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  • 1.
    Alexander, Steven M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Maryland, USA; University of Waterloo, Canada.
    Andrachuk, Mark
    Armitage, Derek
    Navigating governance networks for community-based conservation2016In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 155-164Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Governance networks can facilitate coordinated action and shared opportunities for learning among conservation scientists, policy makers, and communities. However, governance networks that link local, regional, and international actors just as often reflect social relationships and arrangements that can undermine conservation efforts, particularly those concerning community-level priorities. Here, we identify three waypoints or navigational guides to help researchers and practitioners explore these networks, and to inspire them to consider in a more systematic manner the social rules and relationships that influence conservation outcomes. These waypoints encourage those engaged in community-based conservation (CBC) to: (1) think about the networks in which they are embedded and the constellation of actors that influence conservation practice; (2) examine the values and interests of diverse actors in governance, and the implications of different perspectives for conservation; and (3) consider how the structure and dynamics of networks can reveal helpful insights for conservation efforts. The three waypoints we highlight synthesize an interdisciplinary literature on governance networks and provide key insights for conservation actors navigating the challenges of CBC at multiple scales and levels.

  • 2. Bennett, Elena M.
    et al.
    Solan, Martin
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, Australia.
    McPhearson, Timon
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Pereira, Laura
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Raudsepp-Hearne, Ciara
    Biermann, Frank
    Carpenter, Stephen R.
    Ellis, Erle C.
    Hichert, Tanja
    Galaz, Victor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lahsen, Myanna
    Milkoreit, Manjana
    López, Berta Martin
    Nicholas, Kimberly A.
    Preiser, Rika
    Vince, Gaia
    Vervoort, Joost M.
    Xu, Jianchu
    Bright spots: seeds of a good Anthropocene2016In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 441-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scale, rate, and intensity of humans' environmental impact has engendered broad discussion about how to find plausible pathways of development that hold the most promise for fostering a better future in the Anthropocene. However, the dominance of dystopian visions of irreversible environmental degradation and societal collapse, along with overly optimistic utopias and business-as-usual scenarios that lack insight and innovation, frustrate progress. Here, we present a novel approach to thinking about the future that builds on experiences drawn from a diversity of practices, worldviews, values, and regions that could accelerate the adoption of pathways to transformative change (change that goes beyond incremental improvements). Using an analysis of 100 initiatives, or seeds of a good Anthropocene, we find that emphasizing hopeful elements of existing practice offers the opportunity to: (1) understand the values and features that constitute a good Anthropocene, (2) determine the processes that lead to the emergence and growth of initiatives that fundamentally change human-environmental relationships, and (3) generate creative, bottom-up scenarios that feature well-articulated pathways toward a more positive future.

  • 3. Eriksson, Hampus
    et al.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Andrew, Neil
    Wilen, James
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Contagious exploitation of marine resources2015In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 13, no 8, p. 435-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global seafood sourcing networks are expanding to meet demand. To describe contemporary fishery expansion patterns, we analyzed the worldwide exploitation of sea cucumber (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) traded via Hong Kong for consumers in China. In just 15 years (1996-2011), the sea cucumber sourcing network expanded from 35 to 83 countries; sea cucumber fisheries serving the Chinese market now operate within countries cumulatively spanning over 90% of the world's tropical coastlines. The emergence of such fisheries in nations where they were previously absent could not be explained either by their national governance capacity or by their distance from Hong Kong. Surging imports from these new fisheries have compensated for declines in long-standing fisheries elsewhere. The case of commercial sea cucumber trade for the Chinese market exemplifies a new global extraction phenomenon that we call contagious resource exploitation - a fast-moving system resembling a disease epidemic, where long-distance transport expedites large-scale expansion followed by diffusive local spread into neighboring areas. Multi-level and multi-scale decision making is urgently needed to control and mitigate the effects of contagious exploitation.

