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  • 1. Abbasi, R.
    et al.
    Ahrens, Maryon
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Deoskar, Kunal
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Finley, Chad
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Hultqvist, Klas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Jansson, Matti
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Walck, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Zhelnin, P.
    Search for High-energy Neutrino Emission from Galactic X-Ray Binaries with IceCube2022Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 930, nr 2, artikel-id L24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the first comprehensive search for high-energy neutrino emission from high- and low-mass X-ray binaries conducted by IceCube. Galactic X-ray binaries are long-standing candidates for the source of Galactic hadronic cosmic rays and neutrinos. The compact object in these systems can be the site of cosmic-ray acceleration, and neutrinos can be produced by interactions of cosmic rays with radiation or gas, in the jet of a microquasar, in the stellar wind, or in the atmosphere of the companion star. We study X-ray binaries using 7.5 yr of IceCube data with three separate analyses. In the first, we search for periodic neutrino emission from 55 binaries in the Northern Sky with known orbital periods. In the second, the X-ray light curves of 102 binaries across the entire sky are used as templates to search for time-dependent neutrino emission. Finally, we search for time-integrated emission of neutrinos for a list of 4 notable binaries identified as microquasars. In the absence of a significant excess, we place upper limits on the neutrino flux for each hypothesis and compare our results with theoretical predictions for several binaries. In addition, we evaluate the sensitivity of the next generation neutrino telescope at the South Pole, IceCube-Gen2, and demonstrate its power to identify potential neutrino emission from these binary sources in the Galaxy.

  • 2. Abbasi, R.
    et al.
    Ahrens, Maryon
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Deoskar, Kunal
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Finley, Chad
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Hultqvist, Klas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Jansson, Matti
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Walck, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Zhelnin, P.
    Searching for High-energy Neutrino Emission from Galaxy Clusters with IceCube2022Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 938, nr 2, artikel-id L11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Galaxy clusters have the potential to accelerate cosmic rays (CRs) to ultrahigh energies via accretion shocks or embedded CR acceleration sites. The CRs with energies below the Hillas condition will be confined within the cluster and eventually interact with the intracluster medium gas to produce secondary neutrinos and gamma rays. Using 9.5 yr of muon neutrino track events from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, we report the results of a stacking analysis of 1094 galaxy clusters with masses ≳1014 M and redshifts between 0.01 and ∼1 detected by the Planck mission via the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich effect. We find no evidence for significant neutrino emission and report upper limits on the cumulative unresolved neutrino flux from massive galaxy clusters after accounting for the completeness of the catalog up to a redshift of 2, assuming three different weighting scenarios for the stacking and three different power-law spectra. Weighting the sources according to mass and distance, we set upper limits at a 90% confidence level that constrain the flux of neutrinos from massive galaxy clusters (≳1014 M) to be no more than 4.6% of the diffuse IceCube observations at 100 TeV, assuming an unbroken E−2.5 power-law spectrum.

  • 3. Abbasi, R.
    et al.
    Deoskar, K.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Finley, Chad
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Hidvegi, Attila
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Hultqvist, Klas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Jansson, M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Walck, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Zhelnin, P.
    Constraining High-energy Neutrino Emission from Supernovae with IceCube2023Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 949, nr 1, artikel-id L12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Core-collapse supernovae are a promising potential high-energy neutrino source class. We test for correlation between seven years of IceCube neutrino data and a catalog containing more than 1000 core-collapse supernovae of types IIn and IIP and a sample of stripped-envelope supernovae. We search both for neutrino emission from individual supernovae as well as for combined emission from the whole supernova sample, through a stacking analysis. No significant spatial or temporal correlation of neutrinos with the cataloged supernovae was found. All scenarios were tested against the background expectation and together yield an overall p-value of 93%; therefore, they show consistency with the background only. The derived upper limits on the total energy emitted in neutrinos are 1.7 x 10(48) erg for stripped-envelope supernovae, 2.8 x 10(48) erg for type IIP, and 1.3 x 10(49) erg for type IIn SNe, the latter disfavoring models with optimistic assumptions for neutrino production in interacting supernovae. We conclude that stripped-envelope supernovae and supernovae of type IIn do not contribute more than 14.6% and 33.9%, respectively, to the diffuse neutrino flux in the energy range of about [ 10(3)-10(5)] GeV, assuming that the neutrino energy spectrum follows a power-law with an index of -2.5. Under the same assumption, we can only constrain the contribution of type IIP SNe to no more than 59.9%. Thus, core-collapse supernovae of types IIn and stripped-envelope supernovae can both be ruled out as the dominant source of the diffuse neutrino flux under the given assumptions.

  • 4. Abbasi, R.
    et al.
    Deoskar, Kunal
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Finley, Chad
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Hidvegi, Attila
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Hultqvist, Klas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Jansson, Matti
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Walck, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Zhelnin, P.
    Searches for Neutrinos from Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory Ultra-high-energy γ-Ray Sources Using the IceCube Neutrino Observatory2023Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 945, nr 1, artikel-id L8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Galactic PeV cosmic-ray accelerators (PeVatrons) are Galactic sources theorized to accelerate cosmic rays up to PeV in energy. The accelerated cosmic rays are expected to interact hadronically with nearby ambient gas or the interstellar medium, resulting in gamma-rays and neutrinos. Recently, the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) identified 12 gamma-ray sources with emissions above 100 TeV, making them candidates for PeVatrons. While at these high energies the Klein-Nishina effect exponentially suppresses leptonic emission from Galactic sources, evidence for neutrino emission would unequivocally confirm hadronic acceleration. Here, we present the results of a search for neutrinos from these gamma-ray sources and stacking searches testing for excess neutrino emission from all 12 sources as well as their subcatalogs of supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae with 11 yr of track events from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. No significant emissions were found. Based on the resulting limits, we place constraints on the fraction of gamma-ray flux originating from the hadronic processes in the Crab Nebula and LHAASO J2226+6057.

  • 5. Abbasi, Rasha
    et al.
    Deoskar, Kunar
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Finley, Chad
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Hidvegi, Attila
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Hultqvist, Klas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Jansson, Matti
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Walck, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Zhelnin, P.
    Limits on Neutrino Emission from GRB 221009A from MeV to PeV Using the IceCube Neutrino Observatory2023Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 946, nr 1, artikel-id L26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have long been considered a possible source of high-energy neutrinos. While no correlations have yet been detected between high-energy neutrinos and GRBs, the recent observation of GRB 221009A-the brightest GRB observed by Fermi-GBM to date and the first one to be observed above an energy of 10 TeV-provides a unique opportunity to test for hadronic emission. In this paper, we leverage the wide energy range of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory to search for neutrinos from GRB 221009A. We find no significant deviation from background expectation across event samples ranging from MeV to PeV energies, placing stringent upper limits on the neutrino emission from this source.

  • 6. Abellán, F. J.
    et al.
    Indebetouw, R.
    Marcaide, J. M.
    Gabler, M.
    Fransson, Claes
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Spyromilio, J.
    Burrows, D. N.
    Chevalier, R.
    Cigan, P.
    Gaensler, B. M.
    Gomez, H. L.
    Janka, H. -Th.
    Kirshner, R.
    Larsson, J.
    Lundqvist, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Matsuura, M.
    McCray, R.
    Ng, C. -Y.
    Park, S.
    Roche, P.
    Staveley-Smith, L.
    van Loon, J. Th.
    Wheeler, J. C.
    Woosley, S. E.
    Very Deep inside the SN 1987A Core Ejecta: Molecular Structures Seen in 3D2017Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 842, nr 2, artikel-id L24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most massive stars end their lives in core-collapse supernova explosions and enrich the interstellar medium with explosively nucleosynthesized elements. Following core collapse, the explosion is subject to instabilities as the shock propagates outward through the progenitor star. Observations of the composition and structure of the innermost regions of a core-collapse supernova provide a direct probe of the instabilities and nucleosynthetic products. SN 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud is one of very few supernovae for which the inner ejecta can be spatially resolved but are not yet strongly affected by interaction with the surroundings. Our observations of SN 1987A with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array are of the highest resolution to date and reveal the detailed morphology of cold molecular gas in the innermost regions of the remnant. The 3D distributions of carbon and silicon monoxide (CO and SiO) emission differ, but both have a central deficit, or torus-like distribution, possibly a result of radioactive heating during the first weeks (nickel heating). The size scales of the clumpy distribution are compared quantitatively to models, demonstrating how progenitor and explosion physics can be constrained.

  • 7. Abramowski, A.
    et al.
    Aharonian, F.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Uner, E. O. Ang
    Backes, M.
    Balenderan, S.
    Balzer, A.
    Barnacka, A.
    Becherini, Y.
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Berge, D.
    Bernhard, S.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Birsin, E.
    Biteau, J.
    Boettcher, M.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Bordas, P.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Bryan, M.
    Bulik, T.
    Carrigan, S.
    Casanova, S.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Chakraborty, N.
    Chalme-Calvet, R.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Chretien, M.
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Cologna, G.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Couturier, C.
    Cui, Y.
    Dalton, M.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    deWilt, P.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Donath, A.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubus, G.
    Dutson, K.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Edwards, T.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fernandes, M. V.
    Fernandez, D.
    Fiasson, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Foerster, A.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gajdus, M.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Garrigoux, T.
    Giavitto, G.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Gottschall, D.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Grudzinska, M.
    Hadasch, D.
    Haeffner, S.
    Hahn, J.
    Harris, J.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hervet, O.
    Hillert, A.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Holler, M.
    Horns, D.
    Ivascenko, A.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Jahn, C.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Janiak, M.
    Jankowsky, F.
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Khelifi, B.
    Kieffer, M.
    Klepser, S.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kolitzus, D.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Krakau, S.
    Krayzel, F.
    Krueger, P. P.
    Laffon, H.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lau, J.
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Lefranc, V.
    Lemiere, A.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Lopatin, A.
    Lu, C. -C
    Marandon, V.
    Marcowith, A.
    Marx, R.
    Maurin, G.
    Maxted, N.
    Mayer, M.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Mehault, J.
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Menzler, U.
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Moderski, R.
    Mohamed, M.
    Morå, Knut
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Moulin, E.
    Murach, T.
    de Naurois, M.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Oakes, L.
    Odaka, H.
    Ohm, S.
    Opitz, B.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Oya, I.
    Panter, M.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pekeur, N. W.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Peyaud, B.
    Pita, S.
    Poon, H.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raab, S.
    Reichardt, I.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    Reyes, R. de Los
    Rieger, F.
    Romoli, C.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Sahakian, V.
    Salek, D.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schuessler, F.
    Schulz, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Sol, H.
    Spanier, F.
    Spengler, Gerrit
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Spies, F.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Stycz, K.
    Sushch, I.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Tavernier, T.
    Taylor, A. M.
    Terrier, R.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Trichard, C.
    Valerius, K.
    Van Eldik, C.
    van Soelen, B.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Veh, J.
    Venter, C.
    Viana, A.
    Vincent, P.
    Vink, J.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Vorster, M.
    Vuillaume, T.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Wagner, P.
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Ward, M.
    Weidinger, M.
    Weitzel, Q.
    White, R.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Willmann, P.
    Woernlein, A.
    Wouters, D.
    Yang, R.
    Zabalza, V.
    Zaborov, D.
    Zacharias, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Zechlin, H. -S
    Fukui, Y.
    Sano, H.
    Fukuda, T.
    Yoshiike, S.
    DISCOVERY OF THE HARD SPECTRUM VHE gamma-RAY SOURCE HESS J1641-4632014Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 794, nr 1, s. L1-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This Letter reports the discovery of a remarkably hard spectrum source, HESS J1641-463, by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) in the very high energy (VHE) domain. HESS J1641-463 remained unnoticed by the usual analysis techniques due to confusion with the bright nearby source HESS J1640-465. It emerged at a significance level of 8.5 standard deviations after restricting the analysis to events with energies above 4 TeV. It shows a moderate flux level of phi(E > 1TeV) = (3.64 +/- 0.44(stat)+/- 0.73(sys)) x 10(-13) cm(-2) s(-1), corresponding to 1.8% of the Crab Nebula flux above the same energy, and a hard spectrum with a photon index of Gamma = 2.07 +/- 0.11(stat)+/- 0.20(sys). It is a point-like source, although an extension up to a Gaussian width of sigma = 3 arcmin cannot be discounted due to uncertainties in the H.E.S.S. point-spread function. The VHE gamma-ray flux of HESS J1641-463 is found to be constant over the observed period when checking time binnings from the year-by-year to the 28 minute exposure timescales. HESS J1641-463 is positionally coincident with the radio supernova remnant SNR G338.5+0.1. No X-ray candidate stands out as a clear association; however, Chandra and XMM-Newton data reveal some potential weak counterparts. Various VHE gamma-ray production scenarios are discussed. If the emission from HESS J1641-463 is produced by cosmic ray protons colliding with the ambient gas, then their spectrum must extend close to 1 PeV. This object may represent a source population contributing significantly to the galactic cosmic ray flux around the knee.

