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  • 1.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Broman, Dag
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Naes, Kristoffer
    Freely dissolved PCDD/F concentrations in the Frierfjord, Norway: comparing equilibrium passive sampling with ""active"" water sampling2010Ingår i: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 162-171Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Equilibrium passive samplers consisting of 55-A mu m polyoxymethylene (POM) and 170-A mu m polydimethylsiloxane were tested for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/furan (PCDD/F) in the pore water and overlying water of the Frierfjord, a bay in southern Norway. This fjord is heavily polluted with PCDD/Fs due to emissions from a former Mg smelter. Field exposures of both equilibrium passive sampler types yielded similar results for freely dissolved PCDD/F concentrations (C (W,free)) in the overlying water. In addition, the passive sampling data deviated less than an order of magnitude from C (W,free) obtained with conventional ""active"" sampling through pumping/filtration over glass fiber filters and polyurethane foam. A similar comparison was done for the pore water, where POM passive samplers also proved to yield freely dissolved pore water concentrations (C (PW,free)) that deviated less than an order of magnitude from earlier published values measured by direct pore water extraction. The data were also used to derive sediment-water activity ratios, which indicate the diffusive flux direction. High sediment-to-water activity ratios (median value of 160 for 17 congeners) indicated a strong diffusion gradient between the sediment pore water and the overlying water, probably due to deposition of particle-bound PCDD/Fs in combination with low sedimentation rates.

  • 2.
    Eklund, Britta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Johansson, Lisen
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Ytreberg, Erik
    Contamination of a boatyard for maintenance of pleasure boats2014Ingår i: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 14, nr 5, s. 955-967Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The object of this study was to study a boat maintenance facility by investigating the degree of contamination and assessing how leachate water from soil affects organisms from three trophic levels. Materials and methods Surface and subsurface (20-cm depth) soil samples were collected in a typical boatyard (200 boats, 12,000 m(2)) at a 70-(station A), 90-(station B), 120-(station C) and 160-m (station D) distance from the shoreline. Three replicate samples, similar to 10 m apart, were taken at stations A, B and C, respectively, and one replicate was taken at station D (i.e. altogether 20 samples with 10 at surface and subsurface, respectively). The total copper (Cu), lead (Pb), tin (Sn) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were determined for all replicates. Pooled samples from the respective stations were used for analysis of organotin compounds, irgarol and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Leachate waters were produced from the pooled samples and used for toxicity testing with the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne and the crustacean Nitocra spinipes. Results and discussion Very high concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn were detected, with maximum values of 16,300, 6,430 and 18,600 mg/kg dw, respectively. Organic hazardous compounds were found in high concentrations with maximum values of 37, 27 and 16 mg/kg dw for tributytin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT), respectively. All pollutants exceeded existing guidance values for both sensitive land use and less sensitive land use by several factors, in both surface and subsurface soil. The least and worst cases of total amount of TBT (12 000 m(2) and 0.2 m depth) were estimated to be 10 and 122 kg of TBT. Leachates were shown to be toxic in all three test organisms. Conclusions Several known hazardous pollutants were found in boatyard maintenance areas and they exceeded recommended guidance values by several factors. Leachates were shown to be toxic to test organisms of several trophic orders. This underlines that boat maintenance facilities in general should be better regulated to minimize further exposure to humans and spread of contaminants in the environment. The amounts of contaminants accumulated in these areas call for investigations of how remediation should be performed.

  • 3. Gutierrez, Iris
    et al.
    Watanabe, Naoko
    Harter, Thomas
    Glaser, Bruno
    Radke, Michael
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Effect of sulfonamide antibiotics on microbial diversity and activity in a Californian Mollic Haploxeralf2010Ingår i: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 537-544Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 4. Hansen, Mona C.
    et al.
    Borresen, Marion H.
    Schlabach, Martin
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Sorption of perfluorinated compounds from contaminated water to activated carbon2010Ingår i: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 179-185Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFC) are toxic and bioaccumulative compounds that are ubiquitous in the environment. It is important to develop effective techniques to remove PFC from water. This study is the first to investigate sorption of PFC to activated carbon (AC) at environmentally relevant nanogram per liter concentrations. Batch AC sorption isotherms were measured for water from a contaminated groundwater well, for three perfluorosulfonates and five perfluoroacetic acids. For perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid Freundlich sorption coefficients, log K (iF), for powdered activated carbon (PAC) were 4.0 and 3.8 (ng/g)(ng/L)(-n) , respectively, and for granular activated carbon (GAC) were 2.7 and 2.3 (ng/g)(ng/L)(-n) , respectively. Sorption was nonlinear, with Freundlich n coefficients generally around 0.5. The K (iF) on both GAC and PAC were PFC chain-length dependant, with increasing number of carbon yielding increasing K (iF). This chain-length dependence appeared stronger for perfluorosulfonates than for perfluoroacetic acids. Tests with short (10 min) adsorption times still yielded substantial PFC removal (20-40% for GAC, 60-90% for PAC) and revealed that AC is probably suitable for PFC removal in flow-through systems. A perfluorinated polymer, Teflon, was also tested as a PFC removal agent but proved not to be effective for PFC-contaminated water purification.

