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  • 1.
    Aasa, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne
    Carlsson, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    The genotoxic potency of glycidol established from micronucleus frequency and hemoglobin adduct levels in mice2017Ingår i: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 100, s. 168-174Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Glycidol is a genotoxic animal carcinogen that has raised concern due to its presence in food, as glycidyl fatty acid esters. Here we investigated the genotoxicity of glycidol in BalbC mice (0-120 mg/kg) by monitoring the induction of micronuclei in peripheral blood as a marker of chromosomal damage. The scoring of the micronuclei was assessed by flow cytometry. In the treated mice, the internal dose of glycidol, expressed as area under the concentration-time curve, AUC (mol x L-1 x h; Mh), was measured by dihydroxypropyl adducts to hemoglobin (Hb). The study showed that glycidol induced linear dose dependent increases of Hb adducts (20 pmol/g Hb per mg/kg) and of micronuclei frequencies (12 parts per thousand per mMh). Compared to calculations based on administered dose, an improved dose-response relationship was observed when considering internal dose, achieved through the applied combination of sensitive techniques used for the scoring of micronuclei and AUC estimation of glycidol in the same mice. By comparing with earlier studies on micronuclei induction in mice exposed to ionizing radiation we estimated the radiation dose equivalent (rad-eq.) of glycidol to be ca 15 rad-eq./mMh.

  • 2.
    Aasa, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Granath, Fredrik
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Cancer risk estimation of glycidol based on rodent carcinogenicity studies, a multiplicative risk model and in vivo dosimetry2019Ingår i: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 128, s. 54-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we evaluate a multiplicative (relative) risk model for improved cancer risk estimation of genotoxic compounds. According to this model, cancer risk is proportional to the background tumor incidence and to the internal dose of the genotoxic compound. Furthermore, the relative risk coefficient per internal dose is considered to be approximately the same across tumor sites, sex, and species. In the present study, we demonstrate that the relative risk model is valid for cancer risk estimation of glycidol, a common food contaminant. Published tumor data from glycidol carcinogenicity studies in mice and rats were evaluated in combination with internal dose estimates from hemoglobin adduct measurements in blood from mice and rats treated with glycidol in short-term studies. A good agreement between predicted and observed tumor incidence in responding sites was demonstrated in the animals, supporting a relative risk coefficient that is independent of tumor site, sex, and species. There was no significant difference between the risk coefficients for mice (5.1% per mMh) and rats (5.4% per mMh) when considering internal doses of glycidol. Altogether, this mechanism-based risk model gives a reliable risk coefficient, which then was extrapolated to humans considering internal dose, and background cancer incidence.

  • 3.
    Aasa, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. National Food Agency, Sweden.
    Measurement of micronuclei and internal dose in mice demonstrates that 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) has no genotoxic potency in vivo2017Ingår i: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 109, s. 414-420Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD), a compound that appears as contaminant in refined cooking oils, has been studied with regard to genotoxicity in vivo (mice) with simultaneous measurement of internal dose using state-of-the-art methodologies. Genotoxicity (chromosomal aberrations) was measured by flow cytometry with dual lasers as the frequency of micronuclei in erythrocytes in peripheral blood from BalbC mice intraperitoneally exposed to 3-MCPD (0, 50, 75, 100, 125 mg/kg). The internal doses of 3-MCPD in the mice were calculated from N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-valine adducts to hemoglobin (Hb), quantified at very low levels by high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Convincing evidence for absence of genotoxic potency in correlation to measured internal doses in the mice was demonstrated, despite relatively high administered doses of 3-MCPD. The results are discussed in relation to another food contaminant that is formed as ester in parallel to 3-MCPD esters in oil processing, i.e. glycidol, which has been studied previously by us in a similar experimental setup. Glycidol has been shown to be genotoxic, and in addition to have ca. 1000 times higher rate of adduct formation compared to that observed for 3-MCPD. The conclusion is that at simultaneous exposure to 3-MCPD and glycidol the concern about genotoxicity would be glycidol.

