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  • 1.
    Angner, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    What Preferences Really Are2018In: Philosophy of science (East Lansing), ISSN 0031-8248, E-ISSN 1539-767X, Vol. 85, no 4, p. 660-681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Daniel M. Hausman holds that preferences in economics are total subjective comparative evaluations—subjective judgments to the effect that something is better than something else all things told—and that economists are right to employ this conception of preference. Here, I argue against both parts of Hausman’s thesis. The failure of Hausman’s account, I continue, reflects a deeper problem, that is, that preferences in economics do not need an explicit definition of the kind that he seeks. Nonetheless, Hausman’s labors were not in vain: his accomplishment is that he has articulated a useful model of the theory.

  • 2.
    Needham, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    A Mereological Interpretation of the Phase Rule2010In: Philosophy of science (East Lansing), ISSN 0031-8248, E-ISSN 1539-767X, Vol. 77, no 5, p. 900-910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gibbs's phase rule treats mixtures by relating the number of independent variables governing their state to the numbers of phases and independent substances. For the case of a single substance, it provides a criterion of purity. But where more substances are involved, the notion of independent substance is less readily understood. Textbook writers sometimes use algebraic terminology in ways that are suggestive but cannot be taken as literally accurate. I suggest that a mereological interpretation applies to these cases, as it captures more concisely the insights underlying the use of algebraic terminology and illuminates the general notion of substance.

  • 3.
    Stefánsson, H. Orri
    et al.
    Collège d’études mondiales, France.
    Bradley, Richard
    London School of Economics and Political Science, UK.
    How valuable are chances?2015In: Philosophy of science (East Lansing), ISSN 0031-8248, E-ISSN 1539-767X, Vol. 82, no 4, p. 602-625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chance Neutrality is the thesis that, conditional on some proposition being true (or being false), its chance of being true should be a matter of practical indifference. The aim of this article is to examine whether Chance Neutrality is a requirement of rationality. We prove that given Chance Neutrality, the Principal Principle entails a thesis called Linearity; the centerpiece of von Neumann and Morgenstern’s expected utility theory. With this in mind, we argue that the Principal Principle is a requirement of practical rationality but that Linearity is not and, hence, that Chance Neutrality is not rationally required.

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