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  • 1.
    Hajin, Mona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Seeking Personal Autonomy Through the Use of Facebook in Iran2013In: SAGE Open, ISSN 2158-2440, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Iran, where males and females are kept separated in different spheres, Facebook may be used as an opportunity to bridge this gap between the genders. However, this study showed that Facebook, as a nonymous platform in which people are in contact with their already-made social ties, didn’t seem to be liberating from the existing norms and rules within society. Facebook was a stage that became restricted with the involvement of social ties. The study’s analysis of interviews with six young Iranians showed that social meanings and norms of self-presentation on Facebook are defined to a large degree in terms of gender. The informants used a variety of strategies when presenting themselves on Facebook. They used Facebook simply for gaining personal autonomy. Strategies were adopted especially when one’s personal and community needs were in conflict. Efforts made to apply strategies were gendered and were used mainly by females. Males conformed to and women resisted societal norms and expectations.

  • 2.
    Sörbom, Adrienne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Ahrne, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    The Organization of Global Politics: the case of the labor movementIn: SAGE Open, ISSN 2158-2440, E-ISSN 2158-2440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization occurs in a variety of social spheres, and different types of organizations have varying possibilities for becoming global actors. The aim of this paper is to explain why some non-governmental political actors have difficulty acting outside the framework of the nation state whereas others are more succesful. Drawing on the cases of the Socialist International, four European trade unions and Amnesty International, the paper explores organizational preconditions for becoming global political actors. The analysis is based on both contemporary and historical empirical sources, showing that in the cases of the European unions and the Socialist International the prime organizational form chosen for non-national cooperation is the international meta-organization. This form may render international recognition, but is rooted in national organizations making it less suitable for global politics. The best explanation for this un-aptness is strong internal differences, caused by the national embeddedness of political parties and trade unions. The paper points to four factors explaining this embeddedness and the following difficulties: members’ interests, a broad agenda, and the necessity of engaging in solutions, leading to a lack of leadership. Comparing the results with the organizational form of Amnesty International the paper shows that it is the opposite to the meta-organizations of parties and unions. Amnesty is not fighting for the immediate interests of its members; it has a narrow agenda; it does not engage in solutions; and as a result it has strong leadership and can more easily act as a united global actor.

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