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  • 1.
    Bolinius, Dämien Johann
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Mayer, Philipp
    Jahnke, Annika
    A passive dosing method to determine fugacitycapacities and partitioning properties of leaves2016In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 18, p. 1325-1332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity of leaves to take up chemicals from the atmosphere and water in fl uences how contaminantsare transferred into food webs and soil. We provide a proof of concept of a passive dosing method tomeasure leaf/polydimethylsiloxane partition ratios ( K leaf/PDMS ) for intact leaves, using polychlorinatedbiphenyls (PCBs) as model chemicals. Rhododendron leaves held in contact with PCB-loaded PDMSreached between 76 and 99% of equilibrium within 4 days for PCBs 3, 4, 28, 52, 101, 118, 138 and 180.Equilibrium K leaf/PDMS extrapolated from the uptake kinetics measured over 4 days ranged from 0.075(PCB 180) to 0.371 (PCB 3). The K leaf/PDMS data can readily be converted to fugacity capacities of leaves( Z leaf ) and subsequently leaf/water or leaf/air partition ratios ( K leaf/water and K leaf/air ) using partitioning datafrom the literature. Results of our measurements are within the variability observed for plant/air partitionratios ( K plant/air ) found in the literature. Log K leaf/air from this study ranged from 5.00 (PCB 3) to 8.30(PCB 180) compared to log K plant/air of 3.31 (PCB 3) to 8.88 (PCB 180) found in the literature. The methodwe describe could provide data to characterize the variability in sorptive capacities of leaves that wouldimprove descriptions of uptake of chemicals by leaves in multimedia fate models.

  • 2. Di Guardo, Antonio
    et al.
    Gouin, Todd
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Scheringer, Martin
    Environmental fate and exposure models: advances and challenges in 21st century chemical risk assessment2018In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 58-71Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental fate and exposure models are a powerful means to integrate information on chemicals, their partitioning and degradation behaviour, the environmental scenario and the emissions in order to compile a picture of chemical distribution and fluxes in the multimedia environment. A 1995 pioneering book, resulting from a series of workshops among model developers and users, reported the main advantages and identified needs for research in the field of multimedia fate models. Considerable efforts were devoted to their improvement in the past 25 years and many aspects were refined; notably the inclusion of nanomaterials among the modelled substances, the development of models at different spatial and temporal scales, the estimation of chemical properties and emission data, the incorporation of additional environmental media and processes, the integration of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis in the simulations. However, some challenging issues remain and require research efforts and attention: the need of methods to estimate partition coefficients for polar and ionizable chemical in the environment, a better description of bioavailability in different environments as well as the requirement of injecting more ecological realism in exposure predictions to account for the diversity of ecosystem structures and functions in risk assessment. Finally, to transfer new scientific developments into the realm of regulatory risk assessment, we propose the formation of expert groups that compare, discuss and recommend model modifications and updates and help develop practical tools for risk assessment. Environmental significance Multimedia environmental fate models are regularly employed in the risk assessment of chemicals. They historically evolved from simple approaches to more refined and integrated modeling tools, often provided as part of a tiered strategy. Much work has been devoted to improving various aspects at the process and environmental description levels, but some issues need further research and model development, such as the capability to properly simulate the behaviour of polar and ionizable chemicals in the environment, the biovailability of chemicals in aquatic and terrestrial environments, and variability in time and space to account for more ecological relevance. At the same time, it is important to avoid paralysis by analysis and develop practical tools for regulatory risk assessment that are fit for purpose. We propose the formation of expert groups to address this task.