  • 4.
    Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Strongly heated carbohydrate-rich food is an overlooked problem in cancer risk evaluation2018Ingår i: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 121, s. 151-155Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A cascade of compounds is produced when foodstuffs are heated at high temperatures but only a few of these compounds have been identified and quantified. In this study data are evaluated regarding differences in the micronucleus frequency of human erythrocytes (fMNs) in peripheral blood (a known biomarker of genotoxicity) in individuals that consumed either high- or low-heated food during a 4-day period. Concomitantly, acrylamide (aa) levels were measured in the food that the participants consumed. The obtained fMNs in this human study are compared with the fMNs in mice after comparable exposure levels of pure aa. The results of this comparison showed several hundred times higher fMNs in humans compared with mice. With an assumed linear correlation between an increased genotoxic effect and cancer, our data suggest that aa only represents a fraction of all carcinogenic compounds produced in heated carbohydrate-rich food. Consequently, our daily intake of carbohydrate-rich food heated at high temperatures might be responsible for one-fifth of the rate of the total cancer risk. One sentence summary: A biomarker of genotoxicity indicates the risk of cancer to be some hundred-fold greater in heated carbohydrate-rich food than the risk calculated from animal studies on pure acrylamide.

  • 5.
    Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Ilback, Nils-Gunnar
    The synthetic food colouring agent Allura Red AC (E129) is not genotoxic in a flow cytometry-based micronucleus assay in vivo2013Ingår i: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 59, s. 86-89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The safety of several azo colouring agents, used as food additives, has during the years been questioned. Allura Red AC (E129) has in some publications been classified as genotoxic. In fact, in the European Union, Allura Red is permitted as a food additive in human food, but, surprisingly, it was not acceptable as an additive for use in animal feed. In this study we have evaluated whether Allura Red is genotoxic using a flow cytometer-based micronucleus assay in peripheral blood of mice. Male FVB mice were given a single intra-peritoneal injection of various doses of Allura Red and sacrificed at 46 h after treatment. The tested doses were 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1500, and 2000 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Each dose group constituted three mice, except for in the dose group of 1000 mg/kg b.w., which constituted four mice. Blood samples were collected and the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (fMNPCE) and the cell proliferation (%PCE) was determined. The analyses did not show any significant difference in the %PCE or in the fMNPCE. Consequently, under the testing circumstances one can conclude that Allura Red is not genotoxic.

  • 6.
    Carlsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Strategy for identifying unknown hemoglobin adducts using adductome LC-MS/MS data: Identification of adducts corresponding to acrylic acid, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and 1-octen-3-one2016Ingår i: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 92, s. 94-103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrophilic compounds have the ability to form adducts with nucleophilic sites in proteins and DNA in tissues, and thereby constitute risks for toxic effects. Adductomic approaches are developed for systematic screening of adducts to DNA and blood proteins, with the aim to detect unknown internal exposures to electrophiles. In a previous adductomic screening of adducts to N-terminals in hemoglobin, using LC-MS/MS, 19 unknown adducts were detected in addition to seven previously identified adducts. The present paper describes the identification of four of these unknown adducts, as well as the strategy used to identify them. Using LC-MS data from the screening, hypotheses about adduct identities were formulated: probable precursor electrophiles with matching molecular weights were suggested based on the molecular weights of the modifications and the retention times of the analytes, in combination with comparisons of theoretical Log P calculations and databases. Reference adducts were generated by incubation of blood samples with the hypothesized precursor electrophiles. The four identified precursor electrophiles, corresponding to the observed unknown adducts, were glyoxal, methylglyoxal, acrylic acid and 1-octen-3-one. Possible origins/exposure sources and toxicological information concerning the electrophilic precursors are discussed. The identified adducts could be explored as possible biomarkers for exposure.