  • 8. Ackermann, M.
    et al.
    Ajello, M.
    Albert, A.
    Anderson, Brandon
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Arimoto, M.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Axelsson, M.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Baring, M. G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Gonzalez, J. Becerra
    Bellazzini, R.
    Bissaldi, E.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonino, R.
    Bottacini, E.
    Brandt, T. J.
    Bregeon, J.
    Britto, R. J.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Burnett, T. H.
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caputo, R.
    Caragiulo, M.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cavazzuti, E.
    Charles, E.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Chiang, J.
    Chiaro, G.
    Ciprini, S.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Cominsky, L. R.
    Condon, B.
    Costanza, F.
    Cuoco, A.
    Cutini, S.
    D'Ammando, F.
    de Palma, F.
    Desiante, R.
    Digel, S. W.
    Di Lalla, N.
    Di Mauro, M.
    Di Venere, L.
    Dominguez, A.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dubois, R.
    Dumora, D.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Ferrara, E. C.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrels, N.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giomi, M.
    Giommi, P.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Gomez-Vargas, G. A.
    Granot, J.
    Green, D.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M. -H.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hadasch, D.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hays, E.
    Hewitt, J. W.
    Hill, A. B.
    Horan, D.
    Jogler, T.
    Johannesson, G.
    Kamae, T.
    Kensei, S.
    Kocevski, D.
    Kuss, M.
    La Mura, G.
    Larsson, S.
    Latronico, L.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Li, J.
    Li, L.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Madejski, G. M.
    Magill, J.
    Maldera, S.
    Manfreda, A.
    Marelli, M.
    Mayer, M.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mirabal, N.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Moretti, E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Negro, M.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Omodei, N.
    Orienti, M.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Paneque, D.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Pivato, G.
    Porter, T. A.
    Racusin, J. L.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzaque, S.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Ritz, S.
    Rochester, L. S.
    Romani, R. W.
    Parkinson, P. M. Saz
    Sgro, C.
    Simone, D.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, D. A.
    Spada, F.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Suson, D. J.
    Tajima, H.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Torres, D. F.
    Troja, E.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Venters, T. M.
    Vianello, G.
    Wood, K. S.
    Wood, M.
    Zaharijas, G.
    Zhu, S.
    Zimmer, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    FERMI-LAT OBSERVATIONS OF THE LIGO EVENT GW1509142016Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 823, nr 1, artikel-id L2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has an instantaneous field of view (FoV) covering similar to 1/5 of the sky and it completes a survey of the entire sky in high-energy gamma-rays every 3 hr. It enables searches for transient phenomena over timescales from milliseconds to years. Among these phenomena could be electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave (GW) sources. In this paper, we present a detailed study of the LAT observations relevant to Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) event GW150914, which is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and has been interpreted as being due to the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The localization region for GW150914 was outside the LAT FoV at the time of the GW signal. However, as part of routine survey observations, the LAT observed the entire LIGO localization region within similar to 70 minutes of the trigger and thus enabled a comprehensive search for a.-ray counterpart to GW150914. The study of the LAT data presented here did not find any potential counterparts to GW150914, but it did provide limits on the presence of a transient counterpart above 100 MeV on timescales of hours to days over the entire GW150914 localization region.

  • 9. Ackermann, M.
    et al.
    Ajello, M.
    Albert, A.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Becerra Gonzalez, J.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Bissaldi, E.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonino, R.
    Bottacini, E.
    Bregeon, J.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caputo, R.
    Caragiulo, M.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Cavazzuti, E.
    Cecchi, C.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Chiang, J.
    Chiaro, G.
    Ciprini, S.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Cutini, S.
    D'Ammando, F.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Desiante, R.
    Di Venere, L.
    Dominguez, A.
    Drell, P. S.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Ferrara, E. C.
    Focke, W. B.
    Fuhrmann, L.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giommi, P.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Godfrey, G.
    Green, D.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guiriec, S.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hays, E.
    Hewitt, J. W.
    Hill, A. B.
    Horan, D.
    Jogler, T.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Kamae, T.
    Kuss, M.
    Larsson, S.
    Latronico, L.
    Li, J.
    Li, L.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Magill, J.
    Maldera, S.
    Manfreda, A.
    Max-Moerbeck, W.
    Mayer, M.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mizuno, T.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohno, M.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Ojha, R.
    Omodei, N.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Paneque, D.
    Pearson, T. J.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Perri, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Petrosian, V.
    Piron, F.
    Pivato, G.
    Porter, T. A.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Readhead, A.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Schulz, A.
    Sgro, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Spada, F.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Suson, D. J.
    Takahashi, H.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Troja, E.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Vianello, G.
    Wood, K. S.
    Wood, M.
    Zimmer, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Berdyugin, A.
    Corbet, R. H. D.
    Hovatta, T.
    Lindfors, E.
    Nilsson, K.
    Reinthal, R.
    Sillanpaa, A.
    Stamerra, A.
    Takalo, L. O.
    Valtonen, M. J.
    MULTIWAVELENGTH EVIDENCE FOR QUASI-PERIODIC MODULATION IN THE GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR PG 1553+1132015Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 813, nr 2, artikel-id L41Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report for the first time a gamma-ray and multiwavelength nearly periodic oscillation in an active galactic nucleus. Using the Fermi Large Area Telescope we have discovered an apparent quasi-periodicity in the gamma-ray flux (E > 100 MeV) from the GeV/TeV BL Lac object PG 1553+113. The marginal significance of the 2.18 +/- 0.08 year period gamma-ray cycle is strengthened by correlated oscillations observed in radio and optical fluxes, through data collected in the Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Tuorla, Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope, and Catalina Sky Survey monitoring programs and Swift-UVOT. The optical cycle appearing in similar to 10 years of data has a similar period, while the 15 GHz oscillation is less regular than seen in the other bands. Further long-term multiwavelength monitoring of this blazar may discriminate among the possible explanations for this quasi-periodicity.

  • 10. Ackermann, M.
    et al.
    Ajello, M.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Gonzalez, J. Becerra
    Bellazzini, R.
    Bissaldi, E.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonino, R.
    Bottacini, E.
    Bregeon, J.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Buson, S.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caragiulo, M.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Cavazzuti, E.
    Cecchi, C.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Chiaro, G.
    Ciprini, S.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Costantin, D.
    Costanza, F.
    Cutini, S.
    D'Ammando, F.
    de Palma, F.
    Desiante, R.
    Digel, S. W.
    Di Lalla, N.
    Di Mauro, M.
    Di Venere, L.
    Dominguez, A.
    Drell, P. S.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Ferrara, E. C.
    Finke, J.
    Focke, W. B.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Green, D.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hartmann, D. H.
    Hays, E.
    Horan, D.
    Jogler, T.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Kuss, M.
    La Mura, G.
    Larsson, Stefan
    Latronico, L.
    Li, J.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Magill, J. D.
    Maldera, S.
    Manfreda, A.
    Marcotulli, L.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mirabal, N.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Negro, M.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Ojha, R.
    Omodei, N.
    Orienti, M.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Paliya, V. S.
    Paneque, D.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Persic, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Porter, T. A.
    Principe, G.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Rani, B.
    Razzano, M.
    Razzaque, S.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Romani, R. W.
    Sgro, C.
    Simone, D.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Spada, F.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Stalin, C. S.
    Stawarz, L.
    Suson, D. J.
    Takahashi, M.
    Tanaka, K.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Torres, D. F.
    Torresi, E.
    Tosti, G.
    Troja, E.
    Vianello, G.
    Wood, K. S.
    Gamma-Ray Blazars within the First 2 Billion Years2017Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 837, nr 1, artikel-id L5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The detection of high-redshift (z > 3) blazars enables the study of the evolution of the most luminous relativistic jets over cosmic time. More importantly, high-redshift blazars tend to host massive black holes and can be used to constrain the space density of heavy black holes in the early universe. Here, we report the first detection with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope of five gamma-ray-emitting blazars beyond z. =. 3.1, more distant than any blazars previously detected in.-rays gamma Among these five objects, NVSS J151002+570243 is now the most distant known gamma-ray-emitting blazar at z =. 4.31. These objects have steeply falling gamma-ray spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and. those that have been observed in X-rays have a very hard X-ray spectrum, both typical of powerful blazars. Their Compton dominance ( ratio of the inverse Compton to synchrotron peak luminosities) is also very large (>20). All of these properties place these objects among the most extreme members of the blazar population. Their optical spectra and the modeling of their optical-UV SEDs confirm that these objects harbor massive black holes (MBH similar to 10(8-10) M circle dot 8 10). We find that, at z approximate to 4, the space density of >10(9)M circle dot black holes hosted in radio-loud and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei are similar, implying that radio-loudness may play a key role in rapid black hole growth in the early universe.