  • 3.
    Gewert, Berit
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Plassmann, Merle M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Pathways for degradation of plastic polymers floating in the marine environment2015In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 17, no 9, p. 1513-1521Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Each year vast amounts of plastic are produced worldwide. When released to the environment, plastics accumulate, and plastic debris in the world's oceans is of particular environmental concern. More than 60% of all floating debris in the oceans is plastic and amounts are increasing each year. Plastic polymers in the marine environment are exposed to sunlight, oxidants and physical stress, and over time they weather and degrade. The degradation processes and products must be understood to detect and evaluate potential environmental hazards. Some attention has been drawn to additives and persistent organic pollutants that sorb to the plastic surface, but so far the chemicals generated by degradation of the plastic polymers themselves have not been well studied from an environmental perspective. In this paper we review available information about the degradation pathways and chemicals that are formed by degradation of the six plastic types that are most widely used in Europe. We extrapolate that information to likely pathways and possible degradation products under environmental conditions found on the oceans' surface. The potential degradation pathways and products depend on the polymer type. UV-radiation and oxygen are the most important factors that initiate degradation of polymers with a carbon-carbon backbone, leading to chain scission. Smaller polymer fragments formed by chain scission are more susceptible to biodegradation and therefore abiotic degradation is expected to precede biodegradation. When heteroatoms are present in the main chain of a polymer, degradation proceeds by photo-oxidation, hydrolysis, and biodegradation. Degradation of plastic polymers can lead to low molecular weight polymer fragments, like monomers and oligomers, and formation of new end groups, especially carboxylic acids.

  • 4.
    Li, Zhe
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Kaserzon, Sarit L.
    Plassmann, Merle M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Sobek, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Gómez Ramos, Maria José
    Radke, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    A strategic screening approach to identify transformation products of organic micropollutants formed in natural waters2017In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 488-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many transformation products (TPs) from organic micropollutants are not included in routine environmental monitoring programs due to limited knowledge of their occurrence and fate. An efficient method to identify and prioritize critical compounds in terms of environmental relevance is needed. In this study, we applied a strategic screening approach based on a case-control concept to identify TPs formed along wastewater-impacted rivers. Time-integrated samples were collected over one week at both ends of a river stretch downstream of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) outfall and were analyzed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography interfaced with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QToF-MS/MS). The screening procedure of the high-resolution MS (HRMS) datasets consisted of three major steps: (i) screening for parent compounds (PCs) attenuated along the stretch; (ii) prediction of potential TPs from these PCs; and (iii) screening for TPs from this list with an increasing trend along the stretch. In total, 32 PCs decreased along the investigated river stretches. From these PCs, eight TPs had increasing concentrations along the studied stretches and could be tentatively identified. The identification of one TP (benzamide) was confirmed by its corresponding reference standard, while no standards were available for the remaining TPs.

  • 5.
    Li, Zhe
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Undeman, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Papa, Ester
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    High-throughput evaluation of organic contaminant removal efficiency in a wastewater treatment plant using direct injection UHPLC-Orbitrap-MS/MS2018In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 561-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The removal efficiency (RE) of organic contaminants in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is a major determinant of the environmental impact of these contaminants. However, RE data are available for only a few chemicals due to the time and cost required for conventional target analysis. In the present study, we applied non-target screening analysis to evaluate the RE of polar contaminants, by analyzing influent and effluent samples from a Swedish WWTP with direct injection UHPLC-Orbitrap-MS/MS. Matrix effects were evaluated by spiking the samples with isotope-labeled standards of 40 polar contaminants. For 85% of the compounds, the matrix effects in the influent and effluent were not significantly different. Approximately 10000 compounds were detected in the wastewater, of which 319 were identified by using the online database mzCloud. Level 1 identification confidence was achieved for 31 compounds for which we had reference standards, and level 2 was achieved for the remainder. RE was calculated from the ratio of the peak areas in the influent and the effluent from the non-target analysis. Good agreement was found with RE determined from the target analysis of the target compounds. The method generated reliable estimates of RE for large numbers of contaminants with comparatively low effort and is foreseen to be particularly useful in applications where information on a large number of chemicals is needed.

