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  • 1. Abdalla, H.
    et al.
    Aharonian, F.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Anguner, E. O.
    Arakawa, M.
    Arcaro, C.
    Armand, C.
    Arrieta, M.
    Backes, M.
    Barnard, M.
    Becherini, Y.
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Berge, D.
    Bernhard, S.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Blackwell, R.
    Bottcher, M.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Bonnefoy, S.
    Bordas, P.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Bryan, M.
    Buechele, M.
    Bulik, T.
    Bylund, T.
    Capasso, M.
    Caroff, S.
    Carosi, A.
    Casanova, S.
    Cerruti, M.
    Chakraborty, N.
    Chandra, S.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Chen, A.
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Condon, B.
    Davids, I. D.
    Dei, C.
    Devin, J.
    deWilt, P.
    Dirson, L.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Dmytriiev, A.
    Donath, A.
    Drury, L. O. 'C.
    Dyks, J.
    Egberts, K.
    Emery, G.
    Ernenwein, J. -P.
    Eschbach, S.
    Fegan, S.
    Fiasson, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Funk, S.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Garrigoux, T.
    Gate, F.
    Giavitto, G.
    Glawion, D.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Gottschall, D.
    Grondin, M. -H.
    Hahn, J.
    Haupt, M.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hoischen, C.
    Holch, T. L.
    Holler, M.
    Horns, D.
    Huber, D.
    Iwasaki, H.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Jankowsky, D.
    Jankowsky, F.
    Jouvin, L.
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katsuragawa, M.
    Katz, U.
    Kerszberg, D.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    King, J.
    Klepser, S.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Krakau, S.
    Kraus, M.
    Kruger, R. R.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lau, J.
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Lemiere, A.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Lenain, J. -P.
    Leser, E.
    Lohse, T.
    Lorentz, M.
    Lopez-Coto, R.
    Lypova, I.
    Malyshev, D.
    Marandon, V.
    Marcowith, A.
    Mariaud, C.
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Marx, R.
    Maurin, G.
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Mitche, A. M. W.
    Moderski, R.
    Mohamed, M.
    Mohrmann, L.
    Moulin, E.
    Murach, T.
    Nakashima, S.
    de Naurois, M.
    Ndiyavala, H.
    Niederwanger, F.
    Niemiec, J.
    Oakes, L.
    O'Brien, P.
    Odaka, H.
    Ohm, S.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Oya, I.
    Padovani, M.
    Panter, M.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Perennes, C.
    Petrucci, P. -O.
    Peyaud, B.
    Piel, Q.
    Pita, S.
    Poireau, V.
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Prokoph, H.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raab, S.
    Rauth, R.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    Rieger, F.
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Romoli, C.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Sahakian, V.
    Saito, S.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Santangelo, A.
    Sasaki, M.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schussler, F.
    Schulz, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Senniappan, M.
    Seyffert, A. S.
    Shafi, N.
    Shilon, I.
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Simoni, R.
    Sinha, A.
    Sol, H.
    Spanier, F.
    Specovius, A.
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Steppa, C.
    Sushch, I.
    Takahashi, T.
    Tavernet, J. -P.
    Tavernier, T.
    Taylor, A. M.
    Terrier, R.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Tiziani, D.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Trichard, C.
    Tsirou, M.
    Tsuji, N.
    Tuffs, R.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    van der Walt, D. J.
    van Eldik, C.
    van Rensburg, C.
    van Soelen, B.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Veh, J.
    Venter, C.
    Viana, A.
    Vincent, P.
    Vink, J.
    Voisin, F.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Vuillaume, T.
    Wadiasingh, Z.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Wagner, P.
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    White, R.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Woernlein, A.
    Yang, R.
    Zaborov, D.
    Zacharias, M.
    Zanin, R.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Zefi, F.
    Ziegler, A.
    Zorn, J.
    Zywucka, N.
    VHE gamma-ray discovery and multiwavelength study of the blazar 1ES 2322-4092019In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 482, no 3, p. 3011-3022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hotspot at a position compatible with the BL. Lac object 1ES 2322-409 was serendipitously detected with H.E.S.S. during observations performed in 2004 and 2006 on the blazar PKS 2316-423. Additional data on 1ES 2322-409 were taken in 2011 and 2012, leading to a total live-time of 22.3 h. Point-like very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission is detected from a source centred on the IFS 2322-409 position, with an excess of 116.7 events at a significance of 6.0 sigma. The average VHE gamma-ray spectrum is well described with a power law with a photon index Gamma = 3.40 +/- 0.66(stat) +/- 0.20(sys) and an integral flux Phi(E > 200 GeV) = (3.11 +/- 0.71(stat) 0.62(sys)) x 10(-2)cm(-2)s(-1), which corresponds to 1.1 per cent of the Crab nebula flux above 200 GeV. Multiwavelength data obtained with Fermi LAT, Swift XRT and UVOT, RXTE PCA, ATOM, and additional data from WISE, GROND, and Catalina are also used to characterize the broad-band non-thermal emission of lES 2322-409. The multiwavelength behaviour indicates day-scale variability. Swift UVOT and XRT data show strong variability at longer scales. A spectral energy distribution (SED) is built from contemporaneous observations obtained around a high state identified in Swift data. A modelling of the SED is performed with a stationary homogeneous one-zone synchrotronself-Compton leptonic model. The redshift of the source being unknown, two plausible values were tested for the modelling. A systematic scan of the model parameters space is performed, resulting in a well-constrained combination of values providing a good description of the broad-band behaviour of 1ES 2322-409.

  • 2. Abdalla, H.
    et al.
    Aharonian, F.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Anguner, E. O.
    Arakawa, M.
    Arcaro, C.
    Armand, C.
    Arrieta, M.
    Backes, M.
    Barnard, M.
    Becherini, Y.
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Berge, D.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Blackwell, R.
    Bottcher, M.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Bonnefoy, S.
    Bordas, P.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Bryan, M.
    Buchele, M.
    Bulik, T.
    Bylund, T.
    Capasso, M.
    Caroff, S.
    Carosi, A.
    Casanova, S.
    Cerruti, M.
    Chakraborty, N.
    Chand, T.
    Chandra, S.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Chen, A.
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Condon, B.
    Davids, I. D.
    Deil, C.
    Devin, J.
    deWilt, P.
    Dirson, L.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Dmytriiev, A.
    Donath, A.
    Doroshenko, V.
    Drury, L. O'C.
    Dyks, J.
    Egberts, K.
    Emery, G.
    Ernenwein, J. -P.
    Eschbach, S.
    Fegan, S.
    Fiasson, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Funk, S.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gate, F.
    Giavitto, G.
    Glawion, D.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Gottschall, D.
    Grondin, M. -H.
    Hahn, J.
    Haupt, M.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hoischen, C.
    Holch, T. L.
    Holler, M.
    Horns, D.
    Huber, D.
    Iwasaki, H.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Jankowsky, D.
    Jankowsky, F.
    Jouvin, L.
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katsuragawa, M.
    Katz, U.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    King, J.
    Klepser, S.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Kraus, M.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lau, J.
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Lemiere, A.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Lenain, J. -P.
    Leser, E.
    Lohse, T.
    Lopez-Coto, R.
    Lorentz, M.
    Lypova, I.
    Malyshev, D.
    Marandon, V.
    Marcowith, A.
    Mariaud, C.
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Marx, R.
    Maurin, G.
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Moderski, R.
    Mohamed, M.
    Mohrmann, L.
    Moore, C.
    Moulin, E.
    Murach, T.
    Nakashima, S.
    de Naurois, M.
    Ndiyavala, H.
    Niederwanger, F.
    Niemiec, J.
    Oakes, L.
    O'Brien, P.
    Odaka, H.
    Ohm, S.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Oya, I.
    Panter, M.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Perennes, C.
    Petrucci, P. -O.
    Peyaud, B.
    Piel, Q.
    Pita, S.
    Poireau, V.
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Prokoph, H.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raab, S.
    Rauth, R.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    Rieger, F.
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Romoli, C.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Sahakian, V.
    Saito, S.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Santangelo, A.
    Sasaki, M.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schussler, F.
    Schulz, A.
    Schutte, H.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Senniappan, M.
    Seyffert, A. S.
    Shafi, N.
    Shilon, I.
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Simoni, R.
    Sinha, A.
    Sol, H.
    Specovius, A.
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Steppa, C.
    Takahashi, T.
    Tavernet, J. -P.
    Tavernier, T.
    Taylor, A. M.
    Terrier, R.
    Tiziani, D.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Trichard, C.
    Tsirou, M.
    Tsuji, N.
    Tuffs, R.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    van der Walt, D. J.
    van Eldik, C.
    van Rensburg, C.
    van Soelen, B.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Veh, J.
    Venter, C.
    Vincent, P.
    Vink, J.
    Voisin, F.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Vuillaume, T.
    Wadiasingh, Z.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    White, R.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Yang, R.
    Yoneda, H.
    Zaborov, D.
    Zacharias, M.
    Zanin, R.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Ziegler, A.
    Zorn, J.
    Zywucka, N.
    HESS observations of the flaring gravitationally lensed galaxy PKS 1830-2112019In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 486, no 3, p. 3886-3891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PKS 1830-211 is a known macrolensed quasar located at a redshift of z = 2.5. Its highenergy gamma-ray emission has been detected with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument and evidence for lensing was obtained by several authors from its high-energy data. Observations of PKS 1830-211 were taken with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) array of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes in 2014 August, following a flare alert by the Fermi-LAT Collaboration. The H.E.S.S observations were aimed at detecting a gamma-ray flare delayed by 20-27 d from the alert flare, as expected from observations at other wavelengths. More than 12 h of good-quality data were taken with an analysis threshold of similar to 67 GeV. The significance of a potential signal is computed as a function of the date and the average significance over the whole period. Data are compared to simultaneous observations by Fermi-LAT. No photon excess or significant signal is detected. An upper limit on PKS 1830-211 flux above 67 GeV is computed and compared to the extrapolation of the Fermi-LAT flare spectrum.

  • 3. Abolmasov, Pavel
    et al.
    Poutanen, Juri
    Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita). University of Turku, Finland.
    Gamma-ray opacity of the anisotropic stratified broad-line regions in blazars2017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 464, no 1, p. 152-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The GeV-range spectra of blazars are shaped not only by non-thermal emission processes internal to the relativistic jet but also by external pair-production absorption on the thermal emission of the accretion disc and the broad-line region (BLR). For the first time, we compute here the pair-production opacities in the GeV range produced by a realistic BLR accounting for the radial stratification and radiation anisotropy. Using photoionization modelling with the CLOUDY code, we calculate a series of BLR models of different sizes, geometries, cloud densities, column densities and metallicities. The strongest emission features in the model BLR are Ly alpha and He II Ly alpha. Contribution of recombination continua is smaller, especially for hydrogen, because Ly continuum is efficiently trapped inside the large optical depth BLR clouds and converted to Lyman emission lines and higher order recombination continua. The largest effects on the gamma-ray opacity are produced by the BLR geometry and localization of the gamma-ray source. We show that when the gamma-ray source moves further from the central source, all the absorption details move to higher energies and the overall level of absorption drops because of decreasing incidence angles between the gamma-rays and BLR photons. The observed positions of the spectral breaks can be used to measure the geometry and the location of the gamma-ray emitting region relative to the BLR. Strong dependence on geometry means that the soft photons dominating the pair-production opacity may be actually produced by a different population of BLR clouds than the bulk of the observed broad line emission.

