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  • 1.
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Measuring bioconcentration factors in fish using exposure to multiple chemicals and internal benchmarking to correct for growth dilution2012In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 31, no 8, p. 1853-1860Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern chemical legislation requires measuring the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of large numbers of chemicals in fish. The BCF must be corrected for growth dilution, because fish growth rates vary between laboratories. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) that BCFs of multiple chemicals can be measured simultaneously in one experiment, and (2) that internal benchmarking using a conservative test substance in the chemical mixture can be used to correct for growth dilution. Bioconcentration experiments were conducted following major elements of the OECD 305 guideline. Fish were simultaneously exposed to 11 chemicals selected to cover a range of BCFs and susceptibility to biotransformation. A method was developed to calculate the growth-corrected elimination rate constant from the concentration ratio of the analyte and a benchmarking chemical for which growth dilution dominated other elimination mechanisms. This method was applied to the experimental data using hexachlorobenzene as the benchmarking chemical. The growth dilution correction lowered the apparent elimination rate constants by between 5% and a factor of four for eight chemicals, while for two chemicals the growth-corrected elimination rate constant was not significantly different from zero. The benchmarking method reduced the uncertainty in the elimination rate constant compared to the existing method for growth dilution correction. The BCFs from exposing fish to 10 chemicals at once were consistent with BCF values from single-chemical exposures from the literature, supporting hypothesis 1. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2012; 31: 18531860. (c) 2012 SETAC

  • 2. Allan, Ian J.
    et al.
    Nilsson, Hans C.
    Tjensvoll, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Bradshaw, Clare
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Naes, Kristoffer
    PCDD/F release during benthic trawler-induced sediment resuspension2012In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 31, no 12, p. 2780-2787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Benthic trawling can cause the resuspension of large amounts of sediments. Such regular practice in the Grenland fjord system in the south of Norway has the potential to affect the fate, movement, and bioavailability of sediment-associated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). A novel mode of exposing passive sampling devices consisting of towing semipermeable membrane devices attached to the trawl net was used to gauge in situ changes in the freely dissolved concentration of PCDD/Fs on benthic trawlerinduced sediment resuspension. Significant accumulation of a number of PCDD/F congeners was observed despite the short (5?h) sampler exposure times. On average, a one order of magnitude increase in freely dissolved PCCD/F concentrations was seen within minutes of the sediment being resuspended. This observation was supported by similar changes in filtered PCDD/F concentrations measured by high-volume sampling prior to resuspension and in the sediment plume. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2012; 31: 27802787.

  • 3. Arp, Hans Peter H.
    et al.
    Villers, Frederic
    Lepland, Aivo
    Kalaitzidis, Stavros
    Christanis, Kimon
    Oen, Amy M. P.
    Breedveld, Gijs D.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    INFLUENCE OF HISTORICAL INDUSTRIAL EPOCHS ON PORE WATER AND PARTITIONING PROFILES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN OSLO HARBOR, NORWAY, SEDIMENT CORES2011In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 843-851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contaminant levels in urban harbor sediments vary with contaminant emission levels, sedimentation rates, and sediment resuspension processes such as propeller wash. Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are decreasing in many urban harbors, as heavily contaminated sediments that accumulated during past decades are being buried by less-contaminated sediments. However, PAHs and PCBs remain a concern in areas where burial is slow or resuspension processes re-expose heavily contaminated older layers. Chronostratigraphic sediment core studies typically characterize contaminant level histories by using total sediment concentrations, C(sed), and do not determine the freely dissolved porewater concentrations, C(pw), which provide a better measure of bioavailability. Here both C(sed) and C(pw) profiles were established for PAHs and PCBs in dated sediment cores from diverse areas of Oslo Harbor, Norway. Sediment-porewater partitioning profiles were established alongside profiles of various sorbing carbonaceous phases, including total organic carbon (TOC), black carbon, and diverse carbonaceous geosorbents identified by petrographic analysis. Stratigraphic trends in carbonaceous phases and C(sed) could be associated with different industrial epochs: hydropower (post- 1960, approximately), manufactured gas (similar to 1925-1960), coal (similar to 1910-1925), and early industry (similar to 1860-1910). Partitioning was highly variable and correlated best with the TOC. Hydropower-epoch sediments exhibit decreasing C(sed) with time and a relatively strong sorption capacity compared with the manufactured-gas epoch. Sediments from the manufactured-gas epoch exhibit substantial PAH and metal contamination, large amounts of coke and char, and a low sorption capacity. Reexposure of sediments of this epoch increases risks to local benthic species. Implications on natural recovery as a sediment management strategy are discussed.