  • 11. Acquaviva, Viviana
    et al.
    Vargas, Carlos
    Gawiser, Eric
    Guaita, Lucia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    THE CURIOUS CASE OF Ly alpha EMITTERS: GROWING YOUNGER FROM z similar to 3 to z similar to 2?2012Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 751, nr 2, artikel-id L26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ly alpha emitting (LAE) galaxies are thought to be progenitors of present-day L* galaxies. Clustering analyses have suggested that LAEs at z similar to 3 might evolve into LAEs at z similar to 2, but it is unclear whether the physical nature of these galaxies is compatible with this hypothesis. Several groups have investigated the properties of LAEs using spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting, but direct comparison of their results is complicated by inconsistencies in the treatment of the data and in the assumptions made in modeling the stellar populations, which are degenerate with the effects of galaxy evolution. By using the same data analysis pipeline and SED fitting software on two stacked samples of LAEs at z = 3.1 and z = 2.1, and by eliminating several systematic uncertainties that might cause a discrepancy, we determine that the physical properties of these two samples of galaxies are dramatically different. LAEs at z = 3.1 are found to be old (age similar to 1 Gyr) and metal-poor (Z < 0.2 Z(circle dot)), while LAEs at z = 2.1 appear to be young (age similar to 50 Myr) and metal-rich (Z > Z(circle dot)). The difference in the observed stellar ages makes it very unlikely that z = 3.1 LAEs evolve directly into z = 2.1 LAEs. Larger samples of galaxies, studies of individual objects, and spectroscopic measurements of metallicity at these redshifts are needed to confirm this picture, which is difficult to reconcile with the effects of 1 Gyr of cosmological evolution.

  • 12.
    Ahrens, Maryon
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Bohm, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Conrad, Jan M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Dumm, Jonathan P.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Finley, Chad
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Flis, Samuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Hultqvist, Klas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Walck, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Zoll, Marcel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stanford University, USA.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Barbarino, Cristina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Bulla, Mattia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Roy, Rupak
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Morå, Knut
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Multi-messenger Observations of a Binary Neutron Star Merger2017Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 848, nr 2, artikel-id L12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    On 2017 August 17 a binary neutron star coalescence candidate (later designated GW170817) with merger time 12:41:04 UTC was observed through gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor independently detected a gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) with a time delay of similar to 1.7 s with respect to the merger time. From the gravitational-wave signal, the source was initially localized to a sky region of 31 deg(2) at a luminosity distance of 40(-8)(+8) Mpc and with component masses consistent with neutron stars. The component masses were later measured to be in the range 0.86 to 2.26 M-circle dot. An extensive observing campaign was launched across the electromagnetic spectrum leading to the discovery of a bright optical transient (SSS17a, now with the IAU identification of AT 2017gfo) in NGC 4993 (at similar to 40 Mpc) less than 11 hours after the merger by the One-Meter, Two Hemisphere (1M2H) team using the 1 m Swope Telescope. The optical transient was independently detected by multiple teams within an hour. Subsequent observations targeted the object and its environment. Early ultraviolet observations revealed a blue transient that faded within 48 hours. Optical and infrared observations showed a redward evolution over similar to 10 days. Following early non-detections, X-ray and radio emission were discovered at the transient's position similar to 9 and similar to 16 days, respectively, after the merger. Both the X-ray and radio emission likely arise from a physical process that is distinct from the one that generates the UV/optical/near-infrared emission. No ultra-high-energy gamma-rays and no neutrino candidates consistent with the source were found in follow-up searches. These observations support the hypothesis that GW170817 was produced by the merger of two neutron stars in NGC4993 followed by a short gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) and a kilonova/macronova powered by the radioactive decay of r-process nuclei synthesized in the ejecta.

  • 13.
    Ahrens, Maryon
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Bohm, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Deoskar, Kunal
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Dumm, Jonathan P.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Finley, Chad
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Hultqvist, Klas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    O'Sullivan, Erin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Walck, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Joint Constraints on Galactic Diffuse Neutrino Emission from the ANTARES and IceCube Neutrino Telescopes2018Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 868, nr 2, artikel-id L20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The existence of diffuse Galactic neutrino production is expected from cosmic-ray interactions with Galactic gas and radiation fields. Thus, neutrinos are a unique messenger offering the opportunity to test the products of Galactic cosmic-ray interactions up to energies of hundreds of TeV. Here we present a search for this production using ten years of Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and Abyss environmental RESearch (ANTARES) track and shower data, as well as seven years of IceCube track data. The data are combined into a joint likelihood test for neutrino emission according to the KRA(gamma) model assuming a 5 PeV per nucleon Galactic cosmic-ray cutoff. No significant excess is found. As a consequence, the limits presented in this Letter start constraining the model parameter space for Galactic cosmic-ray production and transport.

  • 14.
    Ahrens, Maryon
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Bohm, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Deoskar, Kunal
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Finley, Chad
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Hultqvist, Klas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Jansson, Matti
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    O'Sullivan, Erin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Walck, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    IceCube Search for Neutrinos Coincident with Compact Binary Mergers from LIGO-Virgo's First Gravitational-wave Transient Catalog2020Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 898, nr 1, artikel-id L10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, we search for high-energy neutrino emission coincident with compact binary mergers observed by the LIGO and Virgo gravitational-wave (GW) detectors during their first and second observing runs. We present results from two searches targeting emission coincident with the sky localization of each GW event within a 1000 s time window centered around the reported merger time. One search uses a model-independent unbinned maximum-likelihood analysis, which uses neutrino data from IceCube to search for pointlike neutrino sources consistent with the sky localization of GW events. The other uses the Low-Latency Algorithm for Multi-messenger Astrophysics, which incorporates astrophysical priors through a Bayesian framework and includes LIGO-Virgo detector characteristics to determine the association between the GW source and the neutrinos. No significant neutrino coincidence is seen by either search during the first two observing runs of the LIGO-Virgo detectors. We set upper limits on the time-integrated neutrino emission within the 1000 s window for each of the 11 GW events. These limits range from 0.02 to 0.7 . We also set limits on the total isotropic equivalent energy, E-iso, emitted in high-energy neutrinos by each GW event. These limits range from 1.7 x 10(51) to 1.8 x 10(55) erg. We conclude with an outlook for LIGO-Virgo observing run O3, during which both analyses are running in real time.

  • 15.
    Ahrens, Maryon
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Bohm, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Dumm, Jonathan P.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Finley, Chad
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Flis, Samuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Hultqvist, Klas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Walck, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Wolf, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Zoll, Marcel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    LOWERING ICECUBE'S ENERGY THRESHOLD FOR POINT SOURCE SEARCHES IN THE SOUTHERN SKY2016Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 824, nr 2, artikel-id L28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Observation of a point source of astrophysical neutrinos would be a smoking gun signature of a cosmic-ray accelerator. While IceCube has recently discovered a diffuse flux of astrophysical neutrinos, no localized point source has been observed. Previous IceCube searches for point sources in the southern sky were restricted by either an energy threshold above a few hundred TeV or poor neutrino angular resolution. Here we present a search for southern sky point sources with greatly improved sensitivities to neutrinos with energies below 100 TeV. By selecting charged-current nu(mu) interacting inside the detector, we reduce the atmospheric background while retaining efficiency for astrophysical neutrino-induced events reconstructed with sub-degree angular resolution. The new event sample covers three years of detector data and leads to a factor of 10 improvement in sensitivity to point sources emitting below 100 TeV in the southern sky. No statistically significant evidence of point sources was found, and upper limits are set on neutrino emission from individual sources. A posteriori analysis of the highest-energy (similar to 100 TeV) starting event in the sample found that this event alone represents a 2.8 sigma deviation from the hypothesis that the data consists only of atmospheric background.

  • 16.
    Ahrens, Maryon
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Bohm, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Dumm, Jonathan P.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Finley, Chad
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Flis, Samuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Hultqvist, Klas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Walck, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Zoll, Marcel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Search for High-energy Neutrinos from Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817 with ANTARES, IceCube, and the Pierre Auger Observatory2017Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 850, nr 2, artikel-id L35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo observatories recently discovered gravitational waves from a binary neutron star inspiral. A short gamma-ray burst (GRB) that followed the merger of this binary was also recorded by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (Fermi-GBM), and the Anti-Coincidence Shield for the Spectrometer for the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), indicating particle acceleration by the source. The precise location of the event was determined by optical detections of emission following the merger. We searched for high-energy neutrinos from the merger in the GeV-EeV energy range using the ANTARES, IceCube, and Pierre Auger Observatories. No neutrinos directionally coincident with the source were detected within +/- 500 s around the merger time. Additionally, no MeV neutrino burst signal was detected coincident with the merger. We further carried out an extended search in the direction of the source for high-energy neutrinos within the 14 day period following the merger, but found no evidence of emission. We used these results to probe dissipation mechanisms in relativistic outflows driven by the binary neutron star merger. The non-detection is consistent with model predictions of short GRBs observed at a large off-axis angle.

  • 17.
    Ahrens, Maryon
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Bohm, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Finley, Chad
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Flis, Samuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Hulth, Per Olof
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Hultqvist, Klas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Walck, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Wolf, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Zoll, Marcel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    SEARCH FOR PROMPT NEUTRINO EMISSION FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS WITH ICECUBE2015Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 805, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present constraints derived from a search of four years of IceCube data for a prompt neutrino flux from gammaray bursts (GRBs). A single low-significance neutrino, compatible with the atmospheric neutrino background, was found in coincidence with one of the 506 observed bursts. Although GRBs have been proposed as candidate sources for ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, our limits on the neutrino flux disfavor much of the parameter space for the latest models. We also find that no more than similar to 1% of the recently observed astrophysical neutrino flux consists of prompt emission from GRBs that are potentially observable by existing satellites.

  • 18.
    Ahrens, Maryon
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Deoskar, Kunal
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Finley, Chad
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Hultqvist, Klas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Jansson, Matti
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Walck, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Search for Multi-flare Neutrino Emissions in 10 yr of IceCube Data from a Catalog of Sources2021Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 920, nr 2, artikel-id L45Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent time-integrated analysis of a catalog of 110 candidate neutrino sources revealed a cumulative neutrino excess in the data collected by IceCube between 2008 April 6 and 2018 July 10. This excess, inconsistent with the background hypothesis in the Northern Hemisphere at the 3.3σ level, is associated with four sources: NGC 1068, TXS 0506+056, PKS 1424+240, and GB6 J1542+6129. This Letter presents two time-dependent neutrino emission searches on the same data sample and catalog: a point-source search that looks for the most significant time-dependent source of the catalog by combining space, energy, and time information of the events, and a population test based on binomial statistics that looks for a cumulative time-dependent neutrino excess from a subset of sources. Compared to previous time-dependent searches, these analyses enable a feature to possibly find multiple flares from a single direction with an unbinned maximum-likelihood method. M87 is found to be the most significant time-dependent source of this catalog at the level of 1.7σ post-trial, and TXS 0506+056 is the only source for which two flares are reconstructed. The binomial test reports a cumulative time-dependent neutrino excess in the Northern Hemisphere at the level of 3.0σ associated with four sources: M87, TXS 0506+056, GB6 J1542+6129, and NGC 1068.