  • 4. Abramowski, A.
    et al.
    Acero, F.
    Aharonian, F.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anguener, E.
    Anton, G.
    Balenderan, S.
    Balzer, A.
    Barnacka, A.
    Becherini, Y.
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Bernloehr, K.
    Birsin, E.
    Bissaldi, E.
    Biteau, J.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Bordas, P.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Bulik, T.
    Carrigan, S.
    Casanova, S.
    Cerruti, M.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Chalme-Calvet, R.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chretien, M.
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Cologna, G.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Couturier, C.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    deWilt, P.
    Dickinson, Hugh J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubus, G.
    Dutson, K.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Edwards, T.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fernandes, M. V.
    Fernandez, D.
    Fiasson, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Foerster, A.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gajdus, M.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Garrigoux, T.
    Gast, H.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Goering, D.
    Grondin, M-H
    Grudzinska, M.
    Haeffner, S.
    Hague, J. D.
    Hahn, J.
    Harris, J.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hervet, O.
    Hillert, A.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Holler, M.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Jahn, C.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Janiak, M.
    Jankowsky, F.
    Jung, I.
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Khelifi, B.
    Kieffer, M.
    Klepser, S.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Kolitzus, D.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Krakau, S.
    Krayzel, F.
    Krueger, P. P.
    Laffon, H.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Lenain, J-P
    Lennarz, D.
    Lohse, T.
    Lopatin, A.
    Lu, C-C
    Marandon, V.
    Marcowith, A.
    Maurin, G.
    Maxted, N.
    Mayer, M.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Mehault, J.
    Menzler, U.
    Meyer, M.
    Moderski, R.
    Mohamed, M.
    Moulin, E.
    Murach, T.
    Naumann, C. L.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Oakes, L.
    Ohm, S.
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Opitz, B.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Oya, I.
    Panter, M.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pekeur, N. W.
    Pelletier, G.
    Perez, J.
    Petrucci, P-O
    Peyaud, B.
    Pita, S.
    Poon, H.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raab, S.
    Raue, M.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    de los Reyes, R.
    Rieger, F.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Sahakian, V.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schuessler, F.
    Schulz, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Sol, H.
    Spengler, G.
    Spiess, F.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Stycz, K.
    Sushch, I.
    Szostek, A.
    Tavernet, J-P
    Terrier, R.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Trichard, C.
    Valerius, K.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Viana, A.
    Vincent, P.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Vorster, M.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Wagner, P.
    Ward, M.
    Weidinger, M.
    White, R.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Willmann, P.
    Woernlein, A.
    Wouters, D.
    Zacharias, M.
    Zajczyk, A.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Zechlin, H-S
    Perkins, J. S.
    Ojha, R.
    Stevens, J.
    Edwards, P. G.
    Kadler, M.
    HESS and Fermi-LAT discovery of gamma-rays from the blazar 1ES 1312-4232013In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 434, no 3, p. 1889-1901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A deep observation campaign carried out by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) on Centaurus A enabled the discovery of gamma-rays from the blazar 1ES 1312-423, 2 degrees away from the radio galaxy. With a differential flux at 1 TeV of phi(1 TeV) = (1.9 +/- 0.6(stat) +/- 0.4(sys)) x 10(-13) cm(-2) s(-1) TeV-1 corresponding to 0.5 per cent of the Crab nebula differential flux and a spectral index Gamma = 2.9 +/- 0.5(stat) +/- 0.2(sys), 1ES 1312-423 is one of the faintest sources ever detected in the very high energy (E > 100 GeV) extragalactic sky. A careful analysis using three and a half years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) data allows the discovery at high energies (E > 100 MeV) of a hard spectrum (Gamma = 1.4 +/- 0.4(stat) +/- 0.2(sys)) source coincident with 1ES 1312-423. Radio, optical, UV and X-ray observations complete the spectral energy distribution of this blazar, now covering 16 decades in energy. The emission is successfully fitted with a synchrotron self-Compton model for the non-thermal component, combined with a blackbody spectrum for the optical emission from the host galaxy.

  • 5. Abramowski, A.
    et al.
    Acero, F.
    Aharonian, F.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    Balzer, A.
    Barnacka, A.
    Becherini, Y.
    Becker, J.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Birsin, E.
    Biteau, J.
    Bochow, A.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Bordas, P.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Carrigan, S.
    Casanova, S.
    Cerruti, M.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Cologna, G.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, Hugh J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubus, G.
    Dutson, K.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Espigat, P.
    Fallon, L.
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fernandes, M. V.
    Fiasson, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Foerster, A.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Garrigoux, T.
    Gast, H.
    Gerard, L.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goering, D.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Haeffner, S.
    Hague, J. D.
    Hahn, J.
    Hampf, D.
    Harris, J.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hillert, A.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Holler, M.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Jahn, C.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Jung, I.
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Khelifi, B.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Kossakowski, R.
    Krayzel, F.
    Laffon, H.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lennarz, D.
    Lohse, T.
    Lopatin, A.
    Lu, C. -C
    Marandon, V.
    Marcowith, A.
    Masbou, J.
    Maurin, G.
    Maxted, N.
    Mayer, M.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Mehault, J.
    Moderski, R.
    Mohamed, M.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann, C. L.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Nguyen, N.
    Nicholas, B.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Opitz, B.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Oya, I.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pekeur, N. W.
    Pelletier, G.
    Perez, J.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Peyaud, B.
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raue, M.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    de los Reyes, R.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, Joachim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Sahakian, V.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schulz, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Sheidaei, F.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Spengler, G.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Stycz, K.
    Sushch, I.
    Szostek, A.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Valerius, K.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Viana, A.
    Vincent, P.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Vorobiov, S.
    Vorster, M.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    White, R.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Zacharias, M.
    Zajczyk, A.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Zechlin, H. -S
    Montmerle, T.
    HESS observations of the Carina nebula and its enigmatic colliding wind binary Eta Carinae2012In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 424, no 1, p. 128-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The massive binary system Eta Carinae and the surrounding H ii complex, the Carina nebula, are potential particle acceleration sites from which very high energy (VHE; E= 100 GeV) ?-ray emission could be expected. This paper presents data collected during VHE ?-ray observations with the HESS telescope array from 2004 to 2010, which cover a full orbit of Eta Carinae. In the 33.1-h data set no hint of significant ?-ray emission from Eta Carinae has been found and an upper limit on the ?-ray flux of (99 per cent confidence level) is derived above the energy threshold of 470 GeV. Together with the detection of high energy (HE; 0.1 =E= 100 GeV) ?-ray emission by the Fermi Large Area Telescope up to 100 GeV, and assuming a continuation of the average HE spectral index into the VHE domain, these results imply a cut-off in the ?-ray spectrum between the HE and VHE ?-ray range. This could be caused either by a cut-off in the accelerated particle distribution or by severe ?? absorption losses in the wind collision region. Furthermore, the search for extended ?-ray emission from the Carina nebula resulted in an upper limit on the ?-ray flux of (99 per cent confidence level). The derived upper limit of 23 on the cosmic ray enhancement factor is compared with results found for the old-age mixed-morphology supernova remnant W28.

  • 6. Abramowski, A.
    et al.
    Acero, F.
    Aharonian, F.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anguner, E.
    Anton, G.
    Balenderan, S.
    Balzer, A.
    Barnacka, A.
    Becherini, Y.
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Bernloehr, K.
    Birsin, E.
    Bissaldi, E.
    Biteau, J.
    Boettcher, M.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Bordas, P.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Bulik, T.
    Carrigan, S.
    Casanova, S.
    Cerruti, M.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Chalme-Calvet, R.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chretien, M.
    Clapson, A. -C
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Cologna, G.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Couturier, C.
    Cui, Y.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    deWilt, P.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubus, G.
    Dutson, K.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Edwards, T.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fernandes, M. V.
    Fernandez, D.
    Fiasson, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Foerster, A.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gajdus, M.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Garrigoux, T.
    Giavitto, G.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Grudzinska, M.
    Haeffner, S.
    Hahn, J.
    Harris, J.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hervet, O.
    Hillert, A.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Holler, M.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Jahn, C.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Janiak, M.
    Jankowsky, F.
    Jung, I.
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Khelifi, B.
    Kieffer, M.
    Klepser, S.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Kolitzus, D.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Krakau, S.
    Krayzel, F.
    Krueger, P. P.
    Laffon, H.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Lemiere, A.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lennarz, D.
    Lohse, T.
    Lopatin, A.
    Lu, C. -C
    Marandon, V.
    Marcowith, A.
    Marx, R.
    Maurin, G.
    Maxted, N.
    Mayer, M.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Mehault, J.
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Menzler, U.
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Moderski, R.
    Mohamed, M.
    Moulin, E.
    Murach, T.
    Naumann, C. L.
    de Naurois, M.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Oakes, L.
    Ohm, S.
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Opitz, B.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Oya, I.
    Panter, M.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pekeur, N. W.
    Pelletier, G.
    Perez, J.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Peyaud, B.
    Pita, S.
    Poon, H.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raab, S.
    Raue, M.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    de los Reyes, R.
    Rieger, F.
    Rob, L.
    Romoli, C.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Sahakian, V.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schuessler, F.
    Schulz, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Sol, H.
    Spengler, G.
    Spies, F.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Stycz, K.
    Sushch, I.
    Szostek, A.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Tavernier, T.
    Taylor, A. M.
    Terrier, R.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Trichard, C.
    Valerius, K.
    van Eldik, C.
    van Soelen, B.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Viana, A.
    Vincent, P.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Vorster, M.
    Vuillaume, T.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Wagner, P.
    Ward, M.
    Weidinger, M.
    Weitzel, Q.
    White, R.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Willmann, P.
    Woernlein, A.
    Wouters, D.
    Zabalza, V.
    Zacharias, M.
    Zajczyk, A.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Zechlin, H. -S
    Discovery of the VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1832-093 in the vicinity of SNR G22.7-0.22015In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 446, no 2, p. 1163-1169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The region around the supernova remnant (SNR) W41 contains several TeV sources and has prompted the HESS Collaboration to perform deep observations of this field of view. This resulted in the discovery of the new very high energy (VHE) source HESS J1832-093, at the position RA = 18(h)32(m)50(s) +/- 3(stat)(s) +/- 2(syst)(s), Dec = -9 degrees 22'36 '' +/- 32(stat)'' +/- 20(syst)'' (J2000), spatially coincident with a part of the radio shell of the neighbouring remnant G22.7-0.2. The photon spectrum is well described by a power law of index Gamma = 2.6 +/- 0.3(stat) +/- 0.1(syst) and a normalization at 1 TeV of Phi(0) = (4.8 +/- 0.8(stat) +/- 1.0(syst)) x 10(-13) cm(-2) s(-1) TeV-1. The location of the gamma-ray emission on the edge of the SNR rim first suggested a signature of escaping cosmic rays illuminating a nearby molecular cloud. Then a dedicated XMM-Newton observation led to the discovery of a new X-ray point source spatially coincident with the TeV excess. Two other scenarios were hence proposed to identify the nature of HESS J1832-093. Gamma-rays from inverse Compton radiation in the framework of a pulsar wind nebula scenario or the possibility of gamma-ray production within a binary system are therefore also considered. Deeper multiwavelength observations will help to shed new light on this intriguing VHE source.