  • 6.
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Can the Stockholm convention address the spectrum of chemicals currently under regulatory scrutiny? Advocating a more prominent role for modeling in POP screening assessment2018In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 32-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Frameworks for chemical regulation are based on the science at the time they were written. Today some regulations are being applied to a much broader spectrum of chemicals than we had knowledge of when the regulations were written. This entails a risk that the regulations are being used outside of their chemical application domain. This question is explored using the POP screening assessment in the Stockholm convention, which was developed 20 years ago. Using perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) as an example, it is shown that the assessment can lead to false negative conclusions. A second case study using octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) illustrates that there is also a risk of false positives. The risk for false negative classification of PFAAs is due to the inclusion of a screening criterion - bioaccumulation - that is not a requirement for adverse effects of chemicals in remote regions. For D4 the risk of false positive classification stems from the four screening criteria (persistence, bioaccumulation, long-range transport, and adverse effects) applying to different environmental media/compartments. The major lesson is that applying the POP screening procedure to the broad spectrum of chemicals in modern commerce will require that we rely less on the individual screening criteria and more on the comparison of estimated exposure and the thresholds for effects stipulated in Annex D, paragraph 2 of the convention. Models have an important role to play in this context and should become more strongly integrated into the POP screening process. Environmental significance This paper illustrates some limitations of the Stockholm convention, one of the most important tools for regulation of chemicals at the global scale. It shows that the criteria to screen for new POPs can lead to false negative and false positive conclusions when applied to chemicals that lie outside of the chemical domain of the screening procedure. This problem is clearly attributed to breaking down the complex processes of chemical transport, fate and exposure into simple indicators, a strategy which cannot be successful across a wide spectrum of chemicals. Integrated transport, fate and exposure models are advocated as a solution.

  • 7.
    Mustajärvi, Lukas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Eriksson-Wiklund, Ann-Kristin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Jahnke, Annika
    Sobek, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Transferring mixtures of chemicals from sediment to a bioassay using silicone-based passive sampling and dosing2017In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 19, no 11, p. 1404-1413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental mixtures of chemicals consist of a countless number of compounds with unknown identity and quantity. Yet, chemical regulation is mainly built around the assessment of single chemicals. Existing frameworks for assessing the toxicity of mixtures require that both the chemical composition and quantity are known. Quantitative analyses of the chemical composition of environmental mixtures are however extremely challenging and resource-demanding. Bioassays may therefore serve as a useful approach for investigating the combined toxicity of environmental mixtures of chemicals in a cost-efficient and holistic manner. In this study, an unknown environmental mixture of bioavailable semi-hydrophobic to hydrophobic chemicals was sampled from a contaminated sediment in a coastal Baltic Sea area using silicone polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as an equilibrium passive sampler. The chemical mixture was transferred to a PDMS-based passive dosing system, and its applicability was demonstrated using green algae Tetraselmis suecica in a cell viability assay. The proportion of dead cells increased significantly with increasing exposure level and in a dose–response manner. At an ambient concentration, the proportion of dead cells in the population was nearly doubled compared to the control; however, the difference was non-significant due to high inter-replicate variability and a low number of replicates. The validation of the test system regarding equilibrium sampling, loading efficiency into the passive dosing polymer, stability of the mixture composition, and low algal mortality in control treatments demonstrates that combining equilibrium passive sampling and passive dosing is a promising tool for investigating the toxicity of bioavailable semi-hydrophobic and hydrophobic chemicals in complex environmental mixtures.

  • 8.
    Newton, Seth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bidleman, Terry
    Bergknut, Magnus
    Racine, Jacinthe
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Giesler, Reiner
    Wiberg, Karin
    Atmospheric deposition of persistent organic pollutants and chemicals of emerging concern at two sites in northern Sweden2014In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 298-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bimonthly bulk atmospheric deposition samples (precipitation + dry particle) were taken for one year at an arctic (Abisko, 68°20’ N, 19°03’ E) and a sub-arctic (Krycklan 64°14’N, 19°46’E ) location in northern Sweden using Amberlite IRA- 743 as an absorbent for hydrophobic pollutants. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography – high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs = hexachlorocyclohexanes and chlordane-related compounds), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and emerging chemicals.  Higher deposition rates of most compounds were observed at the more northern site despite its receiving less precipitation and being more remote.  HCHs and PCBs made up the bulk of the total deposition at both sites.  Five emerging chemicals were detected: the current-use pesticides trifluralin and chlorothalonil; and non-BDE flame retardants 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH), 1,2-bis (2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), and Dechlorane Plus (DP).  A decrease in the fraction of the anti isomer of DP was observed at the arctic site, indicating isomer-selective degradation or isomerization during long range transport.  Air parcel back trajectories revealed a greater influence from air originating over the ocean at the more northern site. The differences in these air sources were reflected in higher ΣHCH to ΣPCB ratios compared to the more southern site, as HCHs are related to volatilization from the ocean and Abisko is located <100 km from the Norwegian coast, while PCBs are emitted from continental sources.