  • 19. Ajello, M.
    et al.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Sánchez-Conde, Miguel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stanford University, USA.
    Zaharijas, G.
    Gustafsson, M.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Dermer, C. D.
    Inoue, Y.
    Hartmann, D.
    Ackermann, M.
    Bechtol, K.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Reimer, A.
    Romani, R. W.
    Strong, A. W.
    THE ORIGIN OF THE EXTRAGALACTIC GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND AND IMPLICATIONS FOR DARK MATTER ANNIHILATION2015Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 800, nr 2, artikel-id L27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The origin of the extragalactic.-ray background (EGB) has been debated for some time. The EGB comprises the.-ray emission from resolved and unresolved extragalactic sources, such as blazars, star-forming galaxies, and radio galaxies, as well as radiation from truly diffuse processes. This Letter focuses on the blazar source class, the most numerous detected population, and presents an updated luminosity function and spectral energy distribution model consistent with the blazar observations performed by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT). We show that blazars account for 50(-11)(+12)% of the EGB photons (>0.1 GeV), and that Fermi-LAT has already resolved similar to 70% of this contribution. Blazars, and in particular hard-spectrum sources such as BL Lacs, are responsible for most of the EGB emission above 100 GeV. We find that the extragalactic background light, which attenuates blazars' high-energy emission, is responsible for the high-energy cutoff observed in the EGB spectrum. Finally, we show that blazars, star-forming galaxies, and radio galaxies can naturally account for the amplitude and spectral shape of the background in the 0.1-820 GeV range, leaving only modest room for other contributions. This allows us to set competitive constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section.

  • 20. Akiyama, E.
    et al.
    Muto, T.
    Kusakabe, N.
    Kataoka, A.
    Hashimoto, J.
    Tsukagoshi, T.
    Kwon, J.
    Kudo, T.
    Kandori, R.
    Grady, C. A.
    Takami, M.
    Janson, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Kuzuhara, M.
    Henning, T.
    Sitko, M. L.
    Carson, J. C.
    Mayama, S.
    Currie, T.
    Thalmann, C.
    Wisniewski, J.
    Momose, M.
    Ohashi, N.
    Abe, L.
    Brandner, W.
    Brandt, T. D.
    Egner, S.
    Feldt, M.
    Goto, M.
    Guyon, O.
    Hayano, Y.
    Hayashi, M.
    Hayashi, S.
    Hodapp, K. W.
    Ishi, M.
    Iye, M.
    Knapp, G. R.
    Matsuo, T.
    Mcelwain, M. W.
    Miyama, S.
    Morino, J. -I.
    Moro-Martin, A.
    Nishimura, T.
    Pyo, T. -S.
    Serabyn, G.
    Suenaga, T.
    Suto, H.
    Suzuki, R.
    Takahashi, Y. H.
    Takato, N.
    Terada, H.
    Tomono, D.
    Turner, E. L.
    Watanabe, M.
    Yamada, T.
    Takami, H.
    Usuda, T.
    Tamura, M.
    DISCOVERY OF A DISK GAP CANDIDATE AT 20 AU IN TW HYDRAE2015Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 802, nr 2, artikel-id L17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a new Subaru/HiCIAO high-contrast H-band polarized intensity (PI) image of a nearby transitional disk associated with TW Hydrae. The scattered light from the disk was detected from 0 ''.2 to 1 ''.5 (11-81 AU) and the PI image shows a clear axisymmetric depression in PI at similar to 0 ''.4 (similar to 20 AU) from the central star, similar to the similar to 80 AU gap previously reported from Hubble Space Telescope images. The azimuthal PI profile also shows that the disk beyond 0 ''.2 is almost axisymmetric. We discuss two possible scenarios explaining the origin of the PI depression: (1) a gap structure may exist at similar to 20 AU from the central star because of a shallow slope seen in the PI profile, and (2) grain growth may be occurring in the inner region of the disk. Multi-band observations at near-infrared and millimeter/submillimeter wavelengths play a complementary role in investigating dust opacity and may help reveal the origin of the gap more precisely.

  • 21.
    Amanullah, Rahman
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Johansson, Joel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Banerjee, D. P. K.
    Venkataraman, V.
    Joshi, V.
    Ashok, N. M.
    Cao, Y.
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    Kulkarni, S. R.
    Nugent, P. E.
    Petrushevska, Tanja
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Stanishev, V.
    THE PECULIAR EXTINCTION LAW OF SN 2014J MEASURED WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE2014Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 788, nr 2, s. L21-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The wavelength dependence of the extinction of Type Ia SN 2014J in the nearby galaxy M82 has been measured using UV to near-IR photometry obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, the Nordic Optical Telescope, and the Mount Abu Infrared Telescope. This is the first time that the reddening of an SN Ia is characterized over the full wavelength range of 0.2-2 mu m. A total-to-selective extinction, R-V >= 3.1, is ruled out with high significance. The best fit at maximum using a Galactic type extinction law yields R-V = 1.4 +/- 0.1. The observed reddening of SN 2014J is also compatible with a power-law extinction, A(lambda)/A(V) = (lambda/lambda(V))(p) as expected from multiple scattering of light, with p = -2.1 +/- 0.1. After correcting for differences in reddening, SN 2014J appears to be very similar to SN 2011 fe over the 14 broadband filter light curves used in our study.

  • 22.
    Anderson, Brandon
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Ferretti, Raphael
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Zimmer, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    LOCALIZATION AND BROADBAND FOLLOW-UP OF THE GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE TRANSIENT GW 1509142016Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 826, nr 1, artikel-id L13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A gravitational-wave (GW) transient was identified in data recorded by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors on 2015 September 14. The event, initially designated G184098 and later given the name GW150914, is described in detail elsewhere. By prior arrangement, preliminary estimates of the time, significance, and sky location of the event were shared with 63 teams of observers covering radio, optical, near-infrared, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths with ground- and space-based facilities. In this Letter we describe the low-latency analysis of the GW data and present the sky localization of the first observed compact binary merger. We summarize the follow-up observations reported by 25 teams via private Gamma-ray Coordinates Network circulars, giving an overview of the participating facilities, the GW sky localization coverage, the timeline, and depth of the observations. As this event turned out to be a binary black hole merger, there is little expectation of a detectable electromagnetic (EM) signature. Nevertheless, this first broadband campaign to search for a counterpart of an Advanced LIGO source represents a milestone and highlights the broad capabilities of the transient astronomy community and the observing strategies that have been developed to pursue neutron star binary merger events. Detailed investigations of the EM data and results of the EM follow-up campaign are being disseminated in papers by the individual teams.

  • 23.
    Andreas, Sandberg
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Östlin, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Melinder, Jens
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Bik, Adrianus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Guaita, L.
    Limits on Lyman Continuum Escape from z = 2.2 Hα-emitting Galaxies2015Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 814, nr 1, artikel-id L10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The leakage of Lyman continuum (LyC) photons from star-forming galaxies is an elusive parameter. When observed, it provides a wealth of information on star formation in galaxies and on the geometry of the interstellar medium, and puts constraints on the role of star-forming galaxies in the reionization of the universe. Hα-selected galaxies at  trace the highest star formation population at the peak of cosmic star formation history, providing a base for directly measuring LyC escape. Here we present this method and highlight its benefits as well as caveats. We also use the method on 10 Hα emitters in the Chandra Deep Field South at  also imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope in the ultraviolet. We find no individual LyC detections, and our stack puts a 5σ upper limit on the average absolute escape fraction of <24%, consistent with similar studies. With future planned observations, the sample sizes should rapidly increase and the method presented here should provide very robust constraints on the escape fraction.

  • 24. Andreoni, Igor
    et al.
    Goldstein, Daniel A.
    Anand, Shreya
    Coughlin, Michael W.
    Singer, Leo P.
    Ahumada, Tomás
    Medford, Michael
    Kool, Erik C.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Webb, Sara
    Bulla, Mattia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Bloom, Joshua S.
    Kasliwal, Mansi M.
    Nugent, Peter E.
    Bagdasaryan, Ashot
    Barnes, Jennifer
    Cook, David O.
    Cooke, Jeff
    Duev, Dmitry A.
    Fremling, U. Christoffer
    Gatkine, Pradip
    Golkhou, V. Zach
    Kong, Albert K. H.
    Mahabal, Ashish
    Martínez-Palomera, Jorge
    Tao, Duo
    Zhang, Keming
    GROWTH on S190510g: DECam Observation Planning and Follow-up of a Distant Binary Neutron Star Merger Candidate2019Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 881, nr 1, artikel-id L16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The first two months of the third Advanced LIGO and Virgo observing run (2019 April-May) showed that distant gravitational-wave (GW) events can now be readily detected. Three candidate mergers containing neutron stars (NS) were reported in a span of 15 days, all likely located more than 100 Mpc away. However, distant events such as the three new NS mergers are likely to be coarsely localized, which highlights the importance of facilities and scheduling systems that enable deep observations over hundreds to thousands of square degrees to detect the electromagnetic counterparts. On 2019 May 10 02: 59:39.292 UT the GW candidate S190510g was discovered and initially classified as a binary neutron star (BNS) merger with 98% probability. The GW event was localized within an area of 3462 deg(2), later refined to 1166 deg(2) (90%) at a distance of 227 +/- 92 Mpc. We triggered Target-of-Opportunity observations with the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a wide-field optical imager mounted at the prime focus of the 4 m Blanco Telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. This Letter describes our DECam observations and our real-time analysis results, focusing in particular on the design and implementation of the observing strategy. Within 24 hr of the merger time, we observed 65% of the total enclosed probability of the final skymap with an observing efficiency of 94%. We identified and publicly announced 13 candidate counterparts. S190510g was reclassified 1.7 days after the merger, after our observations were completed, with a BNS merger probability reduced from 98% to 42% in favor of a terrestrial classification.