  • 4.
    Bradshaw, Clare
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Södertörn University College, Sweden.
    Strid, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    von Stedingk, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Kerstin
    Effects of benthos, temperature, and dose on the fate of hexabromocyclododecane in experimental coastal ecosystems2015In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 1246-1257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors studied the fate of the brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) added in a particulate suspension to experimental ecosystems assembled from brackish (Baltic Sea) coastal bays. Two experiments examined how benthic macrofauna (over 21 d) and increased temperature (14 d) affected HBCDD concentrations and fractionation of , , and diastereomers in the water, sediment, and biota. A third experiment run over 3 seasons (231 d), studied the effect of HBCDD dose on the same endpoints. In all treatments of the 3 experiments, HBCDD partitioned mainly to the sediment, and this proportion increased with time. Presence of macrofauna tended to increase the HBCDD concentration in the sediment and decreased its concentration in the water. Increased temperature (+5 degrees C) decreased the amount of HBCDD in sediment and water but not in the filter- and deposit-feeding infaunal bivalves (Macoma balthica). The partitioning between water, sediment, and biota was not concentration dependent. In all treatments, sediment became enriched in -HBCDD, M. balthica in -HBCDD, and water in - and -HBCDD. Bioaccumulation of HBCDD in M. balthica was high in all experiments (log biota-sediment accumulation factor [BSAF] > 1.25), the diastereomer contributing the most (log BSAF 2.1-5.2). There is a risk of trophic transfer of HBCDD from benthic to pelagic food webs, as well as secondary poisoning of marine consumers. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:1246-1257.

  • 5. Brandli, Rahel C.
    et al.
    Breedveld, Gijsbert D.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Tributyltin Sorption to Marine Sedimentary Black Carbon and to Amended Activated Carbon2009In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 503-508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under marine conditions, tributyltin (TBT) is speciated mainly as an uncharged hydroxyl complex (TBTOH) that is expected to have a similar fate to hydrophobic organic contaminants. Earlier studies indicated that for the later compounds, sorption to black carbon (BC) can be more than two orders of magnitude stronger than sorption to organic carbon, notably at low and environmentally relevant concentrations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sorption strength of spiked TBT to a sediment and its BC isolate. It was observed that carbon-normalized sorption coefficients were in the same range for the sediment total organic carbon (TOC) and for its BC (log K-TOC 5.05 L/kg(TOC) and log K BC 5.09 L/kg(BC), respectively). This indicates that TBT does not sorb as strongly to BC as other hydrophobic organic contaminants. Activated carbon (AC), a strong man-made sorbent, has the potential to be used for in situ remediation of contaminated sediments and soils, in particular for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. In the present study, both granular and powdered AC were found to strongly sorb TBT under marine conditions, with a log sorption coefficient of 6.8 L/kg(carbon). Tributyl- and dibutyltin concentrations in the pore water of a natively contaminated sediment were reduced by more than 70% on addition of 2% of powdered AC, whereas granular AC did not show a similar reduction. The results indicate that powdered AC might be a feasible remediation agent for sediments contaminated by organotins.

  • 6. Feiler, Ute
    et al.
    Ratte, Monika
    Arts, Gertie
    Bazin, Christine
    Brauer, Frank
    Casado, Carmen
    Doeren, Laszlo
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Gilberg, Daniel
    Grote, Matthias
    Gonsior, Guido
    Hafner, Christoph
    Kopf, Willi
    Lemnitzer, Bernd
    Liedtke, Anja
    Matthias, Uwe
    Okos, Ewa
    Pandard, Pascal
    Scheerbaum, Dirk
    Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild
    Stewart, Kathleen
    Teodorovic, Ivana
    Wenzel, Andrea
    Pluta, Hans-Juergen
    Inter-laboratory trial of a standardized sediment contact test with the aquatic plant Myriophyllum aquaticum (ISO 16191)2014In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 662-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A whole-sediment toxicity test with Myriophyllum aquaticum has been developed by the German Federal Institute of Hydrology and standardized within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ISO 16191). An international ring-test was performed to evaluate the precision of the test method. Four sediments (artificial, natural) were tested. Test duration was 10 d, and test endpoint was inhibition of growth rate (r) based on fresh weight data. Eighteen of 21 laboratories met the validity criterion of r >= 0.09 d(-1) in the control. Results from 4 tests that did not conform to test-performance criteria were excluded from statistical evaluation. The inter-laboratory variability of growth rates (20.6%-25.0%) and inhibition (26.6%-39.9%) was comparable with the variability of other standardized bioassays. The mean test-internal variability of the controls was low (7% [control], 9.7% [solvent control]), yielding a high discriminatory power of the given test design (median minimum detectable differences [MDD] 13% to 15%). To ensure these MDDs, an additional validity criterion of CV <= 15% of the growth rate in the controls was recommended. As a positive control, 90 mg 3,5-dichlorophenol/kg sediment dry mass was tested. The range of the expected growth inhibition was proposed to be 35 +/- 15%. The ring test results demonstrated the reliability of the ISO 16191 toxicity test and its suitability as a tool to assess the toxicity of sediment and dredged material. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:662-670. (c) 2013 SETAC