  • 9. Oltmanns, J.
    et al.
    Licht, O.
    Bitsch, A.
    Bohlen, M. -L.
    Escher, S. E.
    Silano, V.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Serafimova, R.
    Kass, G. E. N.
    Merten, C.
    Development of a novel scoring system for identifying emerging chemical risks in the food chain2018In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 340-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is responsible for risk assessment of all aspects of food safety, including the establishment of procedures aimed at the identification of emerging risks to food safety. Here, a scoring system was developed for identifying chemicals registered under the European REACH Regulation that could be of potential concern in the food chain using the following parameters: (i) environmental release based on maximum aggregated tonnages and environmental release categories; (ii) biodegradation in the environment; (iii) bioaccumulation and in vivo and in vitro toxicity. The screening approach was tested on 100 data-rich chemicals registered under the REACH Regulation at aggregated volumes of at least 1000 tonnes per annum. The results show that substance-specific data generated under the REACH Regulation can be used to identify potential emerging risks in the food chain. After application of the screening procedure, priority chemicals can be identified as potentially emerging risk chemicals through the integration of exposure, environmental fate and toxicity. The default approach is to generate a single total score for each substance using a predefined weighting scenario. However, it is also possible to use a pivot table approach to combine the individual scores in different ways that reflect user-defined priorities, which enables a very flexible, iterative definition of screening criteria. Possible applications of the approaches are discussed using illustrative examples. Either approach can then be followed by in-depth evaluation of priority substances to ensure the identification of substances that present a real emerging chemical risk in the food chain.

  • 10.
    Panagopoulos, Dimitri
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    A critical assessment of the environmental fate of linear and cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes using multimedia fugacity models2018In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 183-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We apply multimedia models to systematically evaluate the fate profile of cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes (VMS) D-4, D-5 and D-6, and the linear VMS L-4 and L-5 using recently reported measurements of their partition ratios between organic carbon and water (K-OC), their salting out constants (K-s), and their enthalpy of sorption to organic carbon (Delta H-OC). Our assessment follows a multi-stage strategy where the environmental fate of the chemicals is explored in generic regional models with increasing fidelity to the real system and in a region-specific model. Modeled emissions of VMS to air remained in air and were degraded or advected out of the system with overall residence times ranging from 2.4 to 2.5 days, while emissions to water resulted in accumulation in sediment and longer residence times ranging from 29.5 to 1120 days. When emitted to water the modeled residence times of VMS in the sediment exceeded the REACH criterion for persistence in freshwater sediments. Reported K-OC measurements for D-5 differ by 1 log unit, which results in a 500-day difference in the overall residence times calculated in the generic regional modeling. In the specific-region modeling assessment for Adventfjorden, Svalbard in Norway, the different K-OC measurements of D5 resulted in a 200-day difference in overall residence times. Model scenarios that examined combinations of previously published Delta H-OC or enthalpy of phase change between octanol and water (Delta H-OW) for D5 in combination with the range of the K-OC measurements resulted in 1100-days difference in overall residence times. Our results demonstrate that residence times of VMS in aquatic systems are highly sensitive to their degree of sorption to organic carbon, and that residence times of VMS likely exceed several persistence criteria and therefore they cannot be considered as non-persistent. Environmental significance Volatile methylsiloxanes (VMS) are a group of organosilicon chemicals that are used in personal care products and in the production of silicone polymers. VMS have been found at considerable levels in the air, in sediments and in aquatic organisms. We examine the fate of VMS using multimedia models in aquatic environments and we study their residence times in generic and specific environmental scenarios. Our calculations suggest that the residence times of VMS exceed several persistence criteria in aquatic environments and therefore they cannot be regarded as non-persistent chemicals.