  • 7. Abramowski, A.
    et al.
    Aharonian, F.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anguener, E.
    Anton, G.
    Balenderan, S.
    Balzer, A.
    Barnacka, A.
    Becherini, Y.
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Bernloehr, K.
    Birsin, E.
    Bissaldi, E.
    Biteau, J.
    Boettcher, M.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Bordas, P.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Bulik, T.
    Carrigan, S.
    Casanova, S.
    Cerruti, M.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Chalme-Calvet, R.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chretien, M.
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Cologna, G.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Couturier, C.
    Cui, Y.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    deWilt, P.
    Dickinson, Hugh J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O ' C
    Dubus, G.
    Dutson, K.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Edwards, T.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fernandes, M. V.
    Fernandez, D.
    Fiasson, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Foerster, A.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gajdus, M.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Garrigoux, T.
    Giavitto, G.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Grudzinska, M.
    Haeffner, S.
    Hahn, J.
    Harris, J.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hervet, O.
    Hillert, A.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Holler, M.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Jahn, C.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Janiak, M.
    Jankowsky, F.
    Jung, I.
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Khelifi, B.
    Kieffer, M.
    Klepser, S.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Kolitzus, D.
    Komin, Nu
    Kosack, K.
    Krakau, S.
    Krayzel, F.
    Krueger, P. P.
    Laffon, H.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Lemiere, A.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lennarz, D.
    Lohse, T.
    Lopatin, A.
    Lu, C. -C
    Marandon, V.
    Marcowith, A.
    Marx, R.
    Maurin, G.
    Maxted, N.
    Mayer, M.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Mehault, J.
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Menzler, U.
    Meyer, M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Moderski, R.
    Mohamed, M.
    Moulin, E.
    Murach, T.
    Naumann, C. L.
    de Naurois, M.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Oakes, L.
    Ohm, S.
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Opitz, B.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Oya, I.
    Panter, M.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pekeur, N. W.
    Pelletier, G.
    Perez, J.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Peyaud, B.
    Pita, S.
    Poon, H.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raab, S.
    Raue, M.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    de los Reyes, R.
    Rieger, F.
    Rob, L.
    Romoli, C.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Sahakian, V.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schuessler, F.
    Schulz, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Sol, H.
    Spengler, G.
    Spies, F.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Stycz, K.
    Sushch, I.
    Szostek, A.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Tavernier, T.
    Taylor, A. M.
    Terrier, R.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Trichard, C.
    Valerius, K.
    van Eldik, C.
    van Soelen, B.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Viana, A.
    Vincent, P.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Vorster, M.
    Vuillaume, T.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Wagner, P.
    Ward, M.
    Weidinger, M.
    Weitzel, Q.
    White, R.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Willmann, P.
    Woernlein, A.
    Wouters, D.
    Zabalza, V.
    Zacharias, M.
    Zajczyk, A.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Zechlin, H. -S
    TeV gamma-ray observations of the young synchrotron-dominated SNRs G1.9+0.3 and G330.2+1.0 with HESS2014In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 441, no 1, p. 790-799Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The non-thermal nature of the X-ray emission from the shell-type supernova remnants (SNRs) G1.9+0.3 and G330.2+1.0 is an indication of intense particle acceleration in the shock fronts of both objects. This suggests that the SNRs are prime candidates for very-high-energy (VHE; E > 0.1 TeV) gamma-ray observations. G1.9+0.3, recently established as the youngest known SNR in the Galaxy, also offers a unique opportunity to study the earliest stages of SNR evolution in the VHE domain. The purpose of this work is to probe the level of VHE gamma-ray emission from both SNRs and use this to constrain their physical properties. Observations were conducted with the H. E. S. S. (High Energy Stereoscopic System) Cherenkov Telescope Array over a more than six-year period spanning 2004-2010. The obtained data have effective livetimes of 67 h for G1.9+0.3 and 16 h for G330.2+1.0. The data are analysed in the context of the multiwavelength observations currently available and in the framework of both leptonic and hadronic particle acceleration scenarios. No significant gamma-ray signal from G1.9+0.3 or G330.2+1.0 was detected. Upper limits (99 per cent confidence level) to the TeV flux from G1.9+0.3 and G330.2+1.0 for the assumed spectral index Gamma = 2.5 were set at 5.6 x 10(-1)3 cm(-2) s(-1) above 0.26 TeV and 3.2 x 10(-12) cm(-2) s(-1) above 0.38 TeV, respectively. In a one-zone leptonic scenario, these upper limits imply lower limits on the interior magnetic field to B-G1.9 greater than or similar to 12 mu G for G1.9+0.3 and to B-G330 greater than or similar to 8 mu G for G330.2+1.0. In a hadronic scenario, the low ambient densities and the large distances to the SNRs result in very low predicted fluxes, for which the H.E.S.S. upper limits are not constraining.

  • 8. Abramowski, A.
    et al.
    Aharonian, F.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anguener, E.
    Anton, G.
    Balenderan, S.
    Balzer, A.
    Barnacka, A.
    Becherini, Y.
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Bernloehr, K.
    Birsin, E.
    Bissaldi, E.
    Biteau, J.
    Boettcher, M.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Bordas, P.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Bulik, T.
    Carrigan, S.
    Casanova, S.
    Cerruti, M.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Chalme-Calvet, R.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chretien, M.
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Cologna, G.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Couturier, C.
    Cui, Y.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    deWilt, P.
    Dickinson, Hugh J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Djannati-Ataie, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubus, G.
    Dutson, K.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Edwards, T.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fernandes, M. V.
    Fernandez, D.
    Fiasson, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Foerster, A.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gajdus, M.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Garrigoux, T.
    Giavitto, G.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Grudzinska, M.
    Haeffner, S.
    Hahn, J.
    Harris, J.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hervet, O.
    Hillert, A.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Holler, M.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Jahn, C.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Janiak, M.
    Jankowsky, F.
    Jung, I.
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Khelifi, B.
    Kieffer, M.
    Klepser, S.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Kolitzus, D.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Krakau, S.
    Krayzel, F.
    Krueger, P. P.
    Laffon, H.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Lemiere, A.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lennarz, D.
    Lohse, T.
    Lopatin, A.
    Lu, C. -C
    Marandon, V.
    Marcowith, A.
    Marx, R.
    Maurin, G.
    Maxted, N.
    Mayer, M.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Mehault, J.
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Menzler, U.
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Moderski, R.
    Mohamed, M.
    Moulin, E.
    Murach, T.
    Naumann, C. L.
    de Naurois, M.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Oakes, L.
    Ohm, S.
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Opitz, B.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Oya, I.
    Panter, M.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pekeur, N. W.
    Pelletier, G.
    Perez, J.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Peyaud, B.
    Pita, S.
    Poon, H.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raab, S.
    Raue, M.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    de los Reyes, R.
    Rieger, F.
    Rob, L.
    Romoli, C.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Sahakian, V.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schuessler, F.
    Schulz, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Sol, H.
    Spengler, G.
    Spies, F.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Stycz, K.
    Sushch, I.
    Szostek, A.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Tavernier, T.
    Taylor, A. M.
    Terrier, R.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Trichard, C.
    Valerius, K.
    van Eldik, C.
    van Soelen, B.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Viana, A.
    Vincent, P.
    Vink, J.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Vorster, M.
    Vuillaume, T.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Wagner, P.
    Ward, M.
    Weidinger, M.
    Weitzel, Q.
    White, R.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Willmann, P.
    Woernlein, A.
    Wouters, D.
    Zabalza, V.
    Zacharias, M.
    Zajczyk, A.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Zechlin, H. -S
    HESS J1640-465-an exceptionally luminous TeV gamma-ray supernova remnant2014In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 439, no 3, p. 2828-2836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results of follow-up observations of the TeV gamma-ray source HESS J1640-465 from 2004 to 2011 with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) are reported in this work. The spectrum is well described by an exponential cut-off power law with photon index Gamma = 2.11 +/- 0.09(stat) +/- 0.10(sys), and a cut-off energy of E-2 = 6.0(-1.2)(+2.0) TeV. The TeV emission is significantly extended and overlaps with the northwestern part of the shell of the SNR G338.3-0.0. The new HESS results, a re-analysis of archival XMM-Newton data and multiwavelength observations suggest that a significant part of the gamma-ray emission from HESS J1640-465 originates in the supernova remnant shell. In a hadronic scenario, as suggested by the smooth connection of the GeV and TeV spectra, the product of total proton energy and mean target density could be as high as W(p)n(H) similar to 4 x 10(52)(d/10kpc)(2) erg cm(-3).

  • 9. Acero, F.
    et al.
    Aharonian, F.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Y.
    Behera, B.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Bochow, A.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Borrel, V.
    Braun, I.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Espigat, P.
    Fallon, L.
    Farnier, C.
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, A.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Gerbig, D.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Goering, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Holleran, M.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jahn, C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Kossakowski, R.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Martineau-Huynh, O.
    Marcowith, A.
    Masbou, J.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Mehault, J.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Nicholas, B.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J-F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raubenheimer, B. C.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, Joachim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Ryde, F.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schoenwald, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Sikora, M.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Superina, G.
    Sushch, I.
    Szostek, A.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    Tluczykont, M.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Localizing the VHE gamma-ray source at the Galactic Centre2010In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 402, no 3, p. 1877-1882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inner 10 pc of our Galaxy contains many counterpart candidates of the very high energy (VHE; > 100 GeV) gamma-ray point source HESS J1745-290. Within the point spread function of the H.E.S.S. measurement, at least three objects are capable of accelerating particles to VHE and beyond and of providing the observed gamma-ray flux. Previous attempts to address this source confusion were hampered by the fact that the projected distances between these objects were of the order of the error circle radius of the emission centroid (34 arcsec, dominated by the pointing uncertainty of the H.E.S.S. instrument). Here we present H.E.S.S. data of the Galactic Centre region, recorded with an improved control of the instrument pointing compared to H.E.S.S. standard pointing procedures. Stars observed during gamma-ray observations by optical guiding cameras mounted on each H.E.S.S. telescope are used for off-line pointing calibration, thereby decreasing the systematic pointing uncertainties from 20 to 6 arcsec per axis. The position of HESS J1745-290 is obtained by fitting a multi-Gaussian profile to the background-subtracted gamma-ray count map. A spatial comparison of the best-fitting position of HESS J1745-290 with the position and morphology of candidate counterparts is performed. The position is, within a total error circle radius of 13 arcsec, coincident with the position of the supermassive black hole Sgr A* and the recently discovered pulsar wind nebula candidate G359.95-0.04. It is significantly displaced from the centroid of the supernova remnant Sgr A East, excluding this object with high probability as the dominant source of the VHE gamma-ray emission.

  • 10. Adamo, A.
    et al.
    Smith, L. J.
    Gallagher, J. S.
    Bastian, N.
    Ryon, J.
    Westmoquette, M. S.
    Konstantopoulos, I. S.
    Zackrisson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Larsen, S. S.
    Silva-Villa, E.
    Charlton, J. C.
    Weisz, D. R.
    Revealing a ring-like cluster complex in a tidal tail of the starburst galaxy NGC 21462012In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 426, no 2, p. 1185-1194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the discovery of a ring-like cluster complex in the starburst galaxy NGC?2146. The Ruby Ring, so named due to its appearance, shows a clear ring-like distribution of star clusters around a central object. It is located in one of the tidal streams that surround the galaxy. NGC?2146 is part of the Snapshot Hubble U-band Cluster Survey (SHUCS). The WFC3/F336W data have added critical information to the available archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging set of NGC?2146, allowing us to determine ages, masses and extinctions of the clusters in the Ruby Ring. These properties have then been used to investigate the formation of this extraordinary system. We find evidence of a spatial and temporal correlation between the central cluster and the clusters in the ring. The latter are about 4?Myr younger than the central cluster, which has an age of 7?Myr. This result is supported by the Ha emission which is strongly coincident with the ring, and weaker at the position of the central cluster. From the derived total Ha luminosity of the system, we constrain the star formation rate density to be quite high (SSFR = 0.47?M??yr-1?kpc-2). The Ruby Ring is the product of an intense and localized burst of star formation, similar to the extended cluster complexes observed in M?51 and the Antennae, but more impressive because it is quite isolated. The central cluster contains only 5 per cent of the total stellar mass in the clusters that are determined within the complex. The ring-like morphology, the age spread and the mass ratio support a triggering formation scenario for this complex. We discuss the formation of the Ruby Ring in a collect and collapse framework. The predictions made by this model agree quite well with the estimated bubble radius and expansion velocity produced by the feedback from the central cluster, making the Ruby Ring an interesting case of triggered star formation.

  • 11.
    Adamo, Angela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Kruijssen, J. M. D.
    Bastian, N.
    Silva-Villa, E.
    Ryon, J.
    Probing the role of the galactic environment in the formation of stellar clusters, using M83 as a test bench2015In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 452, no 1, p. 246-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a study of the M83 cluster population, covering the disc of the galaxy between radii of 0.45 and 4.5 kpc. We aim to probe the properties of the cluster population as a function of distance from the galactic centre. We observe a net decline in cluster formation efficiency (Gamma, i.e. amount of star formation happening in bound clusters) from about 26 per cent in the inner region to 8 per cent in the outer part of the galaxy. The recovered Gamma values within different regions of M83 follow the same Gamma versus star formation rate density relation observed for entire galaxies. We also probe the initial cluster mass function (ICMF) as a function of galactocentric distance. We observe a significant steepening of the ICMF in the outer regions (from -1.90 +/- 0.11 to -2.70 +/- 0.14) and for the whole galactic cluster population (slope of -2.18 +/- 0.07) of M83. We show that this change of slope reflects a more fundamental change of the 'truncation mass' at the high-mass end of the distribution. This can be modelled as a Schechter function of slope -2 with an exponential cutoff mass (M-c) that decreases significantly from the inner to the outer regions (from 4.00 to 0.25 x 10(5) M-circle dot) while the galactic M-c is approximate to 1.60 x 10(5) M-circle dot. The trends in Gamma and ICMF are consistent with the observed radial decrease of the Sigma (H-2), hence in gas pressure. As gas pressure declines, cluster formation becomes less efficient. We conclude that the host galaxy environment appears to regulate (1) the fraction of stars locked in clusters and (2) the upper mass limit of the ICMF, consistently described by a near-universal slope -2 truncated at the high-mass end.