  • 7. Gantner, Nikolaus
    et al.
    Muir, Derek C.
    Power, Michael
    Iqaluk, Deborah
    Reist, James D.
    Babaluk, John A.
    Meili, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Borg, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hammar, Johan
    Michaud, Wendy
    Dempson, Brian
    Solomon, Keith R.
    MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN LANDLOCKED ARCTIC CHAR (SALVELINUS ALPINUS) FROM THE CANADIAN ARCTIC. PART II: INFLUENCE OF LAKE BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC CHARACTERISTICS ON GEOGRAPHIC TRENDS IN 27 POPULATIONS2010In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 633-643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among-lake variation in mercury (Hg) concentrations in landlocked Arctic char was examined in 27 char populations from remote lakes across the Canadian Arctic. A total of 520 landlocked Arctic char were collected from 27 lakes, as well as sediments and surface water from a subset of lakes in 1999, 2002, and 2005 to 2007. Size, length, age, and trophic position (delta N-15) of individual char were determined and relationships with total Hg (THg) concentrations investigated, to identify a common covariate for adjustment using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). A subset of 216 char from 24 populations was used for spatial comparison, after length-adjustment. The influence of trophic position and food web length and abiotic characteristics such as location, geomorphology, lake area, catchment area, catchment-to-lake area ratio of the lakes on adjusted THg concentrations in char muscle tissue were then evaluated. Arctic char from Amituk Lake (Cornwallis Island) had the highest Hg concentrations (1.31 mu g/g wet wt), while Tessisoak Lake (Labrador, 0.07 mu g/g wet wt) had the lowest. Concentrations of THg were positively correlated with size, delta N-15, and age, respectively, in 88, 71, and 58% of 24 char populations. Length and delta N-15 were correlated in 67% of 24 char populations. Food chain length did not explain the differences in length-adjusted THg concentrations in char. No relationships between adjusted THg concentrations in char and latitude or longitude were found, however, THg concentrations in char showed a positive correlation with catchment-to-lake area ratio. Furthermore, we conclude that inputs from the surrounding environment may influence THg concentrations, and will ultimately affect THg concentrations in char as a result of predicted climate-driven changes that may occur in Arctic lake watersheds. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010; 29: 633-643.

  • 8. Gantner, Nikolaus
    et al.
    Power, Michael
    Iqaluk, Deborah
    Meili, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Borg, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sundbom, Marcus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Solomon, Keith R.
    Lawson, Greg
    Muir, Derek C.
    MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN LANDLOCKED ARCTIC CHAR (SALVELINUS ALPINUS) FROM THE CANADIAN ARCTIC. PART I: INSIGHTS FROM TROPHIC RELATIONSHIPS IN 18 LAKES2010In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 621-632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of mercury (Hg) have increased slowly in landlocked Arctic char over a 10- to 15-year period in the Arctic. Fluxes of Hg to sediments also show increases in most Arctic lakes. Correlation of Hg with trophic level (TL) was used to investigate and compare biomagnification of Hg in food webs from lakes in the Canadian Arctic sampled from 2002 to 2007. Concentrations of Hg (total Hg and methylmercury [MeHg]) in food webs were compared across longitudinal and latitudinal gradients in relation to delta C-13 and delta N-15 in periphyton, zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, and Arctic char of varying size-classes. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were calculated for the food web in each lake and related to available physical and chemical characteristics of the lakes. The relative content of MeHg increased with trophic level from 4.3 to 12.2% in periphyton, 41 to 79% in zooplankton, 59 to 72% in insects, and 74 to 100% in juvenile and adult char. The delta C-13 signatures of adult char indicated coupling with benthic invertebrates. Cannibalism among char lengthened the food chain. Biomagnification was confirmed in all 18 lakes, with TMFs ranging from 3.5 +/- 1.1 to 64.3 +/- 0.8. Results indicate that TMFs and food chain length (FCL) are key factors in explaining interlake variability in biomagnification of [Hg] among different lakes. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010; 29: 621-632. (C) 2009 SETAC

  • 9. Gouin, Todd
    et al.
    Armitage, James M.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Muir, Derek C. G.
    Ng, Carla A.
    Reid, Liisa
    Tao, Shu
    Influence of global climate change on chemical fate and bioaccumulation: The role of multimedia models2013In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 20-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multimedia environmental fate models are valuable tools for investigating potential changes associated with global climate change, particularly because thermodynamic forcing on partitioning behavior as well as diffusive and nondiffusive exchange processes are implicitly considered. Similarly, food-web bioaccumulation models are capable of integrating the net effect of changes associated with factors such as temperature, growth rates, feeding preferences, and partitioning behavior on bioaccumulation potential. For the climate change scenarios considered in the present study, such tools indicate that alterations to exposure concentrations are typically within a factor of 2 of the baseline output. Based on an appreciation for the uncertainty in model parameters and baseline output, the authors recommend caution when interpreting or speculating on the relative importance of global climate change with respect to how changes caused by it will influence chemical fate and bioavailability.