  • 7.
    Davies, R.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Hedebrant, U.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Athanassiadis, I.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Rydberg, P.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Törnqvist, M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Improved method to measure aldehyde adducts to N-terminal valine in hemoglobin using 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 2,5-furandialdehyde as model compounds2009Ingår i: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 47, nr 8, s. 1950-1957Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hemoglobin (Hb) adducts are used to measure reactive compounds/metabolites in vivo. Schiff base adducts from aldehydes to N-termini in Hb have been measured by GC-MS/MS after stabilisation through reduction, and detachment by a modified Edman procedure. This paper describes a further development using 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and its probable metabolite, 2,5-furandialdehyde (FDA), as model compounds. Reference compounds were synthesized and characterized. The conditions for the reduction of the Schiff bases were optimized using NaBH(3)CN as a mild reducing agent, and steps used in the earlier method could be deleted. The adduct from FDA could not be specifically analysed, as selective reduction of the imine could not be achieved. In a few samples of human blood, background levels of 10-35 pmol/g globin of the HMF adduct were observed. Half-lifes of the reversible Schiff base adduct from HMF were determined to 3.4h at 37 degrees C and 10.9h at 25 degrees C. The developed method showed good sensitivity and reproducibility for the analysis of the Schiff base from HMF, with improvements regarding simplicity of work-up procedures due to mild conditions. The developed method could be explored for application to adducts from other aldehydes bound as Schiff bases to N-termini in Hb.

  • 8. Gradecka-Meesters, Dobroslawa
    et al.
    Palus, Jadwiga
    Prochazka, Gabriela
    Segerback, Dan
    Dziubaltowska, Elzbieta
    Kotova, Natalia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Jenssen, Dag
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Arkusz, Joanna
    Lundin, Cecilia
    Vikstrom, Elisabet
    Rydzynski, Konrad
    Nilsson, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Stepnik, Maciej
    Assessment of the protective effects of selected dietary anticarcinogens against DNA damage and cytogenetic effects induced by benzo[a]pyrene in C57BL/6J mice2011Ingår i: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 49, nr 8, s. 1674-1683Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The protective action in C57BL/6J mice from orally administered ellagic acid (EA), benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), an extract of epigallocatechins (Tegreen (R)) as well as chlorophyllin (CHL) against benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-induced DNA damage and cytogenetic effects was investigated. In pilot experiment the comet assay indicated protective effects for all compounds, while such activity was confined to EA and CH with respect to B[a]P-DNA adducts and micronuclei. EA and CH were chosen for the main study where the levels of DNA adducts in liver after injection of 30 mg B[a]P/kg b.w. did not differ from those found for animals exposed to B[a]P and treated with the protective substances. In leukocytes no significant protective effect of CHL was detected while a 2-fold increase of adduct concentrations was observed after co-administration of EA. In the comet assay CHL or EA caused a 3-fold decrease of SSB, and a 2-fold decrease of FPG sites in comparison to animals treated with B[a]P. CHL or EA showed a significant protective effect against B[a]P-induced MN in polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow. In contrast, flow cytometry measurements in peripheral blood indicated the MN frequency after treatment with CHL or EA almost twice as high as that recorded for B[a]P alone.

  • 9.
    Kubrak, Olga I.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för funktionell zoomorfologi.
    Atamaniuk, Tetiana M.
    Husak, Viktor V.
    Lushchak, Volodymyr I.
    Transient effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) exposure on some metabolic and free radical processes in goldfish white muscle2013Ingår i: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 59, s. 356-361Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to assess effects of 96 h goldfish exposure to 1, 10 and 100 mg/L of the herbicide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), on metabolic indices and free radical process markers in white muscle of a commercial fish, the goldfish Carassius auratus L. Most oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzymes were not affected at 2,4-D fish treatment. 2,4-D fish exposure induced the elevated levels of total (by 46% and 40%) and reduced (by 77% and 73%) glutathione in muscles of goldfish of 10 mg/L 2,4-D and recovery (after 100 mg/L of 2,4-D exposure) groups, respectively. However, in muscles of 100 mg/L 2,4-D exposed goldfish these parameters were depleted (by 47% and 64%). None of investigated parameters of protein and carbohydrate metabolisms changed in white muscles of 2,4-D exposed fish, with exception of lactate dehydrogenase activity, which was slightly (by 11-15%) elevated in muscles of goldfish exposed to 10-100 mg/L of 2,4-D, but also recovered. Thus, the short term exposure of goldfish to the selected concentrations of 2,4-D does not substantially affect their white muscle, suggesting the absence of any effect under the environmentally relevant concentrations. .