  • 25. Ashall, C.
    et al.
    Hsiao, E. Y.
    Hoeflich, P.
    Stritzinger, M.
    Phillips, M. M.
    Morrell, N.
    Davis, S.
    Baron, E.
    Piro, A. L.
    Burns, C.
    Contreras, C.
    Galbany, L.
    Holmbo, S.
    Kirshner, R. P.
    Krisciunas, K.
    Marion, G. H.
    Sand, D. J.
    Shahbandeh, M.
    Suntzeff, N. B.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Carnegie Supernova Project-II: Using Near-infrared Spectroscopy to Determine the Location of the Outer Ni-56 in Type Ia Supernovae2019Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 875, nr 2, artikel-id L14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the H-band wavelength region of 37 postmaximum light near-infrared spectra of three normal, nine transitional, and four subluminous type. Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), extending from +5. days to +20. days relative to the epoch of B-band maximum. We introduce a new observable, the blue-edge velocity, v(edge), of the prominent Fe/Co/Ni-peak H-band emission feature, which is quantitatively measured. The v(edge) parameter is found to decrease over subtype ranging from around -14,000 km s(-1) for normal SNe Ia, to -10,000 km s(-1) for transitional SNe. Ia, down to -5000 km s(-1) for the subluminous SNe. Ia. Furthermore, inspection of the +10 +/- 3 days spectra indicates that v(edge) is correlated with the color-stretch parameter, s(BV), and hence with peak luminosity. These results follow the previous findings that brighter SNe. Ia tend to have Ni-56 located at higher velocities as compared to subluminous objects. As v(edge) is a model-independent parameter, we propose it can be used in combination with traditional observational diagnostics to provide a new avenue to robustly distinguish between leading SNe. Ia explosion models.

  • 26. Barker, Brandon L.
    et al.
    O'Connor, Evan P.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Couch, Sean M.
    Inferring Type II-P Supernova Progenitor Masses from Plateau Luminosities2023Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 944, nr 1, artikel-id L2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Connecting observations of core-collapse supernova explosions to the properties of their massive star progenitors is a long-sought, and challenging, goal of supernova science. Recently, Barker et al. presented bolometric light curves for a landscape of progenitors from spherically symmetric neutrino-driven core-collapse supernova (CCSN) simulations using an effective model. They find a tight relationship between the plateau luminosity of the Type II-P CCSN light curve and the terminal iron-core mass of the progenitor. Remarkably, this allows us to constrain progenitor properties with photometry alone. We analyze a large observational sample of Type II-P CCSN light curves and estimate a distribution of iron-core masses using the relationship of Barker et al. The inferred distribution matches extremely well with the distribution of iron-core masses from stellar evolutionary models and namely, contains high-mass iron cores that suggest contributions from very massive progenitors in the observational data. We use this distribution of iron-core masses to infer minimum and maximum masses of progenitors in the observational data. Using Bayesian inference methods to locate optimal initial mass function parameters, we find  and  solar masses for the observational data.

  • 27. Bastian, T. S.
    et al.
    Chintzoglou, G.
    De Pontieu, B.
    Shimojo, M.
    Schmit, D.
    Leenaarts, Jorrit
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Loukitcheva, M.
    A First Comparison of Millimeter Continuum and MgII Ultraviolet Line Emission from the Solar Chromosphere2017Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 845, nr 2, artikel-id L19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present joint observations of the Sun by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). Both millimeter/submillimeter-lambda continuum emission and ultraviolet (UV) line emission originate from the solar chromosphere and both have the potential to serve as powerful and complementary diagnostics of physical conditions in this enigmatic region of the solar atmosphere. The observations were made of a solar active region on 2015 December 18 as part of the ALMA science verification effort. A map of the Sun's continuum emission was obtained by ALMA at a wavelength of 1.25 mm (239 GHz). A contemporaneous map was obtained by IRIS in the Mg II h doublet line at 2803.5 angstrom. While a clear correlation between the 1.25 mm brightness temperature T-B and the Mg II h line radiation temperature T-rad is observed, the slope is <1, perhaps as a result of the fact that these diagnostics are sensitive to different parts of the chromosphere and that the Mg II h line source function includes a scattering component. There is a significant difference (35%) between the mean TB (1.25 mm) and mean T-rad (Mg II). Partitioning the maps into sunspot, quiet areas, and plage regions we find the relation between the IRIS Mg II h line Trad and the ALMA TB region-dependent. We suggest this may be the result of regional dependences of the formation heights of the IRIS and ALMA diagnostics and/or the increased degree of coupling between the UV source function and the local gas temperature in the hotter, denser gas in plage regions.

  • 28.
    Beresnyak, Andrey
    Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita). Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA.
    ON THE PARALLEL SPECTRUM IN MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE2015Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 801, nr 1, artikel-id L9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Anisotropy of MHD turbulence has been studied extensively for many years, most prominently by measurements in the solar wind and high-resolution simulations. The spectrum parallel to the local magnetic field was observed to be steeper than the perpendicular spectrum, typically k(-2), consistent with the widely accepted Goldreich & Sridhar model. In this Letter, I looked deeper into the nature of the relation between parallel and perpendicular spectra and argue that this k(-2) scaling has the same origin as the omega(-2) scaling of the Lagrangian frequency spectrum in strong hydrodynamic turbulence. This follows from the fact that Alfven waves propagate along magnetic field lines. It has now became clear that the observed anisotropy can be argued without invocation of the critical balance argument and is more robust that was previously thought. The relation between parallel (Lagrangian) and perpendicular (Eulerian) spectra is an inevitable consequence of strong turbulence of Alfven waves, rather than a conjecture based on the uncertainty relation. I tested this using high-resolution simulations of MHD turbulence, in particular, I verified that the cutoff of the parallel spectrum scales as a Kolmogorov timescale, not lengthscale.

  • 29. Betti, S. K.
    et al.
    Follette, K. B.
    Ward-Duong, K.
    Aoyama, Y.
    Marleau, G.-D.
    Bary, J.
    Robinson, C.
    Janson, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Balmer, W.
    Chauvin, G.
    Palma-Bifani, P.
    Near-infrared Accretion Signatures from the Circumbinary Planetary-mass Companion Delorme 1 (AB)b2022Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 935, nr 1, artikel-id L18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Accretion signatures from bound brown dwarf and protoplanetary companions provide evidence for ongoing planet formation, and accreting substellar objects have enabled new avenues to study the astrophysical mechanisms controlling the formation and accretion processes. Delorme 1 (AB)b, a ∼30–45 Myr circumbinary planetary-mass companion, was recently discovered to exhibit strong Hα emission. This suggests ongoing accretion from a circumplanetary disk, somewhat surprising given canonical gas disk dispersal timescales of 5–10 Myr. Here, we present the first NIR detection of accretion from the companion in Paβ, Paγ, and Brγ emission lines from SOAR/TripleSpec 4.1, confirming and further informing its accreting nature. The companion shows strong line emission, with Lline ≈ 1–6 × 10−8 L across lines and epochs, while the binary host system shows no NIR hydrogen line emission (Lline < 0.32–11 × 10−7 L). Observed NIR hydrogen line ratios are more consistent with a planetary accretion shock than with local line excitation models commonly used to interpret stellar magnetospheric accretion. Using planetary accretion shock models, we derive mass accretion rate estimates of pla∼3–4 × 10−8 MJ yr−1, somewhat higher than expected under the standard star formation paradigm. Delorme 1 (AB)b's high accretion rate is perhaps more consistent with formation via disk fragmentation. Delorme 1 (AB)b is the first protoplanet candidate with clear (signal-to-noise ratio ∼5) NIR hydrogen line emission.

  • 30. Bradac, Marusa
    et al.
    Garcia-Appadoo, Diego
    Huang, Kuang-Han
    Vallini, Livia
    Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita). Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna, Italy; INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Italy.
    Finney, Emily Quinn
    Hoag, Austin
    Lemaux, Brian C.
    Schmidt, Kasper Borello
    Treu, Tommaso
    Carilli, Chris
    Dijkstra, Mark
    Ferrara, Andrea
    Fontana, Adriano
    Jones, Tucker
    Ryan, Russell
    Wagg, Jeff
    Gonzalez, Anthony H.
    ALMA [C II] 158 mu m Detection of a Redshift 7 Lensed Galaxy behind RXJ1347.1-11452017Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 836, nr 1, artikel-id L2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the results of ALMA spectroscopic follow-up of a z = 6.766 Ly alpha emitting galaxy behind the cluster RX J1347.1-1145. We report the detection of [C II] 158 mu m line fully consistent with the Ly alpha redshift and with the peak of the optical emission. Given the magnification of mu = 5.0 +/- 0.3, the intrinsic (corrected for lensing) luminosity of the [C II] line is L[C II]= 1.4(-0.3)(+0.3) x 10(7) L-circle dot, roughly similar to 5 times fainter than other detections of z similar to 7 galaxies. The result indicates that low L[C II] in z similar to 7 galaxies compared to the local counterparts might be caused by their low metallicities and/or feedback. The small velocity offset (Delta v = 20(-40)(+40) km s(-1)) between the Ly alpha and [C II] line is unusual, and may be indicative of ionizing photons escaping.

  • 31.
    Brandenburg, Axel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita). University of Colorado, USA.
    Ashurova, Mohira B.
    Jabbari, Sarah
    Compensating Faraday Depolarization by Magnetic Helicity in the Solar Corona2017Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 845, nr 2, artikel-id L15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A turbulent dynamo in spherical geometry with an outer corona is simulated to study the sign of magnetic helicity in the outer parts. In agreement with earlier studies, the sign in the outer corona is found to be opposite to that inside the dynamo. Line-of-sight observations of polarized emission are synthesized to explore the feasibility of using the local reduction of Faraday depolarization to infer the sign of helicity of magnetic fields in the solar corona. This approach was previously identified as an observational diagnostic in the context of galactic magnetic fields. Based on our simulations, we show that this method can be successful in the solar context if sufficient statistics are gathered by using averages over ring segments in the corona separately for the regions north and south of the solar equator.

  • 32.
    Brandenburg, Axel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. University of Colorado, USA; Carnegie Mellon University, USA.
    Brüggen, Marcus
    Hemispheric Handedness in the Galactic Synchrotron Polarization Foreground2020Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 896, nr 1, artikel-id L14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The large-scale magnetic field of the Milky Way is thought to be created by an alpha omega dynamo, which implies that it should have opposite handedness north and south of the Galactic midplane. Here we attempt to detect a variation in handedness using polarization data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. Previous analyzes of the parity-even and parity-odd parts of linear polarization of the global dust and synchrotron emission have focused on quadratic correlations in spectral space of, and between, these two components. Here, by contrast, we analyze the parity-odd polarization itself and show that it has, on average, opposite signs in northern and southern Galactic hemispheres. Comparison with a Galactic mean-field dynamo model shows broad qualitative agreement and reveals that the sign of the observed hemispheric dependence of the azimuthally averaged parity-odd polarization is not determined by the sign of alpha, but by the sense of differential rotation.

  • 33.
    Brandenburg, Axel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita). University of Colorado, USA.
    Giampapa, Mark S.
    Enhanced Stellar Activity for Slow Antisolar Differential Rotation2018Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 855, nr 2, artikel-id L22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High-precision photometry of solar-like members of the open cluster M67 with Kepler/K2 data has recently revealed enhanced activity for stars with a large Rossby number, which is the ratio of rotation period to the convective turnover time. Contrary to the well established behavior for shorter rotation periods and smaller Rossby numbers, the chromospheric activity of the more slowly rotating stars of M67 was found to increase with increasing Rossby number. Such behavior has never been reported before, although it was theoretically predicted to emerge as a consequence of antisolar differential rotation (DR) for stars with Rossby numbers larger than that of the Sun, because in those models the absolute value of the DR was found to exceed that for solar-like DR. Using gyrochronological relations and an approximate age of 4 Gyr for the members of M67, we compare with computed rotation rates using just the B - V color. The resulting rotation-activity relation is found to be compatible with that obtained by employing the measured rotation rate. This provides additional support for the unconventional enhancement of activity at comparatively low rotation rates and the possible presence of antisolar differential rotation.