  • 4. Fa, John E.
    et al.
    Watson, James E. M.
    Leiper, Ian
    Potapov, Peter
    Evans, Tom D.
    Burgess, Neil D.
    Molnár, Zsolt
    Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro
    Duncan, Tom
    Wang, Stephanie
    Austin, Beau J.
    Jonas, Harry
    Robinson, Cathy J.
    Malmer, Pernilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Zander, Kerstin K.
    Jackson, Micha
    Ellis, Erle
    Brondizio, Eduardo S.
    Garnett, Stephen T.
    Importance of Indigenous Peoples' lands for the conservation of Intact Forest Landscapes2020In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intact Forest Landscapes (IFLs) are critical strongholds for the environmental services that they provide, not least for their role in climate protection. On the basis of information about the distributions of IFLs and Indigenous Peoples' lands, we examined the importance of these areas for conserving the world's remaining intact forests. We determined that at least 36% of IFLs are within Indigenous Peoples' lands, making these areas crucial to the mitigation action needed to avoid catastrophic climate change. We also provide evidence that IFL loss rates have been considerably lower on Indigenous Peoples' lands than on other lands, although these forests are still vulnerable to clearing and other threats. World governments must recognize Indigenous Peoples' rights, including land tenure rights, to ensure that Indigenous Peoples play active roles in decision-making processes that affect IFLs on their lands. Such recognition is critical given the urgent need to reduce deforestation rates in the face of escalating climate change and global biodiversity loss.

  • 5. Fischer, Joern
    et al.
    Meacham, Megan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Queiroz, Cibele
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    A plea for multifunctional landscapes2017In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 59-59Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6. Graham, Nicholas A. J.
    et al.
    Bellwood, David R.
    Cinner, Joshua E.
    Hughes, Terry P.
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Managing resilience to reverse phase shifts in coral reefs2013In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 11, no 10, p. 541-548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both coral-dominated and degraded reef ecosystems can be resistant to change. Typically, research and management have focused on maintaining coral dominance and avoiding phase shifts to other species compositions, rather than on weakening the resilience of already degraded reefs to re-establish coral dominance. Reversing degraded coral-reef states will involve reducing local chronic drivers like fishing pressure and poor water quality. Reversals will also require management of key ecological processes - such as those performed by different functional groups of marine herbivores - that both weaken the resilience of the degraded state and strengthen the coral-dominated state. If detrimental human impacts are reduced and key ecological processes are enhanced, pulse disturbances, such as extreme weather events, and ecological variability may provide opportunities for a return to a coral-dominated state. Critically, achieving these outcomes will necessitate a diverse range of integrated approaches to alter human interactions with reef ecosystems.

  • 7.
    Henriksson, Patrik J. G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. WorldFish, Malaysia.
    Jarviö, Natasha
    Jonell, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Guinée, Jeroen B.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    The devil is in the details - the carbon footprint of a shrimp2018In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8. Latawiec, Agnieszka E.
    et al.
    Strassburg, Bernardo B.N.
    Brancalion, Pedro H.S.
    Rodrigues, Ricardo R.
    Gardner, Toby
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute. International Institute for Sustainability, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Creating space for large-scale restoration intropical agricultural landscapes2015In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 211-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poorly planned, large-scale ecological restoration projects may displace agricultural activities and potentiallylead to the clearance of native vegetation elsewhere, with associated impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem ser-vices. Yet few studies have considered these risks and the ways in which restoration can increase competition forland. Here, we address this issue by examining whether large-scale restoration of the Brazilian Atlantic Forestcould displace cattle production, as a result of land shortages. Although the risks of displacement are indeedhigh when reforestation is planned in areas with high cattle productivity, we discuss how these risks can beminimized through a combination of productivity increases, a regional restoration planning framework, andthe prioritization of marginal agricultural land for restoration. We also consider how restoration can, in somecircumstances, be made more economically sustainable by incorporating income-generating activities such asexploitation of timber and non-timber forest products, certification, and payments for ecosystem services.

  • 9.
    Lehmann, Philipp
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. University of Jyväskylä, Finland; Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Ammunét, Tea
    Barton, Madeleine
    Battisti, Andrea
    Eigenbrode, Sanford D.
    Jepsen, Jane Uhd
    Kalinkat, Gregor
    Neuvonen, Seppo
    Niemelä, Pekka
    Terblanche, John S.
    Økland, Bjørn
    Björkman, Christer
    Complex responses of global insect pests to climate warming2020In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although it is well known that insects are sensitive to temperature, how they will be affected by ongoing global warming remains uncertain because these responses are multifaceted and ecologically complex. We reviewed the effects of climate warming on 31 globally important phytophagous (plant-eating) insect pests to determine whether general trends in their responses to warming were detectable. We included four response categories (range expansion, life history, population dynamics, and trophic interactions) in this assessment. For the majority of these species, we identified at least one response to warming that affects the severity of the threat they pose as pests. Among these insect species, 41% showed responses expected to lead to increased pest damage, whereas only 4% exhibited responses consistent with reduced effects; notably, most of these species (55%) demonstrated mixed responses. This means that the severity of a given insect pest may both increase and decrease with ongoing climate warming. Overall, our analysis indicated that anticipating the effects of climate warming on phytophagous insect pests is far from straightforward. Rather, efforts to mitigate the undesirable effects of warming on insect pests must include a better understanding of how individual species will respond, and the complex ecological mechanisms underlying their responses.