  • 10.
    Lagerqvist, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Håkansson, Daniel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Frank, Heinz
    Seidel, Albrecht
    Jenssen, Dag
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Structural requirements for mutation formation from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dihydrodiol epoxides in their interaction with food chemopreventive compounds2011Ingår i: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 49, nr 4, s. 879-886Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chinese hamster V79 cells were used to investigate the protective effect of four known antimutagens present in food, chlorophyllin (CHL), ellagic acid (EA), epigallocathechingallate (EGCG) and benzylisothiocyanate (BITC), against potent mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dial epoxides (PAH-DE) derived from benzo[a]pyrene (BP), dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DBA), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP), and benzo[c]phenanthrene (BPh) known to be deposited on crops from polluted ambient air or formed during food processing. As fjord-region PAH-DE are more toxic and mutagenic than bay-region PAH-DE, we adjusted the concentrations of PAH-DE to induce approximately the same levels of adducts. The studies were performed using an assay indicating toxicity in terms of reduced cell proliferation together with the V79 Hprt assay for monitoring mutant frequencies. CHL significantly increased the survival and showed a protective effect against the mutagenicity of all PAH-DE. A significant protective effect of EA was found towards the mutagenicity of BPDE, DBPDE and BPhDE and with EGCG for BPDE and BPhDE. BITC had a slight positive effect on the mutagenicity of DBADE and BPhDE. Taken together, a novel and unexpected finding was that the antimutagenic activity could differ as much as by a factor of 7 towards four carcinogenic PAH metabolites being relatively similar in structure and genotoxic activity.

  • 11.
    Motwani, Hitesh V.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Qiu, Shiran
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Golding, Bernard T.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Cob(I)alamin reacts with sucralose to afford an alkylcobalamin: Relevance to in vivo cobalamin and sucralose interaction2011Ingår i: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 49, nr 4, s. 750-757Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Vitamin B(12), viz., cyano- or hydroxo-cobalamin, can be chemically or enzymatically converted into the derivatives methyl- and adenosyl-cobalamin, which are complex organometallic cofactors associated with several cobalamin-dependent enzymes. The reduced form of vitamin B(12), cob(I)alamin {Cbl(I)}, obtained by reduction of hydroxocobalamin (OH-Cbl) with e.g. sodium borohydride, is one of the most powerful nucleophiles known. Cbl(I) was shown to react readily with the synthetic sweetener sucralose (1,6-dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-β-d-fructofuranosyl-4-chloro-4-deoxy-α-d-galactopyranoside) in an aqueous system to form an alkylcobalamin (Suc-Cbl). This occurred by replacement of one of the three chlorine atoms of sucralose with a cobalamin moiety. The efficiency of trapping sucralose in presence of excess Cbl(I) was estimated to be >90%. Furthermore, in an in vitro study using human liver S9 with NADPH regeneration, in presence of OH-Cbl and sucralose, Suc-Cbl was shown to be formed. The Suc-Cbl was characterized primarily by LC-ESI(+)-MS/MS. Given the human consumption of sucralose from food and beverages, such a reaction between the sweetener and reduced vitamin B(12) could occur in vivo.