  • 12.
    Adamo, Angela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Östlin, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Zackrisson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Probing cluster formation under extreme conditions: massive star clusters in blue compact galaxies2011In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 417, no 3, p. 1904-1912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The numerous and massive young star clusters in blue compact galaxies (BCGs) are used to investigate the properties of their hosts. We test whether BCGs follow claimed relations between cluster populations and their hosts, such as the fraction of the total luminosity contributed by the clusters as function of the mean star formation rate (SFR) density, the V-band luminosity of the brightest youngest cluster as related to the mean host SFR and the cluster formation efficiency (i.e. the fraction of star formation happening in star clusters) versus the density of the SFR. We find that BCGs follow the trends, supporting a scenario where cluster formation and environmental properties of the host are correlated. They occupy, in all the diagrams, the regions of higher SFRs, as expected by the extreme nature of the starbursts operating in these systems. We find that the star clusters contribute almost to the 20 per cent of the UV luminosity of the hosts. We suggest that the BCG starburst environment has most likely favoured the compression and collapse of the giant molecular clouds, enhancing the local star formation efficiency, so that massive clusters have been formed. The estimated cluster formation efficiency supports this scenario. BCGs have a cluster formation efficiency comparable to luminous IR galaxies and spiral starburst nuclei (the averaged value is similar to 35 per cent) which is much higher than the 8-10 per cent reported for quiescent spirals and dwarf star-forming galaxies.

  • 13.
    Adamo, Angela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Östlin, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Zackrisson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Hayes, Matthew
    The Massive Star Clusters in the Dwarf Merger ESO 185-IG13: is the Red Excess Ubiquitous in Starbursts?2011In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 414, no 3, p. 1793-1812Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the starburst properties of the luminous blue compact galaxy ESO 185-IG13. The galaxy has been imaged with the high resolution cameras onboard to the Hubble Space Telescope. From the UV to the IR, the data reveal a system shaped by hundreds of young star clusters, and fine structures, like a tidal stream and a shell. The presence of numerous clusters and the perturbed morphology indicate that the galaxy has been involved in a recent merger event. Using previous simulations of shell formation in galaxy mergers we constrain potential progenitors of ESO 185-IG13. The analysis of the star cluster population is used to investigate the properties of the present starburst and to date the final merger event, which has produced hundreds of clusters younger than 100 Myr. We have found a peak of cluster formation only 3.5 Myr old. A large fraction of these clusters will not survive after 10-20 Myr, due to the "infant mortality" caused by gas expulsion. However, this sample of clusters represents an unique chance to investigate the youngest phases of cluster evolution. As already observed in the analog blue compact galaxy Haro 11, a fraction of young clusters are affected by a flux excess at wavelengths longer than 8000 \AA. Ages, masses, and extinctions of clusters with this NIR excess are estimated from UV and optical data. We discuss similarities and differences of the observed NIR excess in ESO 185-IG13 clusters with other cases in the literature. The cluster ages and masses are used to distinguish among the potential causes of the excess. We observe, as in Haro 11, that the use of the IR and the (commonly used) I band data results in overestimates of age and mass in clusters affected by the NIR excess. This has important implications for a number of related studies of star clusters.

  • 14.
    Adamo, Angela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Östlin, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Zackrisson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Hayes, Matthew
    Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève.
    Cumming, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Micheva, Genoveva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Super star clusters in Haro 11: properties of a very young starburst and evidence for a near-infrared flux excess2010In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, MNRAS, Vol. 407, no 2, p. 870-890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have used multiband imaging to investigate the nature of an extreme starburst environment in the nearby Lyman break galaxy analogue Haro 11 (ESO350-IG038) by means of its stellar cluster population. The central starburst region has been observed in eight different high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope (HST) wavebands, sampling the stellar and gas components from UV to near-infrared. Photometric imaging of the galaxy was also carried out at 2.16μm by NaCo AO instrument at the ESO Very Large Telescope. We constructed integrated spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for about 200 star clusters located in the active star-forming regions and compared them with single stellar population models (suitable for physical properties of very young cluster population) in order to derive ages, masses and extinctions of the star clusters. The cluster age distribution we recover confirms that the present starburst has lasted for 40Myr, and shows a peak of cluster formation only 3.5 Myr old. With such an extremely young cluster population, Haro 11 represents a unique opportunity to investigate the youngest phase of the cluster formation process and evolution in starburst systems. We looked for possible relations between cluster ages, extinctions and masses. Extinction tends to diminish as a function of the cluster age, but the spread is large and reaches the highest dispersion for clusters in partial embedded phases (<5Myr). A fraction of low-mass (below 104 Msolar), very young (1-3Myr) clusters is missing, either because they are embedded in the parental molecular cloud and heavily extinguished, or because of blending with neighbouring clusters. The range of the cluster masses is wide; we observe that more than 30 per cent of the clusters have masses above 105 Msolar, qualifying them as super star clusters. Almost half of the cluster sample is affected by flux excesses at wavelengths >8000Å which cannot be explained by simple stellar evolutionary models. Fitting SED models over all wavebands leads to systematic overestimates of cluster ages and incorrect masses for the stellar population supplying the light in these clusters. We show that the red excess affects also the HST F814W filter, which is typically used to constrain cluster physical properties. The clusters which show the red excess are younger than 40Myr we discuss possible physical explanations for the phenomenon. Finally, we estimate that Haro 11 has produced bound clusters at a rate almost a factor of 10 higher than the massive and regular spirals, like the Milky Way. The present cluster formation efficiency is ~38 per cent of the galactic star formation rate.

  • 15.
    Adamo, Angela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Östlin, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Zackrisson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Papaderos, P.
    Bergvall, N.
    Rich, R. M.
    Micheva, Genoveva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Star cluster formation and evolution in Mrk 930: properties of a metal-poor starburst2011In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 415, no 3, p. 2388-2406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the analysis of the large population of star clusters in the blue compact galaxy (BCG) Mrk 930. The study has been conducted by means of a photometric analysis of multiband data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We have reconstructed the spectral energy distributions of the star clusters and estimated the age, mass and extinction for a representative sample. Similar to previous studies of star clusters in BCGs, we observe a very young cluster population with 70 per cent of the systems formed less than 10 Myr ago. In Mrk 930, the peak in the star cluster age distribution at 4 Myr is corroborated by the presence of Wolf-Rayet spectral features, and by the observed optical and infrared (IR) line ratios [OIII]/H beta and [Ne III]/[Ne II]. The recovered extinction in these very young clusters shows large variations, with a decrease at older ages. It is likely that our analysis is limited to the optically brightest objects (i.e. systems only partially embedded in their natal cocoons; the deeply embedded clusters being undetected). We map the extinction across the galaxy using low-resolution spectra and the H alpha-to-H beta ratio, as obtained from ground-based narrow band imaging. These results are compared with the extinction distribution recovered from the clusters. We find that the mean optical extinction derived in the starburst regions is close to the averaged value observed in the clusters [more than 80 per cent of the systems have E(B - V) <= 0.2mag], but locally, do not trace the more extinguished clusters. Previous HST studies of BCGs have revealed a population of young and extremely red super star clusters. We detect a considerable fraction of clusters affected by a red excess also in Mrk 930. The nature of the red excess, which turns up at near-IR wavelengths (I band and longwards), remains unknown. We compare the cluster formation history and the star formation history, the latter derived from the fit of spectral population synthesis models to the spectra. We find a general agreement between the two independently estimated quantities. Using the cluster properties, we perform a study of the host environmental properties. We find that the cluster formation efficiency (the fraction of star formation happening in clusters) is significantly higher, suggesting a key role of the environment for the formation of these massive objects.

  • 16.
    Algeri, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Imperial College London, UK.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Imperial College London, UK.
    van Dyk, David A.
    A method for comparing non-nested models with application to astrophysical searches for new physics2016In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 458, no 1, p. L84-L88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Searches for unknown physics and decisions between competing astrophysical models to explain data both rely on statistical hypothesis testing. The usual approach in searches for new physical phenomena is based on the statistical likelihood ratio test and its asymptotic properties. In the common situation, when neither of the two models under comparison is a special case of the other i.e. when the hypotheses are non-nested, this test is not applicable. In astrophysics, this problem occurs when two models that reside in different parameter spaces are to be compared. An important example is the recently reported excess emission in astrophysical gamma-rays and the question whether its origin is known astrophysics or dark matter. We develop and study a new, simple, generally applicable, frequentist method and validate its statistical properties using a suite of simulations studies. We exemplify it on realistic simulated data of the Fermi-Large Area Telescope gamma-ray satellite, where non-nested hypotheses testing appears in the search for particle dark matter.

  • 17.
    Alsing, Justin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Flatiron Institute, USA; Imperial College London, UK.
    Charnock, Tom
    Feeney, Stephen
    Wandelt, Benjamin
    Fast likelihood-free cosmology with neural density estimators and active learning2019In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 488, no 3, p. 4440-4458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Likelihood-free inference provides a framework for performing rigorous Bayesian inference using only forward simulations, properly accounting for all physical and observational effects that can be successfully included in the simulations, The key challenge for likelihood-free applications in cosmology, where simulation is typically expensive, is developing methods that can achieve high-fidelity posterior inference with as few simulations as possible. Density estimation likelihood-free inference (DELFI) methods turn inference into a density-estimation task on a set of simulated data-parameter pairs, and give orders of magnitude improvements over traditional Approximate Bayesian Computation approaches to likelihood-free inference. In this paper, we use neural density estimators (NDEs) to learn the likelihood function from a set of simulated data sets, with active learning to adaptively acquire simulations in the most relevant regions of parameter space on the fly. We demonstrate the approach on a number of cosmological case studies, showing that for typical problems high-fidelity posterior inference can be achieved with just 0(103) simulations or fewer. In addition to enabling efficient simulation-based inference, for simple problems where the form of the likelihood is known, DELFI offers a fast alternative to Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling, giving orders of magnitude speed-up in some cases. Finally, we introduce PYDELFI a flexible public implementation of DELFI with NDFs and active learning - available at haps://github.com/justinalsing/pydelfi.

  • 18.
    Alsing, Justin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Flatiron Institute, USA; Imperial College London, UK.
    Wandelt, Benjamin
    Nuisance hardened data compression for fast likelihood-free inference2019In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 488, no 4, p. 5093-5103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show how nuisance parameter marginalized posteriors can be inferred directly from simulations in a likelihood-free setting, without having to jointly infer the higher dimensional interesting and nuisance parameter posterior first and marginalize a posteriori. The result is that for an inference task with a given number of interesting parameters, the number of simulations required to perform likelihood-free inference can be kept (roughly) the same irrespective of the number of additional nuisances to be marginalized over. To achieve this, we introduce two extensions to the standard likelihood-free inference set-up. First, we show how nuisance parameters can be recast as latent variables and hence automatically marginalized over in the likelihood-free framework. Secondly, we derive an asymptotically optimal compression from N data to n summaries - one per interesting parameter - such that the Fisher information is (asymptotically) preserved, but the summaries are insensitive to the nuisance parameters. This means that the nuisance marginalized inference task involves learning n interesting parameters from n nuisance hardened' data summaries, regardless of the presence or number of additional nuisance parameters to be marginalized over. We validate our approach on two examples from cosmology: supernovae and weak-lensing data analyses with nuisance parametrized systematics. For the supernova problem, high-fidelity posterior inference of Omega(m) and w(0) (marginalized over systematics) can be obtained from just a few hundred data simulations. For the weak-lensing problem, six cosmological parameters can be inferred from just simulations, irrespective of whether 10 additional nuisance parameters are included in the problem or not.

