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  • 1.
    Belyazid, Salim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Giuliana, Zanchi
    Water limitation can negate the effect of higher temperatures on forest carbon sequestration2019In: European Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1612-4669, E-ISSN 1612-4677, Vol. 138, no 2, p. 287-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change will bring about a consistent increase in temperatures. Annual precipitation rates are also expected to increase in boreal countries, but the seasonal distribution will be uneven, and several areas in the boreal zone will experience wetter winters and drier summers. This study uses the dynamic forest ecosystem model ForSAFE to estimate the combined effect of changes in temperature and precipitation on forest carbon stocks in Sweden. The model is used to simulate carbon stock changes in 544 productive forest sites from the Swedish National Forest Inventory. Forest carbon stocks under two alternative climate scenarios are compared to stocks under a hypothetical scenario of no climate change (baseline). Results show that lower water availability in the future can cause a significant reduction in tree carbon compared to a baseline scenario, particularly expressed in the southern and eastern parts of Sweden. In contrast, the north-western parts will experience an increase in tree carbon stocks. Results show also that summer precipitation is a better predictor of tree carbon reduction than annual precipitation. Finally, the change in soil carbon stock is less conspicuous than in tree carbon stock, showing no significant change in the north and a relatively small but consistent decline in the south. The study indicates that the prospect of higher water deficit caused by climate change cannot be ignored in future forest management planning.

  • 2.
    Bergvall, Ulrika A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Co, Michelle
    Bergström, Roger
    Sjöberg, Per J. R.
    Waldebäck, Monica
    Turner, Charlotta
    Anti-browsing effects of birch bark extract on fallow deer2013In: European Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1612-4669, E-ISSN 1612-4677, Vol. 132, no 5-6, p. 717-725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major problem within forest industry is unwanted browsing on seedlings from mammalian herbivores. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of birch bark extracts as repellents towards fallow deer. Birch bark was extracted in a conventional way with ethanol as solvent at ambient temperature and with a new method, liquid CO2 extraction. An analysis of the ethanol-extracted birch bark showed that it contained large amounts of terpenoids, of which the most abundant was betulin. In seven different treatment trials, we used 15 individually handled fallow deer. To investigate the binary taste preferences, birch bark extract was added to food and presented in two bowls in typical two-choice tests. We found that the amount of a food type consumed during a trial and the number of shifts between food bowls were dependent on the amount of the birch extract the food contained. Concentrations of above 1 % by dry weight of birch extract acted as a repellent. In addition, such concentrations produced shorter feeding bouts by a greater willingness to change bowls. Therefore, our conclusion is that birch bark extract acts as a repellent towards fallow deer and is therefore likely to act as a repellent against other deer species. In addition, we show that birch bark extract produced by the new and more environmentally sustainable method employing liquid CO2 mixed with ethanol has the same repellent effect as the traditional ethanol extraction.

  • 3. Nordström, Eva-Maria
    et al.
    Dolling, Ann
    Skärbäck, Erik
    Stoltz, Jonathan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Grahn, Patrik
    Lundell, Ylva
    Forests for wood production and stress recovery: trade-offs in long-term forest management planning2015In: European Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1612-4669, E-ISSN 1612-4677, Vol. 134, no 5, p. 755-767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests play an important role, contributing to human health and well-being as environments for recreation and rehabilitation. Stress has become a significant problem in modern societies, and the importance of forests as environments for stress relief has been recognized in recent years. To maintain and create forests for rehabilitation, consideration of their rehabilitation value needs to be incorporated into forest management planning and to do this, we need to define and quantify the characteristics of good rehabilitation forests. This study presents an approach for including rehabilitation value as an aspect of forest management planning. This approach is applied to three case study areas in northern, middle and southern Sweden to identify trade-offs between maintaining high wood production while creating forest areas suitable for rehabilitation from stress-related diseases. The results show that quite large areas of rehabilitation forest (10-15 % of total forest area) can be maintained at a relatively small loss in economic net present value (NPV) of wood production (ca 2 % of maximum NPV). When using the rehabilitation value indicator defined in this study, age and spatial variables (distance to roads and water) seem to be the most limiting factors.

  • 4.
    Stoltz, Jonathan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lundell, Ylva
    Skärbäck, Erik
    Annerstedt van den Bosch, Matilda
    Grahn, Patrik
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Dolling, Ann
    Planning for restorative forests: describing stress-reducing qualities of forest stands using available forest stand data2016In: European Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1612-4669, E-ISSN 1612-4677, Vol. 135, no 5, p. 803-813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research suggests that certain forest environments can contribute to lower stress levels in humans. This might be increasingly important to consider given the rising prevalence of stress-related diseases and illness absence. To make it feasible to plan for forest management strategies that take such restorative effects into account, it would seem to be important to identify the precise physical properties that contribute to the restorative qualities of forest stands. It would also be useful if forest stand data typically already collected by forest owners could be used for this purpose. In the present study, forest stands in northern, central, and southern Sweden were visited and assessed regarding their restorative potential. These assessments were analysed together with available forest stand data for each region using statistical models. Our results indicate that of the available forest stand data parameters, the most important individual indicators of forest stands' restorative qualities were tree age, tree sparsity, and tree height. Models based on these parameters explained 30-40 % of the variation in restorative qualities among the evaluated stands, indicating that they can be useful in planning and modelling scenarios where restorative properties of forest stands are considered.

  • 5.
    Stutz, Rebecca S.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Pedersen, Simen
    Teräväinen, Malin
    Kjellander, Petter
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Verschuur, Louisan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Bergvall, Ulrika A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Efficient application of a browsing repellent: Can associational effects within and between plants be exploited?2019In: European Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1612-4669, E-ISSN 1612-4677, Vol. 138, no 2, p. 253-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Browsing can reduce forest productivity, particularly when the apical shoots of trees are damaged. Repellents are used widely to reduce browsing, but application is costly. To improve efficiency, it may be possible to take advantage of associational plant refuge effects, requiring repellents to be applied only to some trees or parts of trees, or reapplied less frequently. Using captive moose (Alces alces) and constructed stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), we tested for potential refuges by applying a commercial repellent (HaTe2) to all, alternate or none of the apical shoots, or all of the previous-year apical shoots. We also tested for potential refuges under field conditions, applying the repellent to all, alternate or none of the apical pine shoots in forest stands. Captive moose (two individuals in a 2.1-ha enclosure, similar to 95 individuals km(-2)) browsed 100% of trees, but were significantly less likely to browse apical shoots treated with repellent. Associational refuge was ineffective both within and between trees. In the field (0.84 moose km(-2)), only 1.3% of trees sustained browsing damage. Applying the repellent to the apical shoots of pines had no direct repellent effect nor any within-plant associational effects. Trees with treated apical shoots provided some protection for untreated neighbouring trees, but this was not biologically meaningful given the low percentage of trees browsed overall. Here, a simple captive experiment was not predictive of the browsing response observed in the field, demonstrating the need to test repellent application strategies in situ.

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