  • 34.
    Brandenburg, Axel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita).
    Kleeorin, Nathan
    Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita). Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel; N. I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.
    Rogachevskii, Igor
    Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita). Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel; N. I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.
    SELF-ASSEMBLY OF SHALLOW MAGNETIC SPOTS THROUGH STRONGLY STRATIFIED TURBULENCE2013Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 776, nr 2, artikel-id L23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have demonstrated that in fully developed turbulence, the effective magnetic pressure of a large-scale field (non-turbulent plus turbulent contributions) can become negative. In the presence of strongly stratified turbulence, this was shown to lead to a large-scale instability that produces spontaneous magnetic flux concentrations. Furthermore, using a horizontal magnetic field, elongated flux concentrations with a strength of a few percent of the equipartition value were found. Here we show that a uniform vertical magnetic field leads to circular magnetic spots of equipartition field strengths. This could represent a minimalistic model of sunspot formation and highlights the importance of two critical ingredients: turbulence and strong stratification. Radiation, ionization, and supergranulation may be important for realistic simulations, but are not critical at the level of a minimalistic model of magnetic spot formation.

  • 35.
    Brandenburg, Axel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita). University of Colorado, USA.
    Schober, Jennifer
    Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita).
    Rogachevskii, Igor
    Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita). University of Colorado, USA; Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel.
    Kahniashvili, Tina
    Boyarsky, Alexey
    Fröhlich, Jürg
    Ruchayskiy, Oleg
    Kleeorin, Nathan
    Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita). Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel.
    The Turbulent Chiral Magnetic Cascade in the Early Universe2017Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 845, nr 2, artikel-id L21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of asymmetry between fermions of opposite handedness in plasmas of relativistic particles can lead to exponential growth of a helical magnetic field via a small-scale chiral dynamo instability known as the chiral magnetic effect. Here, we show, using dimensional arguments and numerical simulations, that this process produces through the Lorentz force chiral magnetically driven turbulence. A k(-2) magnetic energy spectrum emerges via inverse transfer over a certain range of wavenumbers k. The total chirality (magnetic helicity plus normalized chiral chemical potential) is conserved in this system. Therefore, as the helical magnetic field grows, most of the total chirality gets transferred into magnetic helicity until the chiral magnetic effect terminates. Quantitative results for height, slope, and extent of the spectrum are obtained. Consequences of this effect for cosmic magnetic fields are discussed.

  • 36. Bruton, Sean
    et al.
    Lin, Yu-Heng
    Scarlata, Claudia
    Hayes, Matthew J.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    The Universe is at Most 88% Neutral at z=10.62023Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 949, nr 2, artikel-id L40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent observations of GN-z11 with JWST have revealed a Ly alpha emission line with an equivalent width (EW) of 18 +/- 2 angstrom. At z = 10.6, this galaxy is expected to lie in the heart of reionization. We use a series of inhomogeneous reionization simulations to derive the distribution of the Ly alpha EW after traveling through the neutral intergalactic medium with varying average neutral gas fraction, x (H I). We use these distributions to place an upper limit of x (H I) < 0.88 at z = 10.6 at 95% confidence level. We compare our upper limit to different reionization history models, which include the recently identified enhancement at the bright end of the luminosity function at z > 8. We find that models in which faint galaxies have a higher escape fraction compared to bright galaxies are favored by the new data.

  • 37. Burgess, J. Michael
    et al.
    Preece, Robert D.
    Ryde, Felix
    Veres, Peter
    Meszaros, Peter
    Connaughton, Valerie
    Briggs, Michael
    Pe'er, Asaf
    Iyyani, Shabnam
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Goldstein, Adam
    Axelsson, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Baring, Matthew G.
    Bhat, P. N.
    Byrne, David
    Fitzpatrick, Gerard
    Foley, Suzanne
    Kocevski, Daniel
    Omodei, Nicola
    Paciesas, William S.
    Pelassa, Veronique
    Kouveliotou, Chryssa
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Xiong, Shaolin
    Yu, Hoi-Fung
    Zhang, Binbin
    Zhu, Sylvia
    AN OBSERVED CORRELATION BETWEEN THERMAL AND NON-THERMAL EMISSION IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS2014Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 784, nr 2, artikel-id L43Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent observations by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have confirmed the existence of thermal and non-thermal components in the prompt photon spectra of some gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Through an analysis of six bright Fermi GRBs, we have discovered a correlation between the observed photospheric and non-thermal gamma-ray emission components of several GRBs using a physical model that has previously been shown to be a good fit to the Fermi data. From the spectral parameters of these fits we find that the characteristic energies, E-p and kT, of these two components are correlated via the relation E-p proportional to T-alpha which varies from GRB to GRB. We present an interpretation in which the value of the index alpha indicates whether the jet is dominated by kinetic or magnetic energy. To date, this jet composition parameter has been assumed in the modeling of GRB outflows rather than derived from the data.

  • 38. Carlsson, Mats
    et al.
    Leenaarts, Jorrit
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    De Pontieu, Bart
    WHAT DO IRIS OBSERVATIONS OF Mg II k TELL US ABOUT THE SOLAR PLAGE CHROMOSPHERE?2015Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 809, nr 2, artikel-id L30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph of the Mg II k line, the Mg II UV subordinate lines, and the O I 135.6 nm line to better understand the solar plage chromosphere. We also make comparisons with observations from the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope of the H alpha line, the Ca II 8542 line, and Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations of the coronal 19.3 nm line. To understand the observed Mg II profiles, we compare these observations to the results of numerical experiments. The single-peaked or flat-topped Mg II k profiles found in plage imply a transition region at a high column mass and a hot and dense chromosphere of about 6500 K. This scenario is supported by the observed large-scale correlation between moss brightness and filled-in profiles with very little or absent self-reversal. The large wing width found in plage also implies a hot and dense chromosphere with a steep chromospheric temperature rise. The absence of emission in the Mg II subordinate lines constrain the chromospheric temperature and the height of the temperature rise while the width of the O I 135.6 nm line sets a limit to the non-thermal velocities to around 7 km s(-1).

  • 39. Carter, Aarynn L.
    et al.
    Janson, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Zhang, Zhoujian
    The JWST Early Release Science Program for Direct Observations of Exoplanetary Systems I: High-contrast Imaging of the Exoplanet HIP 65426 b from 2 to 16 μm2023Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 951, nr 1, artikel-id L20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present JWST Early Release Science coronagraphic observations of the super-Jupiter exoplanet, HIP 65426b, with the Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) from 2 to 5 μm, and with the Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) from 11 to 16 μm. At a separation of ∼0".82 (87+108-31 au), HIP 65426b is clearly detected in all seven of our observational filters, representing the first images of an exoplanet to be obtained by JWST, and the first-ever direct detection of an exoplanet beyond 5 μm. These observations demonstrate that JWST is exceeding its nominal predicted performance by up to a factor of 10, depending on separation and subtraction method, with measured 5σ contrast limits of ∼1 × 10−5 and ∼2 × 10−4 at 1'' for NIRCam at 4.4 μm and MIRI at 11.3 μm, respectively. These contrast limits provide sensitivity to sub-Jupiter companions with masses as low as 0.3MJup beyond separations of ∼100 au. Together with existing ground-based near-infrared data, the JWST photometry are fit well by a BT-SETTL atmospheric model from 1 to 16 μm, and they span ∼97% of HIP 65426b's luminous range. Independent of the choice of model atmosphere, we measure an empirical bolometric luminosity that is tightly constrained between log(Lbol/L) = −4.31 and −4.14, which in turn provides a robust mass constraint of 7.1 ± 1.2 MJup. In totality, these observations confirm that JWST presents a powerful and exciting opportunity to characterize the population of exoplanets amenable to high-contrast imaging in greater detail.

  • 40. Chen, T.-W.
    et al.
    Inserra, C.
    Fraser, M.
    Moriya, T. J.
    Schady, P.
    Schweyer, T.
    Filippenko, A.
    Perley, D. A.
    Ruiter, A. J.
    Seitenzahl, I.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Anderson, J. P.
    Foley, R. J.
    Jerkstrand, A.
    Ngeow, C.-C.
    Pan, Y.-C.
    Pastorello, A.
    Points, S.
    Smartt, S. J.
    Smith, K. W.
    Taubenberger, S.
    Wienlan, P.
    Young, D. R.
    Benetti, S.
    Berton, M.
    Bufano, F.
    Clark, P.
    Della Valle, M.
    Galbany, L.
    Gal-Yam, A.
    Gromadzki, M.
    Gutierrez, C. P.
    Heinze, A.
    Kankare, E.
    Kilpatrick, C. D.
    Kuncarayakti, H.
    Leloudas, G.
    Lin, Z.-Y.
    Maguire, K.
    Mazzali, P.
    McBrien, O.
    Prentice, S. J.
    Rau, A.
    Rest, A.
    Siebert, M. R.
    Stalder, B.
    Tonry, J. L.
    Yu, P.-C.
    SN 2017ens: The Metamorphosis of a Luminous Broadlined Type Ic Supernova into an SN IIn2018Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 867, nr 2, artikel-id L31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present observations of supernova (SN) 2017ens, discovered by the ATLAS survey and identified as a hot blue object through the GREAT program. The redshift z = 0.1086 implies a peak brightness of M-g = -21.1 mag, placing the object within the regime of superluminous supernovae. We observe a dramatic spectral evolution, from initially being blue and featureless, to later developing features similar to those of the broadlined Type Ic SN 1998bw, and finally showing 2000 km s(-1) wide H alpha and H beta emission. Relatively narrow Balmer emission (reminiscent of a SN IIn) is present at all times. We also detect coronal lines, indicative of a dense circumstellar medium. We constrain the progenitor wind velocity to similar to 50-60 km s(-1) based on P-Cygni profiles, which is far slower than those present in Wolf-Rayet stars. This may suggest that the progenitor passed through a luminous blue variable phase, or that the wind is instead from a binary companion red supergiant star. At late times we see the similar to 2000 km s(-1) wide H alpha emission persisting at high luminosity (similar to 3 x 10(40) erg s(-1)) for at least 100 day, perhaps indicative of additional mass loss at high velocities that could have been ejected by a pulsational pair instability.