  • 10. Liss, Kate N.
    et al.
    Mitchell, Matthew G. E.
    MacDonald, Graham K.
    Mahajan, Shauna L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. McGill University, Canada.
    Methot, Josee
    Jacob, Aerin L.
    Maguire, Dorothy Y.
    Metson, Genevieve S.
    Ziter, Carly
    Dancose, Karine
    Martins, Kyle
    Terrado, Marta
    Bennett, Elena M.
    Variability in ecosystem service measurement: a pollination service case study2013In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 414-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research quantifying ecosystem services (ES) - collectively, the benefits that society obtains from ecosystems -is rapidly increasing. Despite the seemingly straightforward definition, a wide variety of methods are used to measure ES. This methodological variability has largely been ignored, and standard protocols to select measures that capture ES provision have yet to be established. Furthermore, most published papers do not include explicit definitions of individual ES. We surveyed the literature on pollination ES to assess the range of measurement approaches, focusing on three essential steps: (1) definition of the ES, (2) identification of components contributing to ES delivery, and (3) selection of metrics to represent these components. We found considerable variation in how pollination as an ES - a relatively well-defined service - is measured. We discuss potential causes of this variability and provide suggestions to address this issue. Consistency in ES measurement, or a clear explanation of selected definitions and metrics, is critical to facilitate comparisons among studies and inform ecosystem management.

  • 11. Locke, Dexter H.
    et al.
    McPhearson, Timon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The New School, NY, USA; Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, NY, USA.
    Urban areas do provide ecosystem services2018In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 203-205Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Norström, Albert V.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Graham, Nicholas A. J.
    Moberg, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Williams, Gareth J.
    Guiding coral reef futures in the Anthropocene2016In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 490-498Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic changes to the Earth now rival those caused by the forces of nature and have shepherded us into a new planetary epoch - the Anthropocene. Such changes include profound and often unexpected alterations to coral reef ecosystems and the services they provide to human societies. Ensuring that reefs and their services endure during the Anthropocene will require that key drivers of coral reef change fishing, water quality, and anthropogenic climate change - stay within acceptable levels or safe operating spaces. The capacity to remain within these safe boundaries hinges on understanding the local, but also the increasingly global and cross-scale, socioeconomic causes of these human drivers of change. Consequently, local and regional management efforts that are successful in the short term may ultimately fail if current decision making and institution-building around coral reef systems remains fragmented, poorly coordinated, and unable to keep pace with the escalating speed of social, technological, and ecological change.

  • 13.
    Queiroz, Cibele
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Beilin, Ruth
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Farmland abandonment: Threat or opportunity for biodiversity conservation? A global review2014In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 288-296Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Farmland abandonment is changing rural landscapes worldwide, but its impacts on biodiversity are still being debated in the scientific literature. While some researchers see it as a threat to biodiversity, others view it as an opportunity for habitat regeneration. We reviewed 276 published studies describing various effects of farmland abandonment on biodiversity and found that a study's geographic region, selected metrics, assessed taxa, and conservation focus significantly affected how those impacts were reported. Countries in Eurasia and the New World reported mainly negative and positive effects of farmland abandonment on biodiversity, respectively. Notably, contrasting impacts were recorded in different agricultural regions of the world that were otherwise similar in land-use and biodiversity characteristics. We showed that the conservation focus (pre- or post-abandonment) in different regions is an important factor influencing how scientists address the abandonment issue, and this may affect how land-use policies are defined in agricultural landscapes.

  • 14.
    Reyers, Belinda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Council for Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR), South Africa.
    Biggs, Reinette Oonsie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Cumming, Graeme S.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hejnowicz, Adam P.
    Polasky, Stephen
    Getting the measure of ecosystem services: a social-ecological approach2013In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 268-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite growing interest and investment in ecosystem services across global science and policy arenas, it remains unclear how ecosystem services - and particularly changes in those services - should be measured. The social and ecological factors, and their interactions, that create and alter ecosystem services are inherently complex. Measuring and managing ecosystem services requires a sophisticated systems-based approach that accounts for how these services are generated by interconnected social-ecological systems (SES), how different services interact with each other, and how changes in the total bundle of services influence human well-being (HWB). Furthermore, there is a need to understand how changes in HWB feedback and affect the generation of ecosystem services. Here, we outline an SES-based approach for measuring ecosystem services and explore its value for setting policy targets, developing indicators, and establishing monitoring and assessment programs.

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