  • 19.
    Amanullah, Rahman
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Johansson, Joel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Ferretti, Raphael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Papadogiannakis, Seméli
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Petrushevska, Tanja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Brown, P. J.
    Cao, Y.
    Contreras, C.
    Dahle, H.
    Elias-Rosa, N.
    Fynbo, J. P. U.
    Gorosabel, J.
    Guaita, L.
    Hangard, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Howell, D. A.
    Hsiao, E. Y.
    Kankare, E.
    Kasliwal, M.
    Leloudas, G.
    Lundqvist, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Mattila, S.
    Nugent, P.
    Phillips, M. M.
    Sandberg, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Stanishev, V.
    Sullivan, M.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Östlin, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Asadi, Saghar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Herrero-Illana, R.
    Jensen, J. J.
    Karhunen, K.
    Lazarevic, S.
    Varenius, E.
    Santos, P.
    Sridhar, S. Seethapuram
    Wallström, S. H. J.
    Wiegert, J.
    Diversity in extinction laws of Type Ia supernovae measured between 0.2 and 2 mu m2015In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 453, no 3, p. 3300-3328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present ultraviolet (UV) observations of six nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, three of which were also observed in the near-IR (NIR) with Wide-Field Camera 3. UV observations with the Swift satellite, as well as ground-based optical and NIR data provide complementary information. The combined data set covers the wavelength range 0.2-2 mu m. By also including archival data of SN 2014J, we analyse a sample spanning observed colour excesses up to E(B - V) = 1.4 mag. We study the wavelength-dependent extinction of each individual SN and find a diversity of reddening laws when characterized by the total-to-selective extinction R-V. In particular, we note that for the two SNe with E(B - V) greater than or similar to 1 mag, for which the colour excess is dominated by dust extinction, we find R-V = 1.4 +/- 0.1 and R-V = 2.8 +/- 0.1. Adding UV photometry reduces the uncertainty of fitted R-V by similar to 50 per cent allowing us to also measure R-V of individual low-extinction objects which point to a similar diversity, currently not accounted for in the analyses when SNe Ia are used for studying the expansion history of the Universe.

  • 20. Amarsi, A. M.
    et al.
    Asplund, M.
    Collet, R.
    Leenaarts, Jorrit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Non-LTE oxygen line formation in 3D hydrodynamic model stellar atmospheres2016In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 455, no 4, p. 3735-3751Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The O (Iota) 777 nm lines are among the most commonly used diagnostics for the oxygen abundances in the atmospheres of FGK-type stars. However, they form in conditions that are far from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We explore the departures from LTE of atomic oxygen, and their impact on O I lines, across the STAGGER-grid of three-dimensional hydrodynamic model atmospheres. For the O (Iota) 777 nm triplet, we find significant departures from LTE. These departures are larger in stars with larger effective temperatures, smaller surface gravities, and larger oxygen abundances. We present grids of predicted 3D non-LTE based equivalent widths for the O (Iota) 616 nm, [O (Iota)] 630 nm, [O (I)] 636 nm, and O (Iota) 777 nm lines, as well as abundance corrections to 1D LTE based results.

  • 21. Amarsi, A. M.
    et al.
    Asplund, M.
    Collet, R.
    Leenaarts, Jorrit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    The Galactic chemical evolution of oxygen inferred from 3D non-LTE spectral-line-formation calculations2015In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 454, no 1, p. L11-L15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We revisit the Galactic chemical evolution of oxygen, addressing the systematic errors inherent in classical determinations of the oxygen abundance that arise from the use of one-dimensional (1D) hydrostatic model atmospheres and from the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We perform detailed 3D non-LTE radiative-transfer calculations for atomic oxygen lines across a grid of 3D hydrodynamic STAGGER model atmospheres for dwarfs and subgiants. We apply our grid of predicted line strengths of the [O I] 630 nm and O I 777 nm lines using accurate stellar parameters from the literature. We infer a steep decay in [O/Fe] for [Fe/H] greater than or similar to -1.0, a plateau [O/Fe] approximate to 0.5 down to [Fe/H] approximate to -2.5, and an increasing trend for [Fe/H] less than or similar to -2.5. Our 3D non-LTE calculations yield overall concordant results from the two oxygen abundance diagnostics.

  • 22. Argyle, J. J.
    et al.
    Méndez-Abreu, J.
    Wild, V.
    Mortlock, Daniel J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Imperial College London, UK.
    Bayesian bulge-disc decomposition of galaxy images2018In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 479, no 3, p. 3076-3093Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce PHI, a fully Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm designed for the structural decomposition of galaxy images. PHI uses a triple layer approach to effectively and efficiently explore the complex parameter space. Combining this with the use of priors to prevent non-physical models, PHI offers a number of significant advantages for estimating surface brightness profile parameters over traditional optimization algorithms. We apply PHI to a sample of synthetic galaxies with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-like image properties to investigate the effect of galaxy properties on our ability to recover unbiased and well-constrained structural parameters. In two-component bulge+disc galaxies, we find that the bulge structural parameters are recovered less well than those of the disc, particularly when the bulge contributes a lower fraction to the luminosity, or is barely resolved with respect to the pixel scale or point spread function (PSF). There are few systematic biases, apart from for bulge+disc galaxies with large bulge Sersic parameter, n. On application to SDSS images, we find good agreement with other codes, when run on the same images with the same masks, weights, and PSF. Again, we find that bulge parameters are the most difficult to constrain robustly. Finally, we explore the use of a Bayesian information criterion method for deciding whether a galaxy has one or two components.

  • 23. Arthur, S. J.
    et al.
    Henney, W. J.
    Mellema, Garrelt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    De Colle, F.
    Vazquez-Semadeni, E.
    Radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of H II regions and their associated PDRs in turbulent molecular clouds2011In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 414, no 2, p. 1747-1768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the results of radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the formation and expansion of H II regions and their surrounding photodissociation regions (PDRs) in turbulent, magnetized, molecular clouds on scales of up to 4 pc. We include the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing ultraviolet radiation and X-rays from population synthesis models of young star clusters. For all our simulations we find that the H II region expansion reduces the disordered component of the magnetic field, imposing a large-scale order on the field around its border, with the field in the neutral gas tending to lie along the ionization front, while the field in the ionized gas tends to be perpendicular to the front. The highest pressure-compressed neutral and molecular gas is driven towards approximate equipartition between thermal, magnetic and turbulent energy densities, whereas lower pressure neutral/molecular gas bifurcates into, on the one hand, quiescent, magnetically dominated regions and, on the other hand, turbulent, demagnetized regions. The ionized gas shows approximate equipartition between thermal and turbulent energy densities, but with magnetic energy densities that are 1-3 orders of magnitude lower. A high velocity dispersion (similar to 8 km s(-1)) is maintained in the ionized gas throughout our simulations, despite the mean expansion velocity being significantly lower. The magnetic field does not significantly brake the large-scale H II region expansion on the length and time-scales accessible to our simulations, but it does tend to suppress the smallest scale fragmentation and radiation-driven implosion of neutral/molecular gas that forms globules and pillars at the edge of the H II region. However, the relative luminosity of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation has a much larger influence than the presence or absence of the magnetic field. When the star cluster radiation field is relatively soft (as in the case of a lower mass cluster, containing an earliest spectral type of B0.5), then fragmentation is less vigorous and a thick, relatively smooth PDR forms.

  • 24. Asad, K. M. B.
    et al.
    Koopmans, L. V. E.
    Jelic, V.
    Pandey, V. N.
    Ghosh, A.
    Abdalla, F. B.
    Bernardi, G.
    Brentjens, M. A.
    de Bruyn, A. G.
    Bus, S.
    Ciardi, B.
    Chapman, E.
    Daiboo, S.
    Fernandez, E. R.
    Harker, G.
    Iliev, I. T.
    Jensen, Hannes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Martinez-Rubi, O.
    Mellema, Garrelt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Mevius, M.
    Offringa, A. R.
    Patil, A. H.
    Schaye, J.
    Thomas, R. M.
    van der Tol, S.
    Vedantham, H. K.
    Yatawatta, S.
    Zaroubi, S.
    Polarization leakage in epoch of reionization windows - I. Low Frequency Array observations of the 3C196 field2015In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 451, no 4, p. 3709-3727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detection of the 21-cm signal coming from the epoch of reionization (EoR) is challenging especially because, even after removing the foregrounds, the residual Stokes <italic toggle=yes>I maps contain leakage from polarized emission that can mimic the signal. Here, we discuss the instrumental polarization of Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) and present realistic simulations of the leakages between Stokes parameters. From the LOFAR observations of polarized emission in the 3C196 field, we have quantified the level of polarization leakage caused by the nominal model beam of LOFAR, and compared it with the EoR signal using power spectrum analysis. We found that at 134-166 MHz, within the central 4A degrees of the field the (<italic toggle=yes>Q, <italic toggle=yes>U) -> <italic toggle=yes>I leakage power is lower than the EoR signal at <italic toggle=yes>k < 0.3 Mpc(-1). The leakage was found to be localized around a Faraday depth of 0, and the rms of the leakage as a fraction of the rms of the polarized emission was shown to vary between 0.2 and 0.3 per cent, both of which could be utilized in the removal of leakage. Moreover, we could define an 'EoR window' in terms of the polarization leakage in the cylindrical power spectrum above the point spread function (PSF)-induced wedge and below <italic toggle=yes>k(ayen) similar to 0.5 Mpc(-1), and the window extended up to <italic toggle=yes>k(ayen) similar to 1 Mpc(-1) at all <italic toggle=yes>k(aSyen) when 70 per cent of the leakage had been removed. These LOFAR results show that even a modest polarimetric calibration over a field of view of a parts per thousand(2) 4A degrees in the future arrays like Square Kilometre Array will ensure that the polarization leakage remains well below the expected EoR signal at the scales of 0.02-1 Mpc(-1).

  • 25.
    Asadi, Saghar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Zackrisson, Erik
    Freeland, Emily
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Probing cold dark matter subhaloes with simulated ALMA observations of macrolensed sub-mm galaxies2017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 472, no 1, p. 129-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If the dark matter haloes of galaxies contain large numbers of subhaloes as predicted by the Lambda cold dark matter model, these subhaloes are expected to appear in strong galaxy-galaxy lens systems as small-scale perturbations in individual images. We simulate observations of multiply lensed sub-mm galaxies at z similar to 2 as a probe of the dark matter halo of a lens galaxy at z similar to 0.5. We present detection limits for dark substructures based on a visibility plane analysis of simulated Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) data in bands 7, 8 and 9. We explore two effects: local surface brightness anomalies on angular scales similar to the Einstein radius and the astrometric shift of macroimages. This improves the sensitivity of our lens modelling to the mass of the lens perturber. We investigate the sensitivity of the detection of low-mass subhaloes to the projected position of the subhalo on the image plane as well as the source structure and inner density profile of the lens. We demonstrate that, using the most extended ALMA configuration, pseudo-Jaffe subhaloes can be detected with 99 per cent confidence down to M = 10(7)M(circle dot) . We show how the detection threshold for the three ALMA bands depends on the projected position of the subhalo with respect to the lensed images and conclude that, despite the highest nominal angular resolution, band 9 provides the poorest sensitivity due to observational noise. All simulations use the ALMA Full ops most extended ALMA configuration setup in CASA.

  • 26. Ascenzi, Stefano
    et al.
    Coughlin, Michael W.
    Dietrich, Tim
    Foley, Ryan J.
    Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico
    Piranomonte, Silvia
    Mockler, Brenna
    Murguia-Berthier, Ariadna
    Fryer, Chris L.
    Lloyd-Ronning, Nicole M.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    A luminosity distribution for kilonovae based on short gamma-ray burst afterglows2019In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 486, no 1, p. 672-690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combined detection of a gravitational-wave signal, kilonova, and short gamma-ray burst (sGRB) from GW170817 marked a scientific breakthrough in the field of multimessenger astronomy. But even before GW170817, there have been a number of sGRBs with possible associated kilonova detections. In this work, we re-examine these ` historical' sGRB afterglows with a combination of state-of-the-art afterglow and kilonova models. This allows us to include optical/near-infrared synchrotron emission produced by the sGRB as well as ultraviolet/optical/near-infrared emission powered by the radioactive decay of r-process elements (i.e. the kilonova). Fitting the light curves, we derive the velocity and the mass distribution as well as the composition of the ejected material. The posteriors on kilonova parameters obtained from the fit were turned into distributions for the peak magnitude of the kilonova emission in different bands and the time at which this peak occurs. From the sGRB with an associated kilonova, we found that the peak magnitude in H bands falls in the range [-16.2, -13.1] (95 per cent of confidence) and occurs within 0.8-3.6 d after the sGRB prompt emission. In g band instead we obtain a peak magnitude in range [-16.8, -12.3] occurring within the first 18 h after the sGRB prompt. From the luminosity distributions of GW170817/AT2017gfo, kilonova candidates GRB130603B, GRB050709, and GRB060614 (with the possible inclusion of GRB150101B, GRB050724A, GRB061201, GRB080905A, GRB150424A, and GRB160821B) and the upper limits from all the other sGRBs not associated with any kilonova detection we obtain for the first time a kilonova luminosity distribution in different bands.