  • 10.
    Greger, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Dabrowska, Beata
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    INFLUENCE OF NUTRIENT LEVEL ON METHYLMERCURY CONTENT IN WATER SPINACH2010In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 29, no 8, p. 1735-1739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Widely consumed vegetables are often cultivated in sewage waters with high nutrient levels. They can contain high levels of methylmercury (MeHg), because they can form MeHg from inorganic Hg in their young shoots. We determined whether the MeHg uptake and the MeHg formation in the shoots of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) were affected by the presence of a high nutrient level in the growth medium. Water spinach shoots were rooted and pretreated in growth medium containing 7% (low) or 70% (high) Hoagland nutrient solution; thereafter, the plants were treated with either 0.02 mu M MeHg or 0.2 mu M HgCl2 for 3 d. Half the plants were then analyzed for total Hg and MeHg. The remaining plants were transferred to mercury-free medium with low or high nutrient levels and posttreated for 3 clays before analysis of total Hg and MeHg in order to measure MeHg formation in the absence of external Hg. The results indicate that nutrient level did not influence MeHg uptake, but that a high nutrient level reduced the distribution of MeHg to the shoots 2.7-fold versus low nutrient level. After treatment with HgCl2, MeHg was found in roots and new shoots but not in old shoots. The MeHg:total-Hg ratio was higher in new shoots than in roots, being 13 times higher at high versus low nutrient levels. Thus, MeHg formation was the same in new shoots independent of inorganic Hg concentration, since the total Hg level decreased at a high nutrient level.

  • 11.
    Hedman, Jenny E
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Stempa Tocca, Julia
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S
    Remobilization of PCB from Baltic Sea sediment: comparing the roles of bioturbation and physical resuspension2009In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 28, no 11, p. 2241-2249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The release of a 14C-labeled trichlorobiphenyl compound ([14C]PCB 32) from sediment to water was quantified weekly in a 30-d microcosm experiment with recirculating water. Two modes of bioturbation-driven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) release—bioturbation by the amphipod Monoporeia affinis (a particle biodiffuser) and bioturbation by the polychaete Marenzelleria sp. (a bioirrigator)—were compared to the PCB release caused by physical resuspension of the sediment generated by a motor-driven paddle used twice a week. Bioturbation by the amphipod M. affinis caused a significantly higher remobilization of both particle-associated PCB (PCBpart) and dissolved PCB (PCBdiss) than the other treatments. Bioturbation by Marenzelleria sp. and physical resuspension caused a similar release of PCBdiss despite a significantly higher amount of total suspended solids in the water column after physical resuspension. In all treatments, the release of PCBdiss was more than one order of magnitude higher than that of PCBpart, indicating a significant potential route of exposure for pelagic organisms, such as fish, to the most bioavailable PCB form. Calculated mass-transfer coefficients (0.3–1.3 cm/d) correspond to previously reported values for trichlorinated PCBs. The present results indicate that biological reworking of sediments can be just as, or even more, important than physical resuspension for the remobilization of sediment-bound contaminants.

  • 12.
    Hedman, Jenny E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Tocca, Julia Stempa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Remobilization of Polychlorinated Biphenyl from Baltic Sea Sediment: Comparing the Roles of Bioturbation and Physical Resuspension2009In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 28, no 11, p. 2241-2249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The release of a C-14-labeled trichlorobiphenyl compound ([C-14]PCB 32) from sediment to water was quantified weekly in a 30-d microcosm experiment with recirculating water. Two modes of bioturbation-driven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) release-bioturbation by the amphipod Monoporeia affinis (a particle biodiffuser) and bioturbation by the polychaete Marenzelleria sp. (a bioirrigator)-were compared to the PCB release caused by physical resuspension of the sediment generated by a motor-driven paddle used twice a week. Bioturbation by the amphipod M. affinis caused a significantly higher remobilization of both particle-associated PCB (PCBpart) and dissolved PCB (PCBdiss) than the other treatments. Bioturbation by Marenzelleria sp. and physical resuspension caused a similar release of PCBdiss despite a significantly higher amount of total suspended solids in the water column after physical resuspension. In all treatments, the release of PCBdiss was more than one order of magnitude higher than that of PCBpart, indicating a significant potential route of exposure for pelagic organisms, such as fish, to the most bioavailable PCB form. Calculated mass-transfer coefficients (0.3-1.3 cm/d) correspond to previously reported values for trichlorinated PCBs. The present results indicate that biological reworking of sediments can be just as, or even more, important than physical resuspension for the remobilization of sediment-bound contaminants.