  • 11.
    Reppas-Chrysovitsinos, Efstathios
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Sobek, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Screening-level models to estimate partition ratios of organic chemicals between polymeric materials, air and water2016In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 667-676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymeric materials flowing through the technosphere are repositories of organic chemicals throughout their life cycle. Equilibrium partition ratios of organic chemicals between these materials and air (KMA) or water (KMW) are required for models of fate and transport, high-throughput exposure assessment and passive sampling. KMA and KMW have been measured for a growing number of chemical/ material combinations, but significant data gaps still exist. We assembled a database of 363 KMA and 910 KMW measurements for 446 individual compounds and nearly 40 individual polymers and biopolymers, collected from 29 studies. We used the EPI Suite and ABSOLV software packages to estimate physicochemical properties of the compounds and we employed an empirical correlation based on Trouton's rule to adjust the measured KMA and KMW values to a standard reference temperature of 298 K. Then, we used a thermodynamic triangle with Henry's law constant to calculate a complete set of 1273 KMA and KMW values. Using simple linear regression, we developed a suite of single parameter linear free energy relationship (spLFER) models to estimate KMA from the EPI Suite-estimated octanol-air partition ratio (KOA) and KMW from the EPI Suite-estimated octanol-water (KOW) partition ratio. Similarly, using multiple linear regression, we developed a set of polyparameter linear free energy relationship (ppLFER) models to estimate KMA and KMW from ABSOLV-estimated Abraham solvation parameters. We explored the two LFER approaches to investigate (1) their performance in estimating partition ratios, and (2) uncertainties associated with treating all different polymers as a single bulk polymeric material compartment. The models we have developed are suitable for screening assessments of the tendency for organic chemicals to be emitted from materials, and for use in multimedia models of the fate of organic chemicals in the indoor environment. In screening applications we recommend that K-MA and K-MW be modeled as 0.06 x K-OA and 0.06 x K-OW respectively, with an uncertainty range of a factor of 15.

  • 12.
    Rummel, Christoph Daniel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Jahnke, Annika
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    No measurable cleaning of polychlorinated biphenyls from Rainbow Trout in a 9 week depuration study with dietary exposure to 40% polyethylene microspheres2016In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 18, no 7, p. 788-795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent hydrophobic chemicals sorbed to plastic can be transferred to fish and other aquatic organisms upon ingestion. However, ingestion of plastic could also lead to enhanced elimination of these chemicals if the plastic is less contaminated than the fish. Here, we attempted to measure the influence of ingestion of uncontaminated polyethylene microspheres on the depuration rates of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an in vivo fish feeding experiment. Rainbow trout were given feed contaminated with PCBs for two consecutive days, then clean feed for three days to allow for egestion of the contaminated food. A control group of fish were then fed ordinary food pellets and a treatment group were fed pellets that additionally contained 40% by weight polyethylene microspheres. Condition factors and growth rates in both groups were similar, indicating no negative effect of the plastic microspheres on the nutritional status of the fish. Fish were sampled after zero, three, six and nine weeks, homogenized, solvent-extracted and analyzed by GC/MS. PCB concentrations declined in both groups at a rate consistent with growth dilution. There was no significant difference in the elimination rate constants between the control and treatment group, indicating that ingestion of uncontaminated plastic did not cause a measurable enhancement of depuration of PCBs by the fish in this study.