  • 41. Clarke, Leonardo
    et al.
    Scarlata, Claudia
    Mehta, Vihang
    Keel, William C.
    Cardamone, Carolin
    Hayes, Matthew J.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Adams, Nico
    Dickinson, Hugh
    Fortson, Lucy
    Kruk, Sandor
    Lintott, Chris
    Simmons, Brooke
    An Old Stellar Population or Diffuse Nebular Continuum Emission Discovered in Green Pea Galaxies2021Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 912, nr 2, artikel-id L22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We use new Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of nine Green Pea galaxies (GPGs) to study their resolved structure and color. The choice of filters, F555W and F850LP, together with the redshift of the galaxies (z ∼ 0.25), minimizes the contribution of the nebular [O iii] and Hα emission lines to the broadband images. While these galaxies are typically very blue in color, our analysis reveals that it is only the dominant stellar clusters that are blue. Each GPG does clearly show the presence of at least one bright and compact star-forming region, but these are invariably superimposed on a more extended and lower surface brightness emission. Moreover, the colors of the star-forming regions are on average bluer than those of the diffuse emission, reaching up to 0.6 magnitudes bluer. Assuming that the diffuse and compact components have constant and single-burst star formation histories, respectively, the observed colors imply that the diffuse components (possibly the host galaxy of the star formation episode) have, on average, old stellar ages (>1 Gyr), while the star clusters are younger than 500 Myr. While a redder stellar component is perhaps the most plausible explanation for these results, the limitations of our current data set lead us to examine possible alternative mechanisms, particularly recombination emission processes, which are unusually prominent in systems with such strong line emission. With the available data, however, it is not possible to distinguish between these two interpretations. A substantial presence of old stars would indicate that the mechanisms allowing large escape fractions in these local galaxies may be different from those at play during the reionization epoch.

  • 42. Cole, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Käpylä, Petri J.
    Mantere, Maarit J.
    Brandenburg, Axel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita).
    AN AZIMUTHAL DYNAMO WAVE IN SPHERICAL SHELL CONVECTION2014Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 780, nr 2, artikel-id L22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the discovery of an azimuthal dynamo wave of a low-order (m = 1) mode in direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent convection in spherical shells. Such waves are predicted by mean-field dynamo theory and have been obtained previously in mean-field models. An azimuthal dynamo wave has been proposed as a possible explanation for the persistent drifts of spots observed on several rapidly rotating stars, as revealed through photometry and Doppler imaging. However, this has been judged unlikely because evidence for such waves from DNS has been lacking. Here we present DNS of large-scale magnetic fields showing a retrograde m = 1 mode. Its pattern speed is nearly independent of latitude and does not reflect the speed of the differential rotation at any depth. The extrema of magnetic m = 1 structures coincide reasonably well with the maxima of m = 2 structures of the temperature. These results provide direct support for the observed drifts being due to an azimuthal dynamo wave.

  • 43.
    Conrad, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Morå, Knut
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    TeV Gamma-Ray Observations of the Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817 with HESS2017Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 850, nr 2, artikel-id L22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We search for high-energy gamma-ray emission from the binary neutron star merger GW170817 with the H.E.S.S. Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes. The observations presented here have been obtained starting only 5.3 hr after GW170817. The H.E.S.S. target selection identified regions of high probability to find a counterpart of the gravitational-wave event. The first of these regions contained the counterpart SSS17a that has been identified in the optical range several hours after our observations. We can therefore present the first data obtained by a ground-based pointing instrument on this object. A subsequent monitoring campaign with the H.E.S.S. telescopes extended over several days, covering timescales from 0.22 to 5.2 days and energy ranges between 270 GeV to 8.55 TeV. No significant gamma-ray emission has been found. The derived upper limits on the very-high-energy gamma-ray flux for the first time constrain non-thermal, high-energy emission following the merger of a confirmed binary neutron star system.

  • 44. Coppejans, D. L.
    et al.
    Margutti, R.
    Terreran, G.
    Nayana, A. J.
    Coughlin, E. R.
    Laskar, T.
    Alexander, K. D.
    Bietenholz, M.
    Caprioli, D.
    Chandra, P.
    Drout, M. R.
    Frederiks, D.
    Frohmaier, C.
    Hurley, K. H.
    Kochanek, C. S.
    MacLeod, M.
    Meisner, A.
    Nugent, P. E.
    Ridnaia, A.
    Sand, D. J.
    Svinkin, D.
    Ward, C.
    Yang, Sheng
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). University of California, USA; INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Italy.
    Baldeschi, A.
    Chilingarian, I.
    Dong, Y.
    Esquivia, C.
    Fong, W.
    Guidorzi, C.
    Lundqvist, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Milisavljevic, D.
    Paterson, K.
    Reichart, D. E.
    Shappee, B.
    Stroh, M. C.
    Valenti, S.
    Zauderer, B. A.
    Zhang, B.
    A Mildly Relativistic Outflow from the Energetic, Fast-rising Blue Optical Transient CSS161010 in a Dwarf Galaxy2020Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 895, nr 1, artikel-id L23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present X-ray and radio observations of the Fast Blue Optical Transient CRTS-CSS161010 J045834-081803 (CSS161010 hereafter) at t = 69-531 days. CSS161010 shows luminous X-ray (L-x similar to 5 x 10(39) erg s(-1)) and radio (L-nu similar to 10(29) erg s(-1) Hz(-1)) emission. The radio emission peaked at similar to 100 days post-transient explosion and rapidly decayed. We interpret these observations in the context of synchrotron emission from an expanding blast wave. CSS161010 launched a mildly relativistic outflow with velocity Gamma beta c >= 0.55c at similar to 100 days. This is faster than the non-relativistic AT 2018cow (Gamma beta c similar to 0.1c) and closer to ZTF18abvkwla (Gamma beta c >= 0.3c at 63 days). The inferred initial kinetic energy of CSS161010 (E-k greater than or similar to 10(51) erg) is comparable to that of long gamma-ray bursts, but the ejecta mass that is coupled to the mildly relativistic outflow is significantly larger (similar to 0.01-.1 M-circle dot). This is consistent with the lack of observed gamma-rays. The luminous X-rays were produced by a different emission component to the synchrotron radio emission. CSS161010 is located at similar to 150 Mpc in a dwarf galaxy with stellar mass M-* similar to 10(7) M-circle dot and specific star formation rate sSFR similar to 0.3 Gyr(-1). This mass is among the lowest inferred for host galaxies of explosive transients from massive stars. Our observations of CSS161010 are consistent with an engine-driven aspherical explosion from a rare evolutionary path of a H-rich stellar progenitor, but we cannot rule out a stellar tidal disruption event on a centrally located intermediate-mass black hole. Regardless of the physical mechanism, CSS161010 establishes the existence of a new class of rare (rate < 0.4% of the local core-collapse supernova rate) H-rich transients that can launch mildly relativistic outflows.

  • 45. Coughlin, Michael W.
    et al.
    Ahumada, Tomas
    Anand, Shreya
    De, Kishalay
    Hankins, Matthew J.
    Kasliwal, Mansi M.
    Singer, Leo P.
    Bellm, Eric C.
    Andreoni, Igor
    Cenko, S. Bradley
    Cooke, Jeff
    Copperwheat, Christopher M.
    Dugas, Alison M.
    Jencson, Jacob E.
    Perley, Daniel A.
    Yu, Po-Chieh
    Bhalerao, Varun
    Kumar, Harsh
    Bloom, Joshua S.
    Anupama, G. C.
    Ashley, Michael C. B.
    Bagdasaryan, Ashot
    Biswas, Rahul
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Buckley, David A. H.
    Burdge, Kevin B.
    Cook, David O.
    Cromer, John
    Cunningham, Virginia
    D'Ai, Antonino
    Dekany, Richard G.
    Delacroix, Alexandre
    Dichiara, Simone
    Duev, Dmitry A.
    Dutta, Anirban
    Feeney, Michael
    Frederick, Sara
    Gatkine, Pradip
    Ghosh, Shaon
    Goldstein, Daniel A.
    Golkhou, V. Zach
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Graham, Matthew J.
    Hanayama, Hidekazu
    Horiuchi, Takashi
    Hung, Tiara
    Jha, Saurabh W.
    Kong, Albert K. H.
    Giomi, Matteo
    Kaplan, David L.
    Karambelkar, V. R.
    Kowalski, Marek
    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.
    Kupfer, Thomas
    Masci, Frank J.
    Mazzali, Paolo
    Moore, Anna M.
    Mogotsi, Moses
    Neill, James D.
    Ngeow, Chow-Choong
    Martinez-Palomera, Jorge
    La Parola, Valentina
    Pavana, M.
    Ofek, Eran O.
    Patil, Atharva Sunil
    Riddle, Reed
    Rigault, Mickael
    Rusholme, Ben
    Serabyn, Eugene
    Shupe, David L.
    Sharma, Yashvi
    Singh, Avinash
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Soon, Jamie
    Staats, Kai
    Taggart, Kirsty
    Tan, Hanjie
    Travouillon, Tony
    Troja, Eleonora
    Waratkar, Gaurav
    Yatsu, Yoichi
    GROWTH on S190425z: Searching Thousands of Square Degrees to Identify an Optical or Infrared Counterpart to a Binary Neutron Star Merger with the Zwicky Transient Facility and Palomar Gattini-IR2019Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 885, nr 1, artikel-id L19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The third observing run by LVC has brought the discovery of many compact binary coalescences. Following the detection of the first binary neutron star merger in this run (LIGO/Virgo S190425z), we performed a dedicated follow-up campaign with the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) and Palomar Gattini-IR telescopes. The initial skymap of this single-detector gravitational wave (GW) trigger spanned most of the sky observable from Palomar Observatory. Covering 8000 deg(2) of the initial skymap over the next two nights, corresponding to 46% integrated probability, ZTF system achieved a depth of 21 m(AB) in g- and r-bands. Palomar Gattini-IR covered 2200 square degrees in J-band to a depth of 15.5 mag, including 32% integrated probability based on the initial skymap. The revised skymap issued the following day reduced these numbers to 21% for the ZTF and 19% for Palomar Gattini-IR. We narrowed 338,646 ZTF transient ?alerts? over the first two nights of observations to 15 candidate counterparts. Two candidates, ZTF19aarykkb and ZTF19aarzaod, were particularly compelling given that their location, distance, and age were consistent with the GW event, and their early optical light curves were photometrically consistent with that of kilonovae. These two candidates were spectroscopically classified as young core-collapse supernovae. The remaining candidates were ruled out as supernovae. Palomar Gattini-IR did not identify any viable candidates with multiple detections only after merger time. We demonstrate that even with single-detector GW events localized to thousands of square degrees, systematic kilonova discovery is feasible.