  • 13. Houde, Magali
    et al.
    Pacepavicius, Grazina
    Darling, Colin
    Fair, Patricia A
    Alaee, Mehran
    Bossart, Gregory D
    Solomon, Keith R
    Letcher, Robert J
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Marsh, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Muir, Derek C G
    POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS AND THEIR HYDROXYLATED ANALOGS IN PLASMA OF BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS) FROM THE UNITED STATES EAST COAST.2009In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 2061-2068Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hydroxylated-PBDEs (OH-PBDE) were determined in plasma of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Charleston (CHS), South Carolina, and the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida, US. Significantly lower sum (Sigma) of PBDE concentrations (sum of 12 congeners) were found in animals from the IRL [arithmetic mean: 5.454.63 ng/g wet weight (ww)] compared to CHS (3040 ng/g ww). BDE-47 was the predominant PBDE in dolphins from the IRL (50% of the SigmaPBDEs) and CHS (58%). SigmaPBDE concentrations in plasma of dolphins were negatively correlated with age at both locations. Fifteen and sixteen individual OH-PBDE congeners could be quantified in plasma of dolphins from IRL and CHS, respectively. Similar to SigmaPBDE, mean SigmaOH-PBDE concentrations were significantly higher in plasma of dolphins at CHS (1150708 pg/g ww) compared to IRL (624393 pg/g ww). The predominant congener at both locations was 6-OH-PBDE 47 (IRL: 384319 pg/g ww; CHS: 541344 pg/g ww) representing 61.5% of total SigmaOH-PBDE at IRL and 47.0% at CHS. Concentrations of SigmaOH-PBDEs were weakly negatively correlated with age in dolphins from both locations (P<0.05; IRL, R2=0.048; CHS, R2=0.021). In addition to the OH-PBDE congeners identified with technical standards, eight and four unidentified OH-PBDEs were detected and quantified respectively in animals from CHS (sum of unidentified OH-PBDEs=1.350.90 pg/g ww) and IRL (0.730.40 pg/g ww). Our results suggest that, unlike OH-PCBs, OH-PBDEs in bottlenose dolphins are minor products in plasma relative to SigmaPBDEs and a significant proportion may be a consequence of the dietary uptake of naturally produced methoxylated- and OH-PBDEs.

  • 14.
    Jacobson, Therese
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sundelin, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Reproductive effects of the endocirne disruptor fenarimol on a baltic amphipod Monoporeia affinis2006In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 1126-1131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An endocrine disruptor, the fungicide fenarimol, was investigated regarding its effects on reproduction and hormone (ecdysteroid) levels in the deposit-feeding amphipod Monoporeia affinis. In addition, the influence of food shortage, both by itself and in combination with fenarimol, on reproduction was examined. Field-collected amphipods were exposed in flow-through microcosms during the period of sexual maturation and mating in four treatment series: Control with low food, fenarimol with low food, control with high food, and fenarimol with high food. Fenarimol was added at a concentration of 0.3 mg/L in two pulses/week. Results show that fenarimol has a negative effect on fertilization rate and male mating ability. Results were supported by a tendency toward delayed male sexual development. Food shortage decreased weight in both sexes and retarded female oocyte development. Higher ecdysteroid levels were recorded in males than in females, and food shortage increased male ecdysteroid levels. No effect of fenarimol exposure on ecdysteroid levels was observed. No synergistic effects of fenarimol and food shortage could be distinguished in any variable examined. Thus, M. affinis was vulnerable to reproductive impairment by fenarimol, with effects on the next generation (i.e., a disturbed sexual development and fertilization ability). Food shortage has negative effects on M. affinis, but it does not enhance the effects of fenarimol.

  • 15.
    Jahnke, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Mayer, Philipp
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    EQUILIBRIUM SAMPLING OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS IN FISH: COMPARISON WITH LIPID-NORMALIZED CONCENTRATIONS AND HOMOGENIZATION EFFECTS ON CHEMICAL ACTIVITY2011In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 1515-1521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Equilibrium sampling of organic pollutants into the silicone polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has recently been applied in biological tissues including fish. Pollutant concentrations in PDMS can then be multiplied with lipid/PDMS distribution coefficients (D(Lipid.PDMS)) to obtain concentrations in fish lipids. In the present study, PDMS thin films were used for equilibrium sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in intact tissue of two eels and one salmon. A classical exhaustive extraction technique to determine lipid-normalized PCB concentrations, which assigns the body burden of the chemical to the lipid fraction of the fish, was additionally applied. Lipid-based PCB concentrations obtained by equilibrium sampling were 85 to 106% (Norwegian Atlantic salmon), 108 to 128% (Baltic Sea eel), and 51 to 83% (Finnish lake eel) of those determined using total extraction. This supports the validity of the equilibrium sampling technique, while at the same time confirming that the fugacity capacity of these lipid-rich tissues for PCBs was dominated by the lipid fraction. Equilibrium sampling was also applied to homogenates of the same fish tissues. The PCB concentrations in the PDMS were 1.2 to 2.0 times higher in the homogenates (statistically significant in 18 of 21 cases, p < 0.05), indicating that homogenization increased the chemical activity of the PCBs and decreased the fugacity capacity of the tissue. This observation has implications for equilibrium sampling and partition coefficients determined using tissue homogenates.