  • 27. Ashworth, G.
    et al.
    Fumagalli, M.
    Krumholz, M. R.
    Adamo, Angela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Calzetti, D.
    Chandar, R.
    Cignoni, M.
    Dale, D.
    Elmegreen, B. G.
    Gallagher, J. S.
    Gouliermis, D. A.
    Grasha, K.
    Grebel, E. K.
    Johnson, K. E.
    Lee, J.
    Tosi, M.
    Wofford, A.
    Exploring the IMF of star clusters: a joint SLUG and LEGUS effort2017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 469, no 2, p. 2464-2480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the implementation of a Bayesian formalism within the Stochastically Lighting Up Galaxies (SLUG) stellar population synthesis code, which is designed to investigate variations in the initial mass function (IMF) of star clusters. By comparing observed cluster photometry to large libraries of clusters simulated with a continuously varying IMF, our formalism yields the posterior probability distribution function (PDF) of the cluster mass, age and extinction, jointly with the parameters describing the IMF. We apply this formalism to a sample of star clusters from the nearby galaxy NGC 628, for which broad-band photometry in five filters is available as part of the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS). After allowing the upper-end slope of the IMF (a3) to vary, we recover PDFs for the mass, age and extinction that are broadly consistent with what is found when assuming an invariant Kroupa IMF. However, the posterior PDF for a3 is very broad due to a strong degeneracy with the cluster mass, and it is found to be sensitive to the choice of priors, particularly on the cluster mass. We find only a modest improvement in the constraining power of a3 when adding Ha photometry from the companion Ha-LEGUS survey. Conversely, Ha photometry significantly improves the age determination, reducing the frequency of multi-modal PDFs. With the aid of mock clusters, we quantify the degeneracy between physical parameters, showing how constraints on the cluster mass that are independent of photometry can be used to pin down the IMF properties of star clusters.

  • 28. Ashworth, G.
    et al.
    Fumagalli, Michele
    Adamo, Angela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Krumholz, Mark R.
    Theoretical predictions for IMF diagnostics in UV spectroscopy of star clusters2018In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 480, no 3, p. 3091-3104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the possibility of using UV spectroscopy in combination with broad-band photometry as diagnostic tools for understanding the shape of the initial mass function (IMF) in unresolved stellar populations. Building on our previous work, we extend the Stochastically Lighting Up Galaxies (SLUG) code to include a high-resolution UV spectral synthesizer and equivalent width calculation capabilities. We first gain a qualitative understanding of how UV spectral features behave as the parameters that define a star cluster in SLUG (mass, age, extinction, and IMF slope alpha(3)) are changed. We then exploit Bayesian inference techniques to recover the alpha(3) values for clusters simulated with SLUG, using mock observations of these clusters comprised of broad-band photometry and equivalent width measurements of a selection of UV spectral features. We find some improvement when compared to attempts using broad-band photometry alone (with the interquartile range of the alpha(3) posterior PDF shrinking by similar or equal to 32%), although we still do not yet fully break the known degeneracy between the cluster mass and alpha(3). Finally, we make predictions about how effective real observations will be by quantifying our ability to constrain alpha(3) as a function of limiting equivalent width. We find that observations sensitive to a modest equivalent width of similar or equal to 9 angstrom are sufficient to improve the recovery of the IMF slope parameter by similar or equal to 32% (interquartile range of posterior PDF median residuals), moving to similar or equal to 39% when we include all the significant spectral features in the wavelength range 900 - 3000 angstrom.

  • 29.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Borgonovo, Luis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    The width of gamma-ray burst spectra2015In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 447, no 4, p. 3150-3154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emission processes active in the highly relativistic jets of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) remain unknown. In this paper, we propose a new measure to describe spectra: the width of the EFE spectrum, a quantity dependent only on finding a good fit to the data. We apply this to the full sample of GRBs observed by Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Compton Gamma-ray Observatory/Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). The results from the two instruments are fully consistent. We find that the median widths of spectra from long and short GRBs are significantly different (chance probability < 10(-6)). The width does not correlate with either duration or hardness, and this is thus a new, independent distinction between the two classes. Comparing the measured spectra with widths of spectra from fundamental emission processes - synchrotron and blackbody radiation - the results indicate that a large fraction of GRB spectra are too narrow to be explained by synchrotron radiation from a distribution of electron energies: for example, 78 per cent of long GRBs and 85 per cent of short GRBs are incompatible with the minimum width of standard slow cooling synchrotron emission from a Maxwellian distribution of electrons, with fast cooling spectra predicting even wider spectra. Photospheric emission can explain the spectra if mechanisms are invoked to give a spectrum much broader than a blackbody.

  • 30.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Done, Chris
    Breaking the spectral degeneracies in black hole binaries with fast timing data: the hard state of Cygnus X-12018In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 480, no 1, p. 751-758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spectra of black hole binaries in the low/hard state are complex, with evidence formultiple different Comptonization regions contributing to the hard X-rays in addition to a cool disc component. We show this explicitly for some of the best RXTE data from Cyg X-1, where the spectrum strongly requires (at least) two different Comptonization components in order to fit the continuum above 3 keV, where the disc does not contribute. However, it is difficult to constrain the physical properties of these Comptonization components uniquely using spectral data alone. Instead, we show that additional information from fast variability can break this degeneracy. Specifically, we use the observed variability power spectra in each energy channel to reconstruct the energy spectra of the variability on time-scales of similar to 10, 1, and 0.1 s. The two longer time-scale spectra have similar shapes, but the fastest component is dramatically harder, and has strong curvature indicating that its seed photons are not from the cool disc. We interpret this in the context of propagating fluctuations through a hot flow, where the outer regions are cooler and optically thick, so that they shield the inner region from the disc. The seed photons for the hot inner region are then from the cooler Comptonization region rather than the disc itself.

  • 31.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Done, Chris
    Hjalmarsdotter, Linnea
    An imperfect double: probing the physical origin of the low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation and its harmonic in black hole binaries2014In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 438, no 1, p. 657-662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We extract the spectra of the strong low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) and its harmonic during the rising phase of an outburst in the black hole binary XTE J1550-564. We compare these frequency-resolved spectra to the time-averaged spectrum and the spectrum of the rapid (<0.1 s) variability. The spectrum of the time-averaged emission can be described by a disc, a Compton upscattered tail and its reflection. The QPO spectrum is very similar to the spectrum of the most rapid variability, implying it arises in the innermost regions of the flow. It contains little detectable disc, and its Compton spectrum is generally harder and shows less reflection than in the time-averaged emission. The harmonic likewise contains little detectable disc component, but has a Compton spectrum which is systematically softer than the QPO, softer even than the Compton tail in the time-averaged emission. We interpret these results in the context of the truncated disc model, where the inner disc is replaced by a hot flow. The QPO can arise in this picture from vertical (Lense-Thirring) precession of the entire hot inner flow, and its harmonic can be produced by the angular dependence of Compton scattering within the hot flow. We extend these models to include stratification of the hot flow, so that it is softer (lower optical depth) at larger radii closer to the truncated disc, and harder (higher optical depth) in the innermost parts of the flow where the rapid variability is produced. The different optical depth with radius gives rise to different angular dependence of the Comptonized emission, weighting the fundamental to the inner parts of the hot flow, and the harmonic to the outer. This is the first model which can explain both the spectrum of the QPO, and its harmonic, in a self consistent geometry.

  • 32.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Hjalmarsdotter, Linnea
    Done, Chris
    Fast variability as a probe of the smallest regions around accreting black holes2013In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 431, no 2, p. 1987-1994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We extract the spectra of the fastest variability (above 10 Hz) from the black hole XTE J1550-564 during a transition from hard to soft state on the rise to outburst. We confirm previous results that the rapid variability contains no significant disc component despite this being strongly present in the total spectrum of the softer observations. We model ionized reflection significantly better than previous work, and show that this is also suppressed in the rapid variability spectrum compared to the total emission. This is consistent with the fast variability having its origin in a hot inner flow close to the black hole rather than in the accretion disc or in a corona above it. However, the rapid variability spectrum is not simply the same as the total Comptonized emission. It is always significantly harder, by an amount which increases as the spectrum softens during the outburst. This adds to evidence from time lags that the Comptonization region is inhomogeneous, with harder spectra produced closest to the black hole, the same region which produces the fastest variability.

  • 33.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Larsson, Stefan
    Hjalmarsdotter, Linnea
    The aperiodic broad-band X-ray variability of Cygnus X-32009In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 394, no 3, p. 1544-1550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the soft X-ray variability of Cygnus X-3. By combining data from the All-Sky Monitor and Proportional Counter Array instruments on the RXTE satellite with EXOSAT/Medium Energy (ME) detector observations, we are able to analyse the power density spectrum (PDS) of the source from 10−9 to 0.1 Hz, thus covering time-scales from seconds to years. As the data on the longer time-scales are unevenly sampled, we combine traditional power spectral techniques with simulations to analyse the variability in this range. The PDS at higher frequencies (≳10−3 Hz) are for the first time compared for all states of this source. We find that it is for all states well described by a power law, with index ∼−2 in the soft states and a tendency for a less steep power law in the hard state. At longer time-scales, we study the effect of the state transitions on the PDS, and find that the variability below ∼10−7 Hz is dominated by the transitions. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the length of a high/soft-state episode and the time since the previous high/soft state. On intermediate time-scales, we find evidence for a break in the PDS at time-scales of the order of the orbital period. This may be interpreted as evidence for the existence of a tidal resonance in the accretion disc around the compact object, and constraining the mass ratio to M2/M1≲ 0.3.

  • 34. Bacchus, E.
    et al.
    Parry, I. R.
    Oppenheimer, R.
    Aguilar, J.
    Beichman, C.
    Brenner, D.
    Burruss, R.
    Cady, E.
    Luszcz-Cook, S.
    Crepp, J.
    Dekany, R.
    Gianninas, A.
    Hillenbrand, L.
    Kilic, M.
    King, D.
    Lockhart, T. G.
    Matthews, C. T.
    Nilsson, Ricky
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. American Museum of Natural History, USA; California Institute of Technology, USA.
    Pueyo, L.
    Rice, E. L.
    Roberts, L. C.
    Sivaramakrishnan, A.
    Soummer, R.
    Vasisht, G.
    Veicht, A.
    Zhai, C.
    Zimmerman, N. T.
    Project 1640 observations of the white dwarf HD 114174 B2017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 469, no 4, p. 4796-4805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the first near infrared spectrum of the faint white dwarf companion HD 114174 B, obtained with Project 1640. Our spectrum, covering the Y, J and H bands, combined with previous TaRgetting bENchmark-objects with Doppler Spectroscopy (TRENDS) photometry measurements, allows us to place further constraints on this companion. We suggest two possible scenarios; either this object is an old, low-mass, cool H atmosphere white dwarf with T-eff similar to 3800 K or a high-mass white dwarf with T-eff > 6000 K, potentially with an associated cool (T-eff similar to 700 K) brown dwarf or debris disc resulting in an infrared excess in the L' band. We also provide an additional astrometry point for 2014 June 12 and use the modelled companion mass combined with the radial velocity and direct imaging data to place constraints on the orbital parameters for this companion.

  • 35. Bagla, J. S.
    et al.
    Khandai, Nishikanta
    Datta, Kanan K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    H i as a probe of the large-scale structure in the post-reionization universe2010In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 407, no 1, p. 567-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We model the distribution of neutral hydrogen (H i) in the post-reionization universe. This model uses gravity-only N-body simulations and an ansatz to assign H i to dark matter haloes that is consistent with observational constraints and theoretical models. We resolve the smallest haloes that are likely to host H i in the simulations; care is also taken to ensure that any errors due to the finite size of the simulation box are small. We then compute the smoothed one-point probability distribution function and the power spectrum of fluctuations in H i. This is compared with other predictions that have been made using different techniques. We highlight the significantly high bias for the H i distribution at small scales. This aspect has not been discussed before. We then discuss the prospects of the detection with the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) and the hypothetical MWA5000. The MWA5000 can detect visibility correlations at large angular scales at all redshifts in the post-reionization era. The GMRT can detect visibility correlations at lower redshifts; specifically there is a strong case for a survey at z similar or equal to 1.3. We also discuss prospects for direct detection of rare peaks in the H i distribution using the GMRT. We show that direct detection should be possible with an integration time that is comparable to, or even less than, the time required for a statistical detection. Specifically, it is possible to make a statistical detection of the H i distribution by measuring the visibility correlation and direct detection of rare peaks in the H i distribution at z similar or equal to 1.3 with the GMRT in less than 1000 h of observations.

