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  • 1.
    Arshamian, Artin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Willander, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olfactory awareness is positively associated to odour memory2011In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 220-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the relationship between olfactory awareness and olfactory proficiency as determined by a set of standardised olfactory tasks. Olfactory awareness was indexed by scores in questionnaires focusing on odour interest, imagery ability, and prevalence of olfactory dreams. Nineteen subjects with high and 20 subjects with low odour awareness were presented with a set of standardised olfactory tasks: odour threshold, episodic odour recognition, and odour identification. The results showed that individuals with high odour awareness excelled in odour memory and identified more odours as compared with the low awareness group. Interestingly, odour naming ability exerted no influence on odour memory. Furthermore, high odour awareness was not related to a more sensitive olfactory sensory system as determined by olfactory threshold measurements.

  • 2.
    Kubik, Veit
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Obermeyer, Sven
    Meier, Julia
    Knopf, Monika
    The enactment effect in a multi-trial free-recall paradigm2014In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 781-787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent evidence suggests that enacting compared to reading action phrases during encoding increases item-specific processing, but hampers retrieval (i.e. processes uniquely required in a free-recall test). Based on this notion, we predicted an enactment effect in free recall-a memory test that is supposed to rely on both processing types-and its size to be attenuated over the learning phase. In a multi-trial, study-test learning paradigm, participants (N = 40) studied and free-recalled repeatedly the same 24 action phrases either by enacting them or by reading them aloud during study trials. As predicted, we demonstrated the enactment effect only for the first study-test cycle, and then this mnemonic advantage attenuated over the remaining cycles. The present results support the notion that enactment increases item-specific processing but hampers retrieval.

  • 3.
    Kubik, Veit
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Swedish Collegium of Advanced Study, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Putting action memory to the test: Testing affects subsequent restudy but not long-term forgetting of action events2016In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 209-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing memory typically enhances subsequent re-encoding of information (“indirect” testing effect) and, as compared to restudy, it also benefits later long-term retention (“direct” testing effect). We investigated the effect of testing on subsequent restudy and 1-week retention of action events (e.g. “water the plant”). In addition, we investigated if the type of recall practice (noun-cued vs. verb-cued) moderates these testing benefits. The results showed an indirect testing effect that increased following noun-cued recall of verbs as compared to verb-cued recall of nouns. In contrast, a direct testing effect on the forgetting rate of performed actions was not reliably observed, neither for noun- nor verb-cued recall. Thus, to the extent that this study successfully dissociated direct and indirect testing-based enhancements, they seem to be differentially effective for performed actions, and may rely on partially different mechanisms.

  • 4.
    Petersén Karlsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Willander, Johan
    Gender differences in autobiographical memory: females latently express communality more than do males2019In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 651-664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender differences have been found in several aspects of autobiographical memory (i.e. personally experienced events). For example, previous studies have shown that females’ autobiographical memories contain more communal and emotional expressions than do males. However, an important question concerns whether these differences can be observed both in the manifest content (i.e. what is actually said) and in the latent content (i.e. the underlying meaning of what is said). In the present exploratory study, we extended the current knowledge concerning gender differences in autobiographical memory by investigating the manifestly expressed words, as well as the latently expressed words in autobiographical memory descriptions. We observed an overall gender difference in the latent content of the autobiographical memories. Furthermore, females latently described their memories in more communal terms than males did. No other gender differences were found. Our results indicate that females’ autobiographical memories are more communally oriented than male's.

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  • 5.
    Svenson, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Decision Research, USA.
    Towards a framework for human judgements of quantitative information: the numerical judgement process, NJP model2016In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 884-898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution presents a review and a theoretical process framework for human intuitive numerical judgments based on numerical information, The NJP model. The model is descriptive and includes one or several of the following stages, each consisting of information processing and solution strategies (1) problem readings (2) recognitions, (3) associations, (4) similarity assessments, (5) problem interpretations, (6) computations, (7) marker nominations, (8) start value selections and (9) adjustments. three main types of strategies are used separately, in sequence or simultaneously with others in and across stages: (i) Associative strategies, e.g., an answer is retrieved immediately, (ii) Computational strategies, different algorithms are applied to the information and (iii) Analogue strategies, visual analogue representations, e.g., anchoring and adjustment. The paper concludes that a generic model of intuitive judgments will inspire further studies of the psychological processes activated when a judge makes an intuitive numerical judgment.

  • 6.
    Svenson, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Decision Research, USA.
    Borg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    On the human inability to process inverse variables in intuitive judgments: different cognitive processes leading to the time loss bias2020In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 344-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The time loss bias describes overestimation of time lost after speed decreases from high speeds and underestimations after decreases from low driving speeds. Participants judged the speed decrease from one speed (e.g. 130 km/h) that would give the same time loss as a decrease from another speed (e.g. from 40 to 30 km/h). We carried out descriptive spectral analyses of distributions of judgments for each problem. Each distribution peak was associated with a judgment rule. The first study found two different judgment processes both leading to the time loss bias: a Difference process rule used for 20% and a Ratio rule used for 31% of the judgments. The correct rule applied to 10% of the judgments. The second study added verbal protocols. The results showed that the Ratio rule was most common (41%) followed by the Difference (12%) and correct (8%) rules. Verbal reports supported these results.

  • 7.
    Todorov, Ivo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Kubik, Veit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Humboldt University, Germany.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Del Missier, Fabio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. University of Trieste, Italy.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Spatial offloading in multiple task monitoring2018In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 230-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coordinating multiple tasks requires a high degree of cognitive control, and individuals with limited executive functions often show difficulties in everyday multitasking. We tested the hypothesis that demands on executive control can be alleviated by internally representing the temporal pattern of goals and deadlines as spatial relations. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session by monitoring deadlines of four clocks running at different rates, along with separate tasks of executive functioning and spatial ability. In Experiment 1, individual and gender-related differences in spatial ability (mental rotation) predicted multitasking performance, beyond the contributions of both the updating and inhibition components of executive functioning, and even when spatial cues were eliminated from the layout of the monitoring task. Experiment 2 extended these findings by showing that concurrent spatial load impaired task monitoring accuracy, and that these detrimental effects were accentuated when spatial abilities were compromized due to fluctuation in female sex hormones. These findings suggest that multiple task monitoring involves working memory-related functions, but that these cognitive control demands can be offloaded by relying on spatial relation processes.

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