  • 16.
    Johansson, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sellström, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Lindberg, Peter
    Bignert, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    De Wit, Cynthia A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Polybrominated diphenyl ether congener patterns, hexabromocyclododecane, and brominated biphenyl 153 in eggs of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) breeding in Sweden.2009In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 9-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous analyses of 52 peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs collected from two wild and one captive population in Sweden 1987 through 1999 were complemented by including additional polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (BDE-35, -183, -184, -185, -196, -197, -203, and -207). In addition, 31 eggs not previously analyzed for hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and BDE-209 were analyzed for these. Geometric mean concentrations of BPBDEs, HBCD, and the hexabrominated biphenyl (BB-153) were 3,100, 140, and 81 ng/g of lipid weight for the southern population; 2,500, 110, and 84 ng/g of lipid weight for the northern population; and 47, not detected, and 8 ng/g of lipid weight for the captive population. The BDE congener pattern was dominated by BDE-153, -99, and -100. The results were used to investigate whether a difference in PBDE congener pattern could be distinguished between the two wild populations of peregrine falcons due to different diets, as the southern population preys mainly on birds belonging to the terrestrial food chain while the northern population preys more on aquatic birds. A multivariate t-test showed a subtle but significant (p < 0.001) difference in PBDE congener pattern between the two populations. However, our hypothesis that higher-brominated congeners of PBDEs would be present to a greater extent in the terrestrial food chain was not supported by principal component analysis. The average brood size for individual females from the southern population decreased with increasing concentrations of IPBDE in the eggs (log-linear regression p < 0.01).

  • 17.
    Magnér, Jörgen A
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Alsberg, Tomas E
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Broman, Dag
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Evaluation of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate-co-carbon monoxide) and polydimethylsiloxane for equilibrium sampling of polar organic contaminants in water.2009In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 28, no 9, p. 1874-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to develop a passive absorptive equilibrium sampler that would enable the determination of the concentrations of polar organic compound (POC) in water more efficiently than existing techniques. To this end, a novel plastic material, poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate-co-carbon monoxide) (PEVAC), was evaluated and the results were compared with an existing silicone-based passive absorptive equilibrium device. Seven compounds (imidacloprid, carbendazim, metoprolol, atrazin, carbamazepine, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos), a mixture of pharmaceuticals, and pesticides with a logarithmic octanol-water partition coefficient ranging from 0.2 to 4.77 were selected as model substances for the experiments. The results showed that six of the seven selected POCs reached distribution equilibrium within 4 d in the two materials tested. A linear relation with a regression coefficient of more than 0.8906 between the established logarithmic absorbent-water partition coefficient and the calculated logarithmic dissociation partition coefficient of the selected compounds in the two polymers was observed. The correlation between these two coefficients was within one order of magnitude for the compounds that reached equilibrium in the two polymers, which demonstrates that both materials are suitable for mimicking biological uptake of POCs. The PEVAC material showed an enhanced sorption for all selected compounds compared to the silicone material and up to five times higher enrichment for the most polar compound. Fluorescence analysis of the sampler cross-section, following the uptake of fluoranthene, and proof that the sorption was independent of surface area variations demonstrated that the PEVAC polymer possessed absorptive rather than adsorptive enrichment of organic compounds.

  • 18. Moermond, Caroline T. A.
    et al.
    Kase, Robert
    Korkaric, Muris
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    CRED: CRITERIA FOR REPORTING AND EVALUATING ECOTOXICITY DATA2016In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 1297-1309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predicted-no-effect concentrations (PNECs) and environmental quality standards (EQSs) are derived in a large number of legal frameworks worldwide. When deriving these safe concentrations, it is necessary to evaluate the reliability and relevance of ecotoxicity studies. Such evaluation is often subject to expert judgment, which may introduce bias and decrease consistency when risk assessors evaluate the same study. The Criteria for Reporting and Evaluating Ecotoxicity Data (CRED) project attempts to address this problem. It aims to improve the reproducibility, transparency, and consistency of reliability and relevance evaluations of aquatic ecotoxicity studies among regulatory frameworks, countries, institutes, and individual assessors. In the present study, the CRED evaluation method is presented. It includes a set of 20 reliability and 13 relevance criteria, accompanied by extensive guidance. Risk assessors who participated in the CRED ring test evaluated the CRED evaluation method to be more accurate, applicable, consistent, and transparent than the often-used Klimisch method. The CRED evaluation method is accompanied by reporting recommendations for aquatic ecotoxicity studies, with 50 specific criteria divided into 6 categories: general information, test design, test substance, test organism, exposure conditions, and statistical design and biological response. An ecotoxicity study in which all important information is reported is more likely to be considered for regulatory use, and proper reporting may also help in the peer-review process.

