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Brandenburg, Axel

Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita). University of Colorado, USA.

Recent advances in mean-field theory are reviewed and applications to the Sun, late-type stars, accretion disks, galaxies and the early Universe are discussed. We focus particularly on aspects of spatio-temporal non-locality, which provided some of the main new qualitative and quantitative insights that emerged from applying the test-field method to magnetic fields of different length and time scales. We also review the status of nonlinear quenching and the relation to magnetic helicity, which is an important observational diagnostic of modern solar dynamo theory. Both solar and some stellar dynamos seem to operate in an intermediate regime that has not yet been possible to model successfully. This regime is bracketed by antisolar-like differential rotation on one end and stellar activity cycles belonging to the superactive stars on the other. The difficulty in modelling this regime may be related to shortcomings in simulating solar/stellar convection. On galactic and extragalactic length scales, the observational constraints on dynamo theory are still less stringent and more uncertain, but recent advances both in theory and observations suggest that more conclusive comparisons may soon be possible also here. The possibility of inversely cascading magnetic helicity in the early Universe is particularly exciting in explaining the recently observed lower limits of magnetic fields on cosmological length scales. Such magnetic fields may be helical with the same sign of magnetic helicity throughout the entire Universe. This would be a manifestation of parity breaking.

We discuss a mean-field theory of the generation of large-scale vorticity in a rotating density stratified developed turbulence with inhomogeneous kinetic helicity. We show that the large-scale non-uniform flow is produced due to either a combined action of a density stratified rotating turbulence and uniform kinetic helicity or a combined effect of a rotating incompressible turbulence and inhomogeneous kinetic helicity. These effects result in the formation of a large-scale shear, and in turn its interaction with the small-scale turbulence causes an excitation of the large-scale instability (known as a vorticity dynamo) due to a combined effect of the large-scale shear and Reynolds stress-induced generation of the mean vorticity. The latter is due to the effect of large-scale shear on the Reynolds stress. A fast rotation suppresses this large-scale instability.

A mean-field theory of differential rotation in a density stratified turbulent convection has been developed. This theory is based on the combined effects of the turbulent heat flux and anisotropy of turbulent convection on the Reynolds stress. A coupled system of dynamical budget equations consisting in the equations for the Reynolds stress, the entropy fluctuations and the turbulent heat flux has been solved. To close the system of these equations, the spectral tau approach, which is valid for large Reynolds and Peclet numbers, has been applied. The adopted model of the background turbulent convection takes into account an increase of the turbulence anisotropy and a decrease of the turbulent correlation time with the rotation rate. This theory yields the radial profile of the differential rotation which is in agreement with that for the solar differential rotation.

We derive equations for the mean entropy and the mean internal energy in low-Mach-number temperature stratified turbulence (i.e. for turbulent convection or stably stratified turbulence), and show that turbulent flux of entropy is given by F-s = (rho) over bar(us) over bar, where (rho) over bar is the mean fluid density, s is fluctuation of entropy and overbars denote averaging over an ensemble of turbulent velocity fields, u. We demonstrate that the turbulent flux of entropy is different from the turbulent convective flux, F-c = (T) over bar(rho) over bar(us) over bar, of the fluid internal energy, where (T) over bar is the mean fluid temperature. This turbulent convective flux is well-known in the astrophysical and geophysical literature, and it cannot be used as a turbulent flux in the equation for the mean entropy. This result is exact for low-Mach-number temperature stratified turbulence and is independent of the model used. We also derive equations for the velocity-entropy correlation, (us) over bar, in the limits of small and large Peclet numbers, using the quasi-linear approach and the spectral tau approximation, respectively. This study is important in view of different applications to astrophysical and geophysical temperature stratified turbulence.

Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita). Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel.

Kleeorin, Nathan

Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita). Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel.

Brandenburg, Axel

Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. University of Colorado, USA.

We develop a mean-field theory of compressibility effects in turbulent magnetohydrodynamics and passive scalar transport using the quasi-linear approximation and the spectral tau-approach. We find that compressibility decreases the a effect and the turbulent magnetic diffusivity both at small and large magnetic Reynolds numbers, Rm. Similarly, compressibility decreases the turbulent diffusivity for passive scalars both at small and large Peclet numbers, Pe. On the other hand, compressibility does not affect the effective pumping velocity of the magnetic field for large Rm, but it decreases it for small Rm. Density stratification causes turbulent pumping of passive scalars, but it is found to become weaker with increasing compressibility. No such pumping effect exists for magnetic fields. However, compressibility results in a new passive scalar pumping effect from regions of low to high turbulent intensity both for small and large Peclet numbers. It can be interpreted as compressible turbophoresis of non-inertial particles and gaseous admixtures, while the classical turbophoresis effect exists only for inertial particles and causes them to be pumped to regions with lower turbulent intensity.

We apply a nonlinear mean-field dynamo model which includes a budget equation for the dynamics of Wolf numbers to predict solar activity. This dynamo model takes into account the algebraic and dynamic nonlinearities of the alpha effect, where the equation for the dynamic nonlinearity is derived from the conservation law for the magnetic helicity. The budget equation for the evolution of the Wolf number is based on a formation mechanism of sunspots related to the negative effective magnetic pressure instability. This instability redistributes the magnetic flux produced by the mean-field dynamo. To predict solar activity on the time scale of one month we use a method based on a combination of the numerical solution of the nonlinear mean-field dynamo equations and the artificial neural network. A comparison of the results of the prediction of the solar activity with the observed Wolf numbers demonstrates a good agreement between the forecast and observations.