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  • 1.
    Needham, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    A Mereological Interpretation of the Phase Rule2010In: Philosophy of science (East Lansing), ISSN 0031-8248, E-ISSN 1539-767X, Vol. 77, no 5, 900-910 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gibbs's phase rule treats mixtures by relating the number of independent variables governing their state to the numbers of phases and independent substances. For the case of a single substance, it provides a criterion of purity. But where more substances are involved, the notion of independent substance is less readily understood. Textbook writers sometimes use algebraic terminology in ways that are suggestive but cannot be taken as literally accurate. I suggest that a mereological interpretation applies to these cases, as it captures more concisely the insights underlying the use of algebraic terminology and illuminates the general notion of substance.

  • 2.
    Stefánsson, H. Orri
    et al.
    Collège d’études mondiales, France.
    Bradley, Richard
    London School of Economics and Political Science, UK.
    How valuable are chances?2015In: Philosophy of science (East Lansing), ISSN 0031-8248, E-ISSN 1539-767X, Vol. 82, no 4, 602-625 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chance Neutrality is the thesis that, conditional on some proposition being true (or being false), its chance of being true should be a matter of practical indifference. The aim of this article is to examine whether Chance Neutrality is a requirement of rationality. We prove that given Chance Neutrality, the Principal Principle entails a thesis called Linearity; the centerpiece of von Neumann and Morgenstern’s expected utility theory. With this in mind, we argue that the Principal Principle is a requirement of practical rationality but that Linearity is not and, hence, that Chance Neutrality is not rationally required.

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