  • 12.
    Qazi, Mousumi Rahman
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Nelson, Buck Dean
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    DePierre, Joseph W.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Abedi-Valugerdi, Manuchehr
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    High-dose dietary exposure of mice to perfluorooctanoate or perfluorooctane sulfonate exerts toxic effects on myeloid and B-lymphoid cells in the bone marrow and these effects are partially dependent on reduced food Consumption2012Ingår i: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 50, nr 9, s. 2955-2963Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that exposure of mice to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) or perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exerts adverse effects on the thymus and spleen. Here, we characterize the effects of a 10-day dietary treatment with these compounds (0.001-0.02%, w/w) on the bone marrow (BM) of mice. At a dose of 0.02%, both compounds reduced food consumption and caused atrophy of the thymus and spleen. At this same dose, histopathological and flow cytometric analysis revealed that (i) the total numbers of BM as well as the numbers of myeloid, pro/pre B, immature B and early mature B cells were all reduced significantly; and (ii) these adverse effects were reversed either partially or completely 10 days after withdrawal of these compounds. At the lower dose of 0.002%, only PFOA reduced the B-lymphoid cell population. Finally, mice fed an amount of diet equivalent to that consumed by the animals exposed to 0.02% PFOA also exhibited atrophy of the thymus and spleen, and a reduction in the number of B-lymphoid population, without affecting myeloid cells. Thus, in mice, immunotoxic doses of PFOA or PFOS induce adverse effects on the myeloid and B-lymphoid cells in the BM, in part as a consequence of reduced food consumption.

  • 13.
    Vikström, Anna C.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Warholm, Margareta
    Paulsson, Birgit
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Axmon, Anna
    Wirfalt, Elisabet
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Hemoglobin adducts as a measure of variations in exposure to acrylamide in food and comparison to questionnaire data2012Ingår i: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 50, nr 7, s. 2531-2539Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurement of haemoglobin (Hb) adducts from acrylamide (AA) and its metabolite glycidamide (GA) is a possibility to improve the exposure assessment in epidemiological studies of AA intake from food. This study aims to clarify the reliability of Hb-adduct measurement from individual single samples for exposure assessment of dietary AA intake. The intra-individual variations of AA- and GA-adduct levels measured in blood samples collected over 20 months from 13 non-smokers were up to 2-fold and 4-fold, respectively. The corresponding interindividual variations observed between 68 non-smokers, with large differences in AA intake, were 6-fold and 8-fold, respectively. The intra-individual variation of the GA-to-AA-adduct level ratio was up to 3-fold, compared to 11-fold between individuals (n = 68). From AA-adduct levels the average AA daily intake (n = 68) was calculated and compared to that estimated from dietary history methodology: 0.52 and 0.67 mu g/kg body weight and day, respectively. At an individual level the measures showed low association (Rs = 0.39). Conclusions: Dietary AA is the dominating source to measured AA-adduct levels and corresponding inter- and intra-individual variations in non-smokers. Measurements from single individual samples are useful for calculation of average M intake and its variation in a cohort, and for identification of individuals only from extreme intake groups.

  • 14.
    Vikström, Anna C.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Wilson, Kathryn M.
    Paulsson, Birgit
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Grönberg, Henrik
    Adami, Hans-Olov
    Adolfsson, Jan
    Mucci, Lorelei A.
    Bälter, Katarina
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Alcohol influence on acrylamide to glycidamide metabolism assessed with hemoglobin-adducts and questionnaire data2010Ingår i: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 58, nr 3, s. 820-824Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Our purpose was to investigate whether alcohol (ethanol) consumption could have an influence on the metabolism of acrylamide to glycidamide in humans exposed to acrylamide through food. We studied a subsample from a population-based case–control study of prostate cancer in Sweden (CAPS). Questionnaire data for alcohol intake estimates was compared to the ratio of hemoglobin-adduct levels for acrylamide and glycidamide, used as a measure of individual differences in metabolism. Data from 161 non-smoking men were processed with regard to the influence of alcohol on the metabolism of acrylamide to glycidamide. A negative, linear trend of glycidamide-adduct to acrylamide-adduct-level ratios with increasing alcohol intake was observed and the strongest association (p-value for trend = 0.02) was obtained in the group of men with the lowest adduct levels (⩽47 pmol/g globin) when alcohol intake was stratified by acrylamide-adduct levels. The observed trend is likely due to a competitive effect between ethanol and acrylamide as both are substrates for cytochrome P450 2E1. Our results, strongly indicating that ethanol influence metabolism of acrylamide to glycidamide, partly explain earlier observations of only low to moderate associations between questionnaire data on dietary acrylamide intake and hemoglobin-adduct levels.

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