ersbøll, Annette K.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Pentti, Jaana
    Stenholm, Sari
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Sørensen, Jeppe K.
    Nordentoft, Mads
    Westendorp, Rudi G. J.
    Hansen, Åse M.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    H. Rod, Naja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Onset of Workplace Bullying and Risk of Weight Gain: A Multicohort Longitudinal Study2020In: Obesity, ISSN 1930-7381, E-ISSN 1930-739X, Vol. 28, no 11, p. 2216-2223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the onset of workplace bullying as a risk factor for BMI increase.

    Methods: Repeated biennial survey data from three Nordic cohort studies were used, totaling 46,148 participants (67,337 participant observations) aged between 18 and 65 who did not have obesity and who were not bullied at the baseline. Multinomial logistic regression was applied for the analysis under the framework of generalized estimating equations.

    Results: Five percent reported onset of workplace bullying within 2 years from the baseline. In confounder-adjusted models, onset of workplace bullying was associated with a higher risk of weight gain of >= 1 BMI unit (odds ratio = 1.09; 95% CI: 1.01-1.19) and of >= 2.5 BMI units (odds ratio = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.06-1.45). A dose-response pattern was observed, and those exposed to workplace bullying more frequently showed a higher risk (P-trend = 0.04). The association was robust to adjustments, restrictions, stratifications, and use of relative/absolute scales for BMI change.

    Conclusions: Participants with exposure to the onset of workplace bullying were more likely to gain weight, a possible pathway linking workplace bullying to increased long-term risk of type 2 diabetes.

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