  • 19. Preuss, Thomas G.
    et al.
    Brinkmann, Markus
    Lundström, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bengtsson, Bengt-Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    AN INDIVIDUAL-BASED MODELING APPROACH FOR EVALUATION OF ENDPOINT SENSITIVITY IN HARPACTICOID COPEPOD LIFE-CYCLE TESTS AND OPTIMIZATION OF TEST DESIGN2011In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 30, no 10, p. 2353-2362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, an individual-based model for Nitocra spinipes was developed and used to optimize the test design of a proposed Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline for harpacticoid copepods. The variability between individuals was taken into account, based on measured data, leading to stochastic model output. Virtual experiments were performed with the model to analyze the endpoint sensitivity and the effect of number of replicates and inspection intervals on statistical power. The impact of mortality was evaluated; most sublethal effects could not be determined if the mortality was >= 70%. Most sensitive to mortality was the determination of effects on brood size, for which the statistical power was reduced at 10% mortality. Our simulations show that increasing the number of replicates from 72 to 96 or 144 has little impact on the statistical power, whereas 25 replicates disallow relevant endpoint detection. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the proposed ID inspection interval can be shifted to a 3D interval, without losing statistical power. It was demonstrated that developmental endpoints have a higher statistical power than reproductive endpoints in the current test design. The present study highlights the usefulness of individual-based models for optimizing the experimental design. The use of such models in the development of standard test guidelines will lead to a faster and less resource-demanding process.

  • 20.
    Ribbenstedt, Anton
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Mustajärvi, Lukas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Mayer, Philipp
    Sobek, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Passive dosing of triclosan in multigeneration tests with copepods – stable exposure concentrations and effects at the low μg/L range2017In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 1254-1260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecotoxicity testing is a crucial component of chemical risk assessment. Still, due to methodological difficulties related to controlling exposure concentrations over time, data on long-term effects of organic chemicals at low concentrations are limited. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to test the applicability of passive dosing to maintain stable concentrations of the organochlorine bacteriocide triclosan in the water phase during a 6-wk multigeneration population development test with the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes. Triclosan was loaded into silicone (1000 mg), which was used as passive dosing phase in the exposure vials. The distribution ratio for triclosan between silicone and water (Dsilicone-water) was 10466 +/- 1927. A population development test was conducted at 3 concentration levels of triclosan that were measured to be 3 mu g/L to 5 mu g/L, 7 mu g/L to 11 mu g/L and 16 mu g/L to 26 mu g/L. The results demonstrate that passive dosing is applicable for long-term ecotoxicity testing of organic chemicals, including during significant growth of the test organism population. Shifts in the demographic structure of the population during exposure suggest the most severe effects were exerted on juvenile development. Progressively lower development index values in the populations exposed to increasing triclosan concentrations suggest developmental retardation. The results further stress the need for chronic exposure during ecotoxicity testing in chemical risk assessment because even the most sensitive endpoint was not significant until after 7 d of exposure.

  • 21. Selck, Henriette
    et al.
    Adamsen, Peter B.
    Backhaus, Thomas
    Banta, Gary T.
    Bruce, Peter K. H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Burton, G. Allen
    Butts, Michael B.
    Boegh, Eva
    Clague, John J.
    Dinh, Khuong V.
    Doorn, Neelke
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik
    Hazlerigg, Charles
    Hunka, Agnieszka D.
    Jensen, John
    Lin, Yan
    Loureiro, Susana
    Miraglia, Simona
    Munns, Wayne R.
    Nadim, Farrokh
    Palmqvist, Annemette
    Rämö, Robert A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Seaby, Lauren P.
    Syberg, Kristian
    Tangaa, Stine R.
    Thit, Amalie
    Windfeld, Ronja
    Zalewski, Maciej
    Chapman, Peter M.
    Assessing and managing multiple risks in a changing worldThe Roskilde recommendations2017In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 7-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roskilde University (Denmark) hosted a November 2015 workshop, Environmental RiskAssessing and Managing Multiple Risks in a Changing World. This Focus article presents the consensus recommendations of 30 attendees from 9 countries regarding implementation of a common currency (ecosystem services) for holistic environmental risk assessment and management; improvements to risk assessment and management in a complex, human-modified, and changing world; appropriate development of protection goals in a 2-stage process; dealing with societal issues; risk-management information needs; conducting risk assessment of risk management; and development of adaptive and flexible regulatory systems. The authors encourage both cross-disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches to address their 10 recommendations: 1) adopt ecosystem services as a common currency for risk assessment and management; 2) consider cumulative stressors (chemical and nonchemical) and determine which dominate to best manage and restore ecosystem services; 3) fully integrate risk managers and communities of interest into the risk-assessment process; 4) fully integrate risk assessors and communities of interest into the risk-management process; 5) consider socioeconomics and increased transparency in both risk assessment and risk management; 6) recognize the ethical rights of humans and ecosystems to an adequate level of protection; 7) determine relevant reference conditions and the proper ecological context for assessments in human-modified systems; 8) assess risks and benefits to humans and the ecosystem and consider unintended consequences of management actions; 9) avoid excessive conservatism or possible underprotection resulting from sole reliance on binary, numerical benchmarks; and 10) develop adaptive risk-management and regulatory goals based on ranges of uncertainty. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:7-16.