  • 46. Crepp, Justin R.
    et al.
    Rice, Emily L.
    Veicht, Aaron
    Aguilar, Jonathan
    Pueyo, Laurent
    Giorla, Paige
    Nilsson, Ricky
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Luszcz-Cook, Statia H.
    Oppenheimer, Rebecca
    Hinkley, Sasha
    Brenner, Douglas
    Vasisht, Gautam
    Cady, Eric
    Beichman, Charles A.
    Hillenbrand, Lynne A.
    Lockhart, Thomas
    Matthews, Christopher T.
    Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.
    Sivaramakrishnan, Anand
    Soummer, Remi
    Zhai, Chengxing
    DIRECT SPECTRUM OF THE BENCHMARK T DWARF HD 19467 B2015Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 798, nr 2, artikel-id L43Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    HD 19467 B is presently the only directly imaged T dwarf companion known to induce a measurable Doppler acceleration around a solar-type star. We present spectroscopy measurements of this important benchmark object taken with the Project 1640 integral field unit at Palomar Observatory. Our high-contrast R approximate to 30 observations obtained simultaneously across the JH bands confirm the cold nature of the companion as reported from the discovery article and determine its spectral type for the first time. Fitting the measured spectral energy distribution to SpeX/IRTF T dwarf standards and synthetic spectra from BT-Settl atmospheric models, we find that HD 19467 B is a T5.5 +/- 1 dwarf with effective temperature T-eff = 978(-43)(+20) K. Our observations reveal significant methane absorption affirming its substellar nature. HD 19467 B shows promise to become the first T dwarf that simultaneously reveals its mass, age, and metallicity independent from the spectrum of light that it emits.

  • 47. Currie, Thayne
    et al.
    Brandt, Timothy D.
    Kuzuhara, Masayuki
    Chilcote, Jeffrey
    Guyon, Olivier
    Marois, Christian
    Groff, Tyler D.
    Lozi, Julien
    Vievard, Sebastien
    Sahoo, Ananya
    Deo, Vincent
    Jovanovic, Nemanja
    Martinache, Frantz
    Wagner, Kevin
    Dupuy, Trent
    Wahl, Matthew
    Letawsky, Michael
    Li, Yiting
    Zeng, Yunlin
    Brandt, G. Mirek
    Michalik, Daniel
    Grady, Carol
    Janson, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Knapp, Gillian R.
    Kwon, Jungmi
    Lawson, Kellen
    McElwain, Michael W.
    Uyama, Taichi
    Wisniewski, John
    Tamura, Motohide
    SCExAO/CHARIS Direct Imaging Discovery of a 20 au Separation, Low-mass Ratio Brown Dwarf Companion to an Accelerating Sun-like Star2020Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 904, nr 2, artikel-id L25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the direct imaging discovery of a substellar companion to the nearby Sun-like star, HD 33632 Aa, at a projected separation of similar to 20 au, obtained with SCExAO/CHARIS integral field spectroscopy complemented by Keck/NIRC2 thermal infrared imaging. The companion, HD 33632 Ab, induces a 10.5 sigma astrometric acceleration on the star as detected with the Gaia and Hipparcos satellites. SCExAO/CHARIS JHK (1.1-2.4 mu m) spectra and Keck/NIRC2 L-p (3.78 mu m) photometry are best matched by a field L/T transition object: an older, higher-gravity, and less dusty counterpart to HR 8799 cde. Combining our astrometry with Gaia/Hipparcos data and archival Lick Observatory radial velocities, we measure a dynamical mass of 46.4 8 M-J and an eccentricity of e < 0.46 at 95% confidence. HD 33632 Ab's mass and mass ratio (4.0% 0.7%) are comparable to the low-mass brown dwarf GJ 758 B and intermediate between the more massive brown dwarf HD 19467 B and the (near-)planet-mass companions to HR 2562 and GJ 504. Using Gaia to select for direct imaging observations with the newest extreme adaptive optics systems can reveal substellar or even planet-mass companions on solar system-like scales at an increased frequency compared to blind surveys.

  • 48. Currie, Thayne
    et al.
    Guyon, Olivier
    Tamura, Motohide
    Kudo, Tomoyuki
    Jovanovic, Nemanja
    Lozi, Julien
    Schlieder, Joshua E.
    Brandt, Timothy D.
    Kuhn, Jonas
    Serabyn, Eugene
    Janson, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Carson, Joseph
    Groff, Tyler
    Kasdin, N. Jeremy
    McElwain, Michael W.
    Singh, Garima
    Uyama, Taichi
    Kuzuhara, Masayuki
    Akiyama, Eiji
    Grady, Carol
    Hayashi, Saeko
    Knapp, Gillian
    Kwon, Jung-mi
    Oh, Daehyeon
    Wisniewski, John
    Sitko, Michael
    Yang, Yi
    Subaru/SCExAO First-light Direct Imaging of a Young Debris Disk around HD 365462017Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 836, nr 1, artikel-id L15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present H-band scattered light imaging of a bright debris disk around the A0 star HD 36546 obtained from the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system with data recorded by the HiCIAO camera using the vector vortex coronagraph. SCExAO traces the disk from r similar to 0.3 to r similar to 1 (34-114 au). The disk is oriented in a near east-west direction (PA similar to 75 degrees), is inclined by i similar to 70 degrees-75 degrees, and is strongly forward-scattering (g > 0.5). It is an extended disk rather than a sharp ring; a second, diffuse dust population extends from the disk's eastern side. While HD 36546 intrinsic properties are consistent with a wide age range (t similar to 1-250 Myr), its kinematics and analysis of coeval stars suggest a young age (3-10 Myr) and a possible connection to Taurus-Auriga's star formation history. SCExAO's planet-to-star contrast ratios are comparable to the first-light Gemini Planet Imager contrasts; for an age of 10 Myr, we rule out planets with masses comparable to HR 8799 b beyond a projected separation of 23 au. A massive icy planetesimal disk or an unseen super-Jovian planet at r > 20 au may explain the disk's visibility. The HD 36546 debris disk may be the youngest debris disk yet imaged, is the first newly identified object from the now-operational SCExAO extreme AO system, is ideally suited for spectroscopic follow-up with SCExAO/CHARIS in 2017, and may be a key probe of icy planet formation and planet-disk interactions.

  • 49. Currie, Thayne
    et al.
    Marois, Christian
    Cieza, Lucas
    Mulders, Gijs D.
    Lawson, Kellen
    Caceres, Claudio
    Rodriguez-Ruiz, Dary
    Wisniewski, John
    Guyon, Olivier
    Brandt, Timothy D.
    Kasdin, N. Jeremy
    Groff, Tyler D.
    Lozi, Julien
    Chilcote, Jeffrey
    Hodapp, Klaus
    Jovanovic, Nemanja
    Martinache, Frantz
    Skaf, Nour
    Lyra, Wladimir
    Tamura, Motohide
    Asensio-Torres, Ruben
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Dong, Ruobing
    Grady, Carol
    Gerard, Benjamin
    Fukagawa, Misato
    Hand, Derek
    Hayashi, Masahiko
    Henning, Thomas
    Kudo, Tomoyuki
    Kuzuhara, Masayuki
    Kwon, Jungmi
    McElwain, Michael W.
    Uyama, Taichi
    No Clear, Direct Evidence for Multiple Protoplanets Orbiting LkCa 15: LkCa 15 bcd are Likely Inner Disk Signals2019Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 877, nr 1, artikel-id L3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two studies utilizing sparse aperture-masking (SAM) interferometry and H-alpha differential imaging have reported multiple Jovian companions around the young solar-mass star, LkCa 15 (LkCa 15 bcd): the first claimed direct detection of infant, newly formed planets (protoplanets). We present new near-infrared direct imaging/spectroscopy from the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system coupled with Coronagraphic High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (CHARIS) integral field spectrograph and multi-epoch thermal infrared imaging from Keck/NIRC2 of LkCa 15 at high Strehl ratios. These data provide the first direct imaging look at the same wavelengths and in the same locations where previous studies identified the LkCa 15 protoplanets, and thus offer the first decisive test of their existence. The data do not reveal these planets. Instead, we resolve extended emission tracing a dust disk with a brightness and location comparable to that claimed for LkCa 15 bcd. Forward-models attributing this signal to orbiting planets are inconsistent with the combined SCExAO/CHARIS and Keck/NIRC2 data. An inner disk provides a more compelling explanation for the SAM detections and perhaps also the claimed H-alpha detection of LkCa 15 b. We conclude that there is currently no clear, direct evidence for multiple protoplanets orbiting LkCa 15, although the system likely contains at least one unseen Jovian companion. To identify Jovian companions around LkCa 15 from future observations, the inner disk should be detected and its effect modeled, removed, and shown to be distinguishable from planets. Protoplanet candidates identified from similar systems should likewise be clearly distinguished from disk emission through modeling.

  • 50. Currie, Thayne
    et al.
    Muto, Takayuki
    Kudo, Tomoyuki
    Honda, Mitsuhiko
    Brandt, Timothy D.
    Grady, Carol
    Fukagawa, Misato
    Burrows, Adam
    Janson, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Kuzuhara, Masayuki
    McElwain, Michael W.
    Follette, Katherine
    Hashimoto, Jun
    Henning, Thomas
    Kandori, Ryo
    Kusakabe, Nobuhiko
    Kwon, Jungmi
    Mede, Kyle
    Morino, Jun-ichi
    Nishikawa, Jun
    Pyo, Tae-Soo
    Serabyn, Gene
    Suenaga, Takuya
    Takahashi, Yasuhiro
    Wisniewski, John
    Tamura, Motohide
    RECOVERY OF THE CANDIDATE PROTOPLANET HD 100546 b WITH GEMINI/NICI AND DETECTION OF ADDITIONAL (PLANET-INDUCED ?) DISK STRUCTURE AT SMALL SEPARATIONS2014Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 796, nr 2, s. L30-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the first independent, second epoch (re-) detection of a directly imaged protoplanet candidate. Using L' high-contrast imaging of HD 100546 taken with the Near-Infrared Coronagraph and Imager on Gemini South, we recover HD 100546 b with a position and brightness consistent with the original Very Large Telescope/NAos-COnica detection from Quanz et al., although data obtained after 2013 will be required to decisively demonstrate common proper motion. HD 100546 b may be spatially resolved, up to approximate to 12-13 AU in diameter, and is embedded in a finger of thermal IR-bright, polarized emission extending inward to at least 0 ''.3. Standard hot-start models imply a mass of approximate to 15 M-J. However, if HD 100546 b is newly formed or made visible by a circumplanetary disk, both of which are plausible, its mass is significantly lower (e.g., 1-7 M-J). Additionally, we discover a thermal IR-bright disk feature, possibly a spiral density wave, at roughly the same angular separation as HD 100546 b but 90 degrees. away. Our interpretation of this feature as a spiral arm is not decisive, but modeling analyses using spiral density wave theory implies a wave launching point exterior to approximate to 0 ''.45 embedded within the visible disk structure: plausibly evidence for a second, hitherto unseen, wide-separation planet. With one confirmed protoplanet candidate and evidence for one to two others, HD 100546 is an important evolutionary precursor to intermediate-mass stars with multiple super-Jovian planets at moderate/wide separations like HR 8799.

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