  • 5.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Sundberg, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Grunder, Kerstin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Hazard identification of contaminated sites-ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in crustacean and fish2008Ingår i: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 263-274Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background, aim, and scope It is well known that contaminated sediments represent a potential long-term source of pollutants to the aquatic environment. To protect human and ecosystem health, it is becoming common to remediate contaminated sites. However, the great cost associated with,e.g., dredging in combination with the large numbers of contaminated sites makes it crucial to pinpoint those sites that are in greatest need of remediation. In most European countries, this prioritization process has almost exclusively been based on chemical analyses of known substances; only seldom toxicity data has been considered. The main objective of the current study was therefore to develop a tool for hazard identification of sediment by ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in a crustacean and a fish. A secondary objective was to investigate the difference in potential toxicity between compoundswith different polarities.

    Materials and methods Early life stages of the crustacean Nitocra spinipes and the fish Oncorhynchus mykiss, which represent organisms from different trophic levels (primary and secondary consumer) and with different routes of exposure(i.e., ingestion through food, diffusive uptake, and maternal transfer), were exposed to hexane and acetone fractions(semi-polar compounds) of sediment from five locations,ranging from heavily to low contaminated. Preliminary tests showed that the extracts were non-bioavailable to the crustacean when exposed via water, and the extracts were therefore loaded on silica gel. Rainbow trout embryos were exposed using nano-injection technique.

    Results and discussion Clear concentration–response relationships of both mortality and larval development were observed in all tests with N. spinipes. Also for rainbow trout,the observed effects (e.g., abnormality, hemorrhage, asymmetric yolk sac) followed a dose-related pattern. Interestingly, our results indicate that some of the locations contained toxic semi-polar compounds, which are normally not considered in risk assessment of sediment since they are focused on compounds isolated in the hexane fraction.

    Conclusions The ranking of the five sediments followed the expected pattern of potential toxicity in both organisms, i.e.,sediments with known pollution history caused major effects while reference sediments caused minor effects in the two test systems. Silica gel turned out to be an excellent carrier for exposure of N. spinipes to very hydrophobic and otherwise non-bioavailable sediment extracts.

    Recommendations and perspectives Since both test systems demonstrated that a substantial part of the potential toxicity was caused by semi-polar compounds in the acetone fractions,this study enlightens our poor understanding of which compounds are causing adverse effects in environmental samples. Therefore, by investigating potential toxicity (i.e., hazard identification) as a first screening step in prioritizing processes,these implications could be avoided. For proper sediment risk assessment, we however recommend whole sediment toxicity tests to be used for selected sites at following tiers.

  • 6. Rahmati, Omid
    et al.
    Soleimanpour, Seyed Masoud
    Arabkhedri, Mahmood
    Mehrjo, Sardar
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Bolincentret för klimatforskning (tills m KTH & SMHI). KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Cavalli, Marco
    Crema, Stefano
    Bahmani, Aref
    Towards quantification of soil conservation performance using sediment connectivity concept at hillslope scale: proposing a new framework for data-scarce regions2023Ingår i: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 2298-2309Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Although contour trenching is one of the widely used nature-based solutions for soil conservation around the world, its efficiency has not been quantitatively investigated. This study aimed to scrutinize the performance of the contour trenching program, a nature-based solution and common soil erosion prevention measure in hillslopes of a data-scarce region based on the sediment connectivity approach.

    Materials and methods Six different hillslopes (A–F) were selected in the Khamsan watershed in Iran, a representative area where contour trenching has been implemented. The sediment connectivity map of each hillslope was generated using the index of connectivity (IC) based on two real scenarios: with (scenario I) and without (scenario II) contour trenching. Two different field-based validation methods were applied on the base of (i) in situ measurements of the sediment depth in contour trenches and Pearson’s correlation analysis, and (ii) field index of connectivity (FIC). The validity of the sediment connectivity results was verified using both validation approaches. The sediment connectivity in two scenarios was compared and the impact of the contour trenching was analyzed. The performance of the contour trenching program was quantitatively determined for each hillslope.

    Results and discussion The results revealed that contour trenching significantly affected sediment routing and reduced the IC values of all selected hillslopes. The differences in IC value between the two scenarios (∆IC) for hillslopes A, B, C, D, E, and F were found to be 22.6%, 11.27%, 14.69%, 5.83%, 15%, and 7.27%, respectively. Therefore, the spatial pattern of sediment connectivity also differed significantly after implementing contour trenching. Furthermore, Pearson’s correlation coefficients revealed that the sediment connectivity and the sediment depth in contours in all hillslopes had a significant negative relationship, resulting in confirming the validity of the sediment connectivity results for all six hillslopes in the current study.

    Conclusion Contour trenching significantly reduced the sediment connectivity on all six hillslopes studied. Furthermore, in situ measurements of the sediment depth in contour trenches should be conducted to verify the simulation of sediment connectivity. The proposed methodology can be applied in other data-scarce regions to evaluate the performance of the contour trenching program.

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