  • 36. Banerjee, D. P. K.
    et al.
    Joshi, Vishal
    Evans, A.
    Srivastava, Mudit
    Ashok, N. M.
    Gehrz, R. D.
    Connelley, M. S.
    Geballe, T. R.
    Spyromilio, J.
    Rho, J.
    Roy, Rupak
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Early formation of carbon monoxide in the Centaurus A supernova SN 2016adj2018In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 481, no 1, p. 806-818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy of the NGC 5128 supernova SN 2016adj in the first two months following discovery. We report the detection of first-overtone carbon monoxide emission at similar to 58.2 d after discovery, one of the earliest detections of CO in an erupting supernova. We model the CO emission to derive the CO mass, temperature, and velocity, assuming both pure (CO)-C-12 and a composition that includes (CO)-C-13; the case for the latter is the isotopic analyses of meteoritic grains, which suggest that core-collapse supernovae can synthesize significant amounts of C-13. Our models show that, while the CO data are adequately explained by pure (CO)-C-12, they do not preclude the presence of (CO)-C-13, to a limit of C-12/C-13 > 3, the first constraint on the C-12/C-13 ratio determined from near-infrared observations. We estimate the reddening to the object, and the effective temperature from the energy distribution at outburst. We discuss whether the ejecta of SN 2016adj may be carbon-rich, what the infrared data tell us about the classification of this supernova, and what implications the early formation of CO in supernovae may have for CO formation in supernovae in general.

  • 37. Barbarino, C.
    et al.
    Dall'Ora, M.
    Botticella, M. T.
    Della Valle, M.
    Zampieri, L.
    Maund, J. R.
    Pumo, M. L.
    Jerkstrand, A.
    Benetti, S.
    Elias-Rosa, N.
    Fraser, M.
    Gal-Yam, A.
    Hamuy, M.
    Inserra, C.
    Knapic, C.
    LaCluyze, A. P.
    Molinaro, M.
    Ochner, P.
    Pastorello, A.
    Pignata, G.
    Reichart, D. E.
    Ries, C.
    Riffeser, A.
    Schmidt, B.
    Schmidt, M.
    Smareglia, R.
    Smartt, S. J.
    Smith, K.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Sullivan, M.
    Tomasella, L.
    Turatto, M.
    Valenti, S.
    Yaron, O.
    Young, D.
    SN 2012ec: mass of the progenitor from PESSTO follow-up of the photospheric phase2015In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 448, no 3, p. 2312-2331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the results of a photometric and spectroscopic monitoring campaign of SN 2012ec, which exploded in the spiral galaxy NGC 1084, during the photospheric phase. The photometric light curve exhibits a plateau with luminosity L = 0.9 x 10(42) erg s(-1) and duration similar to 90 d, which is somewhat shorter than standard Type II-P supernovae (SNe). We estimate the nickel mass M(Ni-56) = 0.040 +/- 0.015 M-circle dot from the luminosity at the beginning of the radioactive tail of the light curve. The explosion parameters of SN 2012ec were estimated from the comparison of the bolometric light curve and the observed temperature and velocity evolution of the ejecta with predictions from hydrodynamical models. We derived an envelope mass of 12.6 M-circle dot, an initial progenitor radius of 1.6 x 10(13) cm and an explosion energy of 1.2 foe. These estimates agree with an independent study of the progenitor star identified in pre-explosion images, for which an initial mass of M = 14-22 M-circle dot was determined. We have applied the same analysis to two other Type II-P SNe (SNe 2012aw and 2012A), and carried out a comparison with the properties of SN 2012ec derived in this paper. We find a reasonable agreement between the masses of the progenitors obtained from pre-explosion images and masses derived from hydrodynamical models. We estimate the distance to SN 2012ec with the standardized candle method (SCM) and compare it with other estimates based on other primary and secondary indicators. SNe 2012A, 2012aw and 2012ec all follow the standard relations for the SCM for the use of Type II-P SNe as distance indicators.

  • 38. Bastian, N.
    et al.
    Adamo, Angela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Gieles, M.
    Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.
    Larsen, S. S.
    Silva-Villa, E.
    Smith, L. J.
    Kotulla, R.
    Konstantopoulos, I. S.
    Trancho, G.
    Zackrisson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Evidence for environmentally dependent cluster disruption in M832011In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 417, no 1, p. l6-L10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using multiwavelength imaging from the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope we study the stellar cluster populations of two adjacent fields in the nearby face-on spiral galaxy, M83. The observations cover the galactic centre and reach out to similar to 6 kpc, thereby spanning a large range of environmental conditions, ideal for testing empirical laws of cluster disruption. The clusters are selected by visual inspection to be centrally concentrated, symmetric and resolved on the images. We find that a large fraction of objects detected by automated algorithms (e. g. SEXTRACTOR or DAOFIND) are not clusters, but rather are associations. These are likely to disperse into the field on time-scales of tens of Myr due to their lower stellar densities and not due to gas expulsion (i.e. they were never gravitationally bound). We split the sample into two discrete fields (inner and outer regions of the galaxy) and search for evidence of environmentally dependent cluster disruption. Colour-colour diagrams of the clusters, when compared to simple stellar population models, already indicate that a much larger fraction of the clusters in the outer field are older by tens of Myr than in the inner field. This impression is quantified by estimating each cluster's properties (age, mass and extinction) and comparing the age/mass distributions between the two fields. Our results are inconsistent with 'universal' age and mass distributions of clusters, and instead show that the ambient environment strongly affects the observed populations.

  • 39. Bastian, N.
    et al.
    Adamo, Angela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, Germany.
    Schirmer, M.
    Hollyhead, K.
    Beletsky, Y.
    Carraro, G.
    Davies, B.
    Gieles, M.
    Silva-Villa, E.
    The effect of spatial resolution on optical and near-IR studies of stellar clusters: implications for the origin of the red excess2014In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 444, no 4, p. 3829-3836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent ground-based near-IR (NIR) studies of stellar clusters in nearby galaxies have suggested that young clusters remain embedded for 7-10 Myr in their progenitor molecular cloud, in conflict with optical-based studies which find that clusters are exposed after 1-3 Myr. Here, we investigate the role that spatial resolution plays in this apparent conflict. We use a recent catalogue of young (< 10 Myr) massive (> 5000M(circle dot)) clusters in the nearby spiral galaxy, M83, along with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging in the optical and NIR, and ground-based NIR imaging, to see how the colours (and hence estimated properties such as age and extinction) are affected by the aperture size employed, in order to simulate studies of differing resolution. We find that the NIR is heavily affected by the resolution, and when aperture sizes > 40 pc are used, all young/blue clusters move redwards in colour space, which results in their appearance as heavily extincted clusters. However, this is due to contamination from nearby sources and nebular emission, and is not an extinction effect. Optical colours are much less affected by resolution. Due to the larger effect of contamination in the NIR, we find that, in some cases, clusters will appear to show NIR excess when large (> 20 pc) apertures are used. Our results explain why few young (< 6 Myr), low-extinction (AV < 1 mag) clusters have been found in recent ground-based NIR studies of cluster populations, while many such clusters have been found in higher resolution HST-based studies. Additionally, resolution effects appear to (at least partially) explain the origin of the NIR excess that has been found in a number of extragalactic young massive clusters.

  • 40. Behrens, C.
    et al.
    Pallottini, A.
    Ferrara, A.
    Gallerani, S.
    Vallini, Livia
    Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita).
    Dusty galaxies in the Epoch of Reionization: simulations2018In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 477, no 1, p. 552-565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent discovery of dusty galaxies well into the Epoch of Reionization (redshift z > 6) poses challenging questions about the properties of the interstellar medium in these pristine systems. By combining state-of-the-art hydrodynamic and dust radiative transfer simulations, we address these questions focusing on the recently discovered dusty galaxy A2744_YD4 (z = 8.38, Laporte et al.). We show that we can reproduce the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) only using different physical values with respect to the inferred ones by Laporte et al., i.e. a star formation rate of SFR = 78 M(circle dot)yr(-1), a factor approximate to 4 higher than deduced from simple SED fitting. In this case, we find: (i) dust attenuation (corresponding to tau(v) = 1.4) is consistent with a Milky Way (MW) extinction curve; (ii) the dust-to-metal ratio is low, f(d) similar to 0.08, implying that early dust formation is rather inefficient;(iii) the luminosity-weighted dust temperature is high, T-d = 91 23 K, as a result of the intense (approximate to 100 x MW) interstellar radiation field; and (iv) due to the high T-d, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array Band 7 detection can be explained by a limited dust mass, M-d = 1.6 x 10(6) M-circle dot. Finally, the high dust temperatures might solve the puzzling low infrared excess (IRX) recently deduced for high-z galaxies from the IRX-beta relation.

  • 41. Behrens, C.
    et al.
    Pallottini, A.
    Ferrara, A.
    Gallerani, S.
    Vallini, Livia
    Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita). Leiden University, the Netherlands.
    Ly alpha emission from galaxies in the Epoch of eionization2019In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 486, no 2, p. 2197-2209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The intrinsic strength of the Ly alpha line in young, star-forming systems makes it a special tool for studying high-redshift galaxies. However, interpreting observations remains challenging due to the complex radiative transfer involved. Here, we combine state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations of 'Althaea', a prototypical Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG; stellar mass M-star similar or equal to 10(10) M-circle dot) at z = 7.2, with detailed radiative transfer computations of dust/continuum, [C II] 158 mu m, and Ly alpha to clarify the relation between the galaxy properties and its Ly alpha emission. Althaea exhibits low (f(alpha) < 1 per cent) Ly alpha escape fractions and equivalent widths, EW less than or similar to 6 angstrom for the simulated lines of sight, with a large scatter. The correlation between escape fraction and inclination is weak, as a result of the rather chaotic structure of high-redshift galaxies. Low f(alpha) values persist even if we artificially remove neutral gas around star-forming regions to mimic the presence of H II regions. The high attenuation is primarily caused by dust clumps co-located with young stellar clusters. We can turn Althaea into a Lyman Alpha Emitter (LAE) only if we artificially remove dust from the clumps, yielding EWs up to 22 angstrom. Our study suggests that the LBG-LAE duty-cycle required by recent clustering measurements poses the challenging problem of a dynamically changing dust attenuation. Finally, we find an anticorrelation between the magnitude of Ly alpha-[C II] line velocity shift and Ly alpha luminosity.

  • 42. Benetti, S.
    et al.
    Nicholl, M.
    Cappellaro, E.
    Pastorello, A.
    Smartt, S. J.
    Elias-Rosa, N.
    Drake, A. J.
    Tomasella, L.
    Turatto, M.
    Harutyunyan, A.
    Taubenberger, S.
    Hachinger, S.
    Morales-Garoffolo, A.
    Chen, T. -W
    Djorgovski, S. G.
    Fraser, M.
    Gal-Yam, A.
    Inserra, C.
    Mazzali, P.
    Pumo, M. L.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Valenti, S.
    Young, D. R.
    Dennefeld, M.
    Le Guillou, L.
    Fleury, M.
    Leget, P. -F
    The supernova CSS121015:004244+132827: a clue for understanding superluminous supernovae2014In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 441, no 1, p. 289-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present optical photometry and spectra of the superluminous Type II/IIn supernova (SN) CSS121015: 004244+132827 (z = 0.2868) spanning epochs from -30 d (rest frame) to more than 200 d after maximum. CSS121015 is one of the more luminous SNe ever found and one of the best observed. The photometric evolution is characterized by a relatively fast rise to maximum (similar to 40 d in the SN rest frame), and by a linear post-maximum decline. The light curve shows no sign of a break to an exponential tail. A broad Ha is first detected at similar to+40 d (rest frame). Narrow, barely resolved Balmer and [O III] 5007 angstrom lines, with decreasing strength, are visible along the entire spectral evolution. The spectra are very similar to other superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) with hydrogen in their spectrum, and also to SN 2005gj, sometimes considered Type Ia interacting with H-rich circumstellar medium. The spectra are also similar to a subsample of H-deficient SLSNe. We propose that the properties of CSS121015 are consistent with the interaction of the ejecta with a massive, extended, opaque shell, lost by the progenitor decades before the final explosion, although a magnetar-powered model cannot be excluded. Based on the similarity of CSS121015 with other SLSNe (with and without H), we suggest that the shocked-shell scenario should be seriously considered as a plausible model for both types of SLSN.