  • 22.
    Strid, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Svavarsson, Jörundur
    University of Iceland, Institute of Biology.
    Päpke, Olaf
    Eurofins GfA, Hamburg.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Neutral and phenolic brominated organic compounds of natural and anthropogenic origin in Northeast Atlantic Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus)2010In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 29, no 12, p. 2653-2659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, muscle and liver tissue from 10 female Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus) collected in Icelandic waters were analyzed for neutral and phenolic brominated organic compounds, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and the structurally related methoxylated (MeO) and hydroxylated (OH) PBDEs. Hydroxylated PBDEs exist both as natural products and as metabolites of the anthropogenic PBDEs, whereas MeO-PBDEs appear to exclusively be of natural origin. Other compounds examined were 2′,6-dimethoxy-2,3′,4,5′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (2′,6-diMeO-BDE68), 2,2′-dimethoxy-3,3′,5,5′-tetrabromobiphenyl (2,2′-diMeO-BB80), 2,4,6-tribromoanisol (2,4,6-TBA) and 2,4,6-tribromophenol, all of natural origin, although 2,4,6-TBA and its phenolic counterpart may also be of anthropogenic origin. The major brominated organic compound was 6-MeO-BDE47, and ΣMeO-PBDE ranged from 49 to 210 ng/g fat in muscle and from 55 to 200 ng/g fat in liver tissue. Total concentrations of PBDEs were lower than ΣMeO-PBDE, in all but one sample, ranging between 7.3 to 190 and 9.9 to 200 ng/g fat in muscle and liver, respectively, and major congeners were BDE-47, BDE-99, and BDE-100. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers were analyzed using both high- and low-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) as a quality assurance, and the results from this comparison were acceptable. In accordance with previous work on Greenland sharks, no size/age-related accumulation was observed. Differences seen in concentrations were instead assumed to be a reflection of different feeding habits among the individuals. Phenolic compounds were only formed/retained in trace amounts in the Greenland shark. Among the phenolic compounds studied were 6-OH-BDE47, 2′-OH-BDE68, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol, all detected in liver and the latter two in muscle

  • 23.
    Xiao, Ruiyang
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    A BENCHMARKING METHOD TO MEASURE DIETARY ABSORPTION EFFICIENCY OF CHEMICALS BY FISH2013In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 32, no 12, p. 2695-2700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the dietary absorption efficiency of chemicals in the gastrointestinal tract of fish is important from both a scientific and a regulatory point of view. However, reported fish absorption efficiencies for well-studied chemicals are highly variable. In the present study, the authors developed and exploited an internal chemical benchmarking method that has the potential to reduce uncertainty and variability and, thus, to improve the precision of measurements of fish absorption efficiency. The authors applied the benchmarking method to measure the gross absorption efficiency for 15 chemicals with a wide range of physicochemical properties and structures. They selected 2,2,5,6-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB53) and decabromodiphenyl ethane as absorbable and nonabsorbable benchmarks, respectively. Quantities of chemicals determined in fish were benchmarked to the fraction of PCB53 recovered in fish, and quantities of chemicals determined in feces were benchmarked to the fraction of decabromodiphenyl ethane recovered in feces. The performance of the benchmarking procedure was evaluated based on the recovery of the test chemicals and precision of absorption efficiency from repeated tests. Benchmarking did not improve the precision of the measurements; after benchmarking, however, the median recovery for 15 chemicals was 106%, and variability of recoveries was reduced compared with before benchmarking, suggesting that benchmarking could account for incomplete extraction of chemical in fish and incomplete collection of feces from different tests. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:2695-2700.

  • 24.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    In Response: Reporting recommendations to ensure reliability and reproducibility of ecotoxicity studies—A tripartite initiative2016In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 1072-1073Article in journal (Other academic)
1 - 24 of 24
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