  • 13.
    Sobek, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bejgarn, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Rudén, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    The dilemma in prioritizing chemicals for environmental analysis: known versus unknown hazards2016In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 18, no 8, p. 1042-1049Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major challenge for society is to manage the risks posed by the many chemicals continuously emitted to the environment. All chemicals in production and use cannot be monitored and science-based strategies for prioritization are essential. In this study we review available data to investigate which substances are included in environmental monitoring programs and published research studies reporting analyses of chemicals in Baltic Sea fish between 2000 and 2012. Our aim is to contribute to the discussion of priority settings in environmental chemical monitoring and research, which is closely linked to chemical management. In total, 105 different substances or substance groups were analyzed in Baltic Sea fish. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the most studied substances or substance groups. The majority, 87%, of all analyses comprised 20% of the substances or substance groups, whereas 46 substance groups (44%) were analyzed only once. Almost three quarters of all analyses regarded a POP-substance (persistent organic pollutant). These results demonstrate that the majority of analyses on environmental contaminants in Baltic Sea fish concern a small number of already regulated chemicals. Legacy pollutants such as POPs pose a high risk to the Baltic Sea due to their hazardous properties. Yet, there may be a risk that prioritizations for chemical analyses are biased based on the knowns of the past. Such biases may lead to society failing in identifying risks posed by yet unknown hazardous chemicals. Alternative and complementary ways to identify priority chemicals are needed. More transparent communication between risk assessments performed as part of the risk assessment process within REACH and monitoring programs, and information on chemicals contained in consumer articles, would offer ways to identify chemicals for environmental analysis.

  • 14.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Brenig, Mattheus
    Führ, Martin
    Schenten, Julian
    Refining tools to bridge the gap between academia and chemical regulation: perspectives for WikiREACH2017In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 19, no 12, p. 1466-1473Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regulatory hazard and risk assessments of chemical substances have to include all reliable and relevant data to be credible and complete. However, screening the literature for appropriate studies and extracting data is burdensome. Therefore, reducing impediments by making data easily and readily accessible to risk assessors could result in more comprehensive hazard and risk assessments. In this paper, we study WikiPharma, a database that aggregates ecotoxicity data for pharmaceuticals, extracted from peerreviewed studies. The use of the WikiPharma database is explored to develop strategies on how similar tools can bridge between science and policy by providing risk assessors with easily accessible summary data. Specifically, adapting the concept of WikiPharma to industrial chemicals regulated under the REACH regulation is discussed. Experiences with WikiPharma show that there is interest in using peerreviewed studies in regulatory decision-making. However, tools like WikiPharma require constant updates. Hence, as for WikiREACH, effective incentives are needed to motivate researchers to feed in relevant data for regulatory assessments. Besides, support by automated processes can aid in the labourintensive activity of gathering data. To ensure that such a tool is continuously maintained and compatible with the regulatory system, and thereby useful for hazard and risk assessments of chemicals, it would benefit from being developed in collaboration with the major stakeholders in the field, i.e. regulatory agencies, academia, industry, scientific journals, and providers of research network platforms.

  • 15.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Sobek, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Lilja, Karl
    Linderoth, Maria
    Wendt-Rasch, Lina
    Wernersson, Ann-Sofie
    Rudén, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    An academic researcher's guide to increased impact on regulatory assessment of chemicals2017In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 644-655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interactions between academic research and regulatory assessment of chemicals may in theory seem straightforward: researchers perform studies, and these studies are used by regulators for decision-making. However, in practice the situation is more complex, and many factors decide a research study's regulatory use. According to several EU chemical legislations, all available and relevant studies can be used in hazard and risk assessment of chemicals. However, in practice, standard tests conducted under GLP and sponsored and provided by industry are predominantly used. Peer-reviewed studies from independent sources are often disregarded or disputed since they often do not comply with regulatory data requirements and quality criteria. To help bridge such a gap, the aim of this paper is to give an overview of the general workings of legislation of chemicals and propose a set of actions to increase the usability of research data. In the end, this may increase the use of academic research for decision-making and ultimately result in more science-based policies. From a policy perspective, useful scientific evidence comprises those studies that are sufficiently reliable and relevant. This is not in contradiction to the aims of research and generally accepted scientific standards.

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