  • 43. Bento, J.
    et al.
    Schmidt, B.
    Hartman, J. D.
    Bakos, G. A.
    Ciceri, Simona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Max Plank Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Brahm, R.
    Bayliss, D.
    Espinoza, N.
    Zhou, G.
    Rabus, M.
    Bhatti, W.
    Penev, K.
    Csubry, Z.
    Jordan, A.
    Mancini, L.
    Henning, T.
    de Val-Borro, M.
    Tinney, C. G.
    Wright, D. J.
    Durkan, S.
    Suc, V.
    Noyes, R.
    Lazar, J.
    Papp, I.
    Sari, P.
    HATS-22b, HATS-23b and HATS-24b: three new transiting super-Jupiters from the HATSouth project2017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 468, no 1, p. 835-848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the discovery of three moderately high-mass transiting hot Jupiters from the HATSouth survey: HATS-22b, HATS-23b and HATS-24b. These planets add to the number of known planets in the similar to 2MJ regime. HATS-22b is a 2.74 +/- 0.11MJ mass and 0.953(-0.029)(+0.048) R-J radius planet orbiting a V = 13.455 +/- 0.040 sub-solar mass (M-* = 0.759 +/- 0.019M(circle dot); R-* = 0.759 +/- 0.019 R-circle dot) K-dwarf host star on an eccentric (e = 0.079 +/- 0.026) orbit. This planet's high planet-to-stellar mass ratio is further evidence that migration mechanisms for hot Jupiters may rely on exciting orbital eccentricities that bring the planets closer to their parent stars followed by tidal circularization. HATS-23b is a 1.478 +/- 0.080M(J) mass and 1.69 +/- 0.24 R-J radius planet on a grazing orbit around a V = 13.901 +/- 0.010 G-dwarf with properties very similar to those of the Sun (M* = 1.115 +/- 0.054; R-* = 1.145 +/- 0.070). HATS24b orbits a moderately bright V = 12.830 +/- 0.010 F-dwarf star (M-* = 1.218 +/- 0.036M circle dot; R-* = 1.194(-0.041)(+0.066) R circle dot). This planet has a mass of 2.39+0.21 -0.12MJ and an inflated radius of 1.516(-0.065)(+0.085) R-J.

  • 44. Bergfors, C.
    et al.
    Brandner, W.
    Bonnefoy, M.
    Schlieder, J.
    Janson, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Henning, Th.
    Chauvin, G.
    Characterization of close visual binaries from the AstraLux Large M Dwarf Survey2016In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 456, no 3, p. 2576-2585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present Very Large Telescope/Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observations in the Near Infrared (VLT/SINFONI) J, H + K spectra of seven close visual pairs in M dwarf binary/triple systems, discovered or observed by the AstraLux M dwarf survey. We determine the spectral types to within +/- 1.0 subclasses from comparison to template spectra and the strength of K-band water absorption, and derive effective temperatures. The results are compared to optical spectral types of the unresolved binary/multiple systems, and we confirm that our photometric method to derive spectral types in the AstraLux M dwarf survey is accurate. We look for signs of youth such as chromospheric activity and low surface gravity, and find an age in the range 0.25-1 Gyr for the GJ 852 system. Strong Li absorption is detected in optical spectra of the triple system J024902 obtained with the Fiberfed Extended Range Optical Spectrograph (FEROS) at the European Southern Observatory (ESO)-Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) 2.2 m telescope. The equivalent width of the absorption suggests an age consistent with the beta Pic moving group. However, further observations are needed to establish group membership. Ongoing orbital monitoring will provide dynamical masses and thus calibration of evolutionary models for low mass stars.

  • 45. Bergvall, Nils
    et al.
    Zackrisson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Caldwell, Brady
    The red haloes of SDSS low surface brightness disc galaxies2010In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 405, no 4, p. 2697-2716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The faint stellar haloes of galaxies contain key information about the oldest stars and the process of galaxy formation. A previous study of stacked SDSS images of disc galaxies has revealed a halo with an abnormally red r - i colour, seemingly inconsistent with our current understanding of the stellar populations inhabiting stellar haloes. Measurements of this type are, however, plagued by large uncertainties which calls for follow-up studies. Here, we investigate the statistical properties of the faint envelopes of low surface brightness disc galaxies to look for further support for a red excess. A total of 1510 nearly edge-on, bulgeless low surface brightness galaxies were selected from the SDSS Data Release 5, rescaled to the same apparent size, aligned and stacked. This procedure allows us to reach a surface brightness of mu(r) similar to 31 mag arcsec-2. After a careful assessment of instrumental light scattering effects in the stacked images, we derive median and average radial surface brightness and colour profiles in g, r and i. The sample is then divided into three subsamples according to g - r colour. All three samples exhibit a red colour excess in r - i in the thick disc/halo region. The halo colours of the full sample, g - r = 0.60 +/- 0.15 and r - i = 0.80 +/- 0.15, are found to be incompatible with the colours of any normal type of stellar population. The fact that no similar colour anomaly is seen at comparable surface brightness levels along the disc rules out a sky subtraction residual as the source of the extreme colours. A number of possible explanations for these abnormally red haloes are discussed. We find that two different scenarios - dust extinction of extragalactic background light and a stellar population with a very bottom-heavy initial mass function - appear to be broadly consistent with our observations and with similar red excesses reported in the haloes of other types of galaxies.

  • 46. Bhat, Pallavi
    et al.
    Subramanian, Kandaswamy
    Brandenburg, Axel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita). University of Colorado, USA.
    A unified large/small-scale dynamo in helical turbulence2016In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 461, no 1, p. 240-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use high resolution direct numerical simulations (DNS) to show that helical turbulence can generate significant large-scale fields even in the presence of strong small-scale dynamo action. During the kinematic stage, the unified large/ small-scale dynamo grows fields with a shapeinvariant eigenfunction, with most power peaked at small scales or large k, as in Subramanian & Brandenburg. Nevertheless, the large-scale field can be clearly detected as an excess power at small k in the negatively polarized component of the energy spectrum for a forcing with positively polarized waves. Its strength (B) over bar, relative to the total rms field Brms, decreases with increasing magnetic Reynolds number, Re-M. However, as the Lorentz force becomes important, the field generated by the unified dynamo orders itself by saturating on successively larger scales. The magnetic integral scale for the positively polarized waves, characterizing the smallscale field, increases significantly from the kinematic stage to saturation. This implies that the small-scale field becomes as coherent as possible for a given forcing scale, which averts the Re-M-dependent quenching of (B) over bar /B-rms. These results are obtained for 1024(3) DNS with magnetic Prandtl numbers of PrM = 0.1 and 10. For PrM = 0.1, B/ Brms grows from about 0.04 to about 0.4 at saturation, aided in the final stages by helicity dissipation. For Pr-M = 10, (B) over bar /B-rms grows from much less than 0.01 to values of the order the 0.2. Our results confirm that there is a unified large/ small-scale dynamo in helical turbulence.

  • 47.
    Bisbas, Thomas G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita). University College London, UK; Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Germany; University of Florida, USA.
    Haworth, Thomas J.
    Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita). University of Cambridge, UK.
    Barlow, M. J.
    Viti, S.
    Harries, T. J.
    Bell, T.
    Yates, J. A.
    TORUS-3DPDR: a self-consistent code treating three-dimensional photoionization and photodissociation regions2015In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 454, no 3, p. 2828-2843Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction of ionizing and far-ultraviolet radiation with the interstellar medium is of great importance. It results in the formation of regions in which the gas is ionized, beyond which are photodissociation regions (PDRs) in which the gas transitions to its atomic and molecular form. Several numerical codes have been implemented to study these two main phases of the interstellar medium either dynamically or chemically. In this paper we present TORUS-3DPDR, a new self-consistent code for treating the chemistry of three-dimensional photoionization and photodissociation regions. It is an integrated code coupling the two codes TORUS, a hydrodynamics and Monte Carlo radiation transport code, and 3D-PDR, a PDRs code. The new code uses a Monte Carlo radiative transfer scheme to account for the propagation of the ionizing radiation including the diffusive component as well as a ray-tracing scheme based on the HEALPIX package in order to account for the escape probability and column density calculations. Here, we present the numerical techniques we followed and we show the capabilities of the new code in modelling three-dimensional objects including single or multiple sources. We discuss the effects introduced by the diffusive component of the ultraviolet field in determining the thermal balance of PDRs as well as the effects introduced by a multiple sources treatment of the radiation field. With this new code, three-dimensional synthetic observations for the major cooling lines are possible, for making feasible a detailed comparison between hydrodynamical simulations and observations.

  • 48.
    Blasco-Herrera, J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Fathi, Kambiz
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Östlin, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Font, J.
    Beckman, J. E.
    H alpha kinematics of 11 starburst galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey2013In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 435, no 3, p. 1958-1983Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present analysis of Fabry-Perot interferometric observations for a sample of 11 starburst galaxies with redshift z less than or similar to 0.03 selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have targeted the H alpha lambda 6562.78 emission line at spatial sampling of 0.2arcsec-0.4 arcsec and at spectral resolution of R similar to 16 000. Studying two-dimensional maps for the velocity, velocity dispersion, line emission and continuum deliver new insights into the nature of starburst and postburst galaxies. The velocity fields are fitted to an exponential disc model, providing scalelengths and masses, to be compared with the photometric scalelength and the mass estimated from the velocity dispersions. From the line emission, the star formation rates are also calculated and compared with values in the literature. We have found that between 55 and 64 per cent of our sample show large-scale dominating rotation, while 27 per cent show local rotation typically restricted to the central part of each system. The morphology and line profiles in the centre of eight objects are consistent with a recent merger, while another two seem to be involved in a accretion process which, for the moment, has not disrupted their kinematics.

  • 49.
    Blasco-Herrera, Javier
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Fathi, Kambiz
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Beckman, J.
    Gutierrez, L.
    Lundgren, A.
    Epinat, B.
    Östlin, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Font, J.
    Hernandez, O.
    de Denus-Baillargeon, M. -M
    Carignan, C.
    An improved method for statistical studies of the internal kinematics of H ii regions: the case of M832010In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 407, no 4, p. 2519-2529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the integrated H alpha emission line profile for 157 H ii regions in the central 3.4 x 3.4 arcmin2 of the galaxy M83 (NGC 5236). Using the Fabry-Perot interferometer GH alpha FaS, on the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope on La Palma, we show the importance of a good characterization of the instrumental response function for the study of line profile shapes. The luminosity-velocity dispersion relation is also studied, and in the log(L)-log(Sigma) plane we do not find a linear relation, but an upper envelope with equation log(L-H alpha) = 0.9 log(Sigma) + 38.1. For the adopted distance of 4.5 Mpc, the upper envelope appears at the luminosity L = 1038.5 erg s-1, in full agreement with previous studies of other galaxies, reinforcing the idea of using H ii regions as standard candles.

  • 50. Bosman, Sarah E. I.
    et al.
    Becker, George D.
    Haehnelt, Martin G.
    Hewett, Paul C.
    McMahon, Richard G.
    Mortlock, Daniel J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Imperial College London, UK.
    Simpson, Chris
    Venemans, Bram P.
    A deep search for metals near redshift 7: the line of sight towards ULAS J1120+06412017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 470, no 2, p. 1919-1934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a search for metal absorption line systems at the highest redshifts to date using a deep (30 h) Very Large Telescope/X=Shooter spectrum of the z = 7.084 quasi-stellar object (QSO) ULAS J1120+0641. We detect seven intervening systems at z > 5.5, with the highest redshift system being a C IV absorber at z = 6.51. We find tentative evidence that the mass density of C IV remains flat or declines with redshift at z < 6, while the number density of C II systems remains relatively flat over 5 < z < 7. These trends are broadly consistent with models of chemical enrichment by star formation-driven winds that include a softening of the ultraviolet background towards higher redshifts. We find a larger number of weak (W-rest < 0.3 angstrom) Mg II systems over 5.9 < z < 7.0 than predicted by a power-law fit to the number density of stronger systems. This is consistent with trends in the number density of weak Mg II systems at z less than or similar to 2.5, and suggests that the mechanisms that create these absorbers are already in place at z similar to 7. Finally, we investigate the associated narrow Si IV, C IV and N V absorbers located near the QSO redshift, and find that at least one component shows evidence of partial covering of the continuum source.

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