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  • 1. Andreoni, I.
    et al.
    Ackley, K.
    Cooke, J.
    Acharyya, A.
    Allison, J. R.
    Anderson, G. E.
    Ashley, M. C. B.
    Baade, D.
    Bailes, M.
    Bannister, K.
    Beardsley, A.
    Bessell, M. S.
    Bian, F.
    Bland, P. A.
    Boer, M.
    Booler, T.
    Brandeker, Alexis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Brown, I. S.
    Buckley, D. A. H.
    Chang, S. -W.
    Coward, D. M.
    Crawford, S.
    Crisp, H.
    Crosse, B.
    Cucchiara, A.
    Cupak, M.
    de Gois, J. S.
    Deller, A.
    Devillepoix, H. A. R.
    Dobie, D.
    Elmer, E.
    Emrich, D.
    Farah, W.
    Farrell, T. J.
    Franzen, T.
    Gaensler, B. M.
    Galloway, D. K.
    Gendre, B.
    Giblin, T.
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Green, J.
    Hancock, P. J.
    Hartig, B. A. D.
    Howell, E. J.
    Horsley, L.
    Hotan, A.
    Howie, R. M.
    Hu, L.
    Hu, Y.
    James, C. W.
    Johnston, S.
    Johnston-Hollitt, M.
    Kaplan, D. L.
    Kasliwal, M.
    Keane, E. F.
    Kenney, D.
    Klotz, A.
    Lau, R.
    Laugier, R.
    Lenc, E.
    Li, X.
    Liang, E.
    Lidman, C.
    Luvaul, L. C.
    Lynch, C.
    Ma, B.
    Macpherson, D.
    Mao, J.
    McClelland, D. E.
    McCully, C.
    Moller, A.
    Morales, M. F.
    Morris, D.
    Murphy, T.
    Noysena, K.
    Onken, C. A.
    Orange, N. B.
    Oslowski, S.
    Pallot, D.
    Paxman, J.
    Potter, S. B.
    Pritchard, T.
    Raja, W.
    Ridden-Harper, R.
    Romero-Colmenero, E.
    Sadler, E. M.
    Sansom, E. K.
    Scalzo, R. A.
    Schmidt, B. P.
    Scott, S. M.
    Seghouani, N.
    Shang, Z.
    Shannon, R. M.
    Shao, L.
    Shara, M. M.
    Sharp, R.
    Sokolowski, M.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Staff, J.
    Steele, K.
    Sun, T.
    Suntzeff, N. B.
    Tao, C.
    Tingay, S.
    Towner, M. C.
    Thierry, P.
    Trott, C.
    Tucker, B. E.
    Vaisanen, P.
    Krishnan, V. Venkatraman
    Walker, M.
    Wang, L.
    Wang, X.
    Wayth, R.
    Whiting, M.
    Williams, A.
    Williams, T.
    Wolf, C.
    Wu, C.
    Wu, X.
    Yang, J.
    Yuan, X.
    Zhang, H.
    Zhou, J.
    Zovaro, H.
    Follow Up of GW170817 and Its Electromagnetic Counterpart by Australian-Led Observing Programmes2017In: Publications Astronomical Society of Australia, ISSN 1323-3580, E-ISSN 1448-6083, Vol. 34, article id e069Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (similar to 2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.

  • 2. André, Ph.
    et al.
    Hughes, A.
    Guillet, V.
    Boulanger, F.
    Bracco, Andrea
    Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita). CEA, France; CNRS, France; Université Paris-Saclay, France; Université Paris Diderot, France; Sorbonne Paris Cité, France; ENS Paris, France.
    Ntormousi, E.
    Arzoumanian, D.
    Maury, A. J.
    Bernard, J.-Ph.
    Bontemps, S.
    Ristorcelli, I.
    Girart, J. M.
    Motte, F.
    Tassis, K.
    Pantin, E.
    Montmerle, T.
    Johnstone, D.
    Gabici, S.
    Efstathiou, A.
    Basu, S.
    Béthermin, M.
    Beuther, H.
    Braine, J.
    Di Francesco, J.
    Falgarone, E.
    Ferrière, K.
    Fletcher, A.
    Galametz, M.
    Giard, M.
    Hennebelle, P.
    Jones, A.
    Kepley, A. A.
    Kwon, J.
    Lagache, G.
    Lesaffre, P.
    Levrier, F.
    Li, D.
    Li, Z.-Y.
    Mao, S. A.
    Nakagawa, T.
    Onaka, T.
    Paladino, R.
    Peretto, N.
    Poglitsch, A.
    Revéret, V.
    Rodriguez, L.
    Sauvage, M.
    Soler, J. D.
    Spinoglio, L.
    Tabatabaei, F.
    Tritsis, A.
    van der Tak, F.
    Ward-Thompson, D.
    Wiesemeyer, H.
    Ysard, N.
    Zhang, H.
    Probing the cold magnetised Universe with SPICA-POL (B-BOP)2019In: Publications Astronomical Society of Australia, ISSN 1323-3580, E-ISSN 1448-6083, Vol. 36, article id e029Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA), the cryogenic infrared space telescope recently pre-selected for a 'Phase A' concept study as one of the three remaining candidates for European Space Agency (ESA's) fifth medium class (M5) mission, is foreseen to include a far-infrared polarimetric imager [SPICA-POL, now called B-fields with BOlometers and Polarizers (B-BOP)], which would offer a unique opportunity to resolve major issues in our understanding of the nearby, cold magnetised Universe. This paper presents an overview of the main science drivers for B-BOP, including high dynamic range polarimetric imaging of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in both our Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Thanks to a cooled telescope, B-BOP will deliver wide-field 100-350 mu m images of linearly polarised dust emission in Stokes Q and U with a resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and both intensity and spatial dynamic ranges comparable to those achieved by Herschel images of the cold ISM in total intensity (Stokes I). The B-BOP 200 mu m images will also have a factor similar to 30 higher resolution than Planck polarisation data. This will make B-BOP a unique tool for characterising the statistical properties of the magnetised ISM and probing the role of magnetic fields in the formation and evolution of the interstellar web of dusty molecular filaments giving birth to most stars in our Galaxy. B-BOP will also be a powerful instrument for studying the magnetism of nearby galaxies and testing Galactic dynamo models, constraining the physics of dust grain alignment, informing the problem of the interaction of cosmic rays with molecular clouds, tracing magnetic fields in the inner layers of protoplanetary disks, and monitoring accretion bursts in embedded protostars.

  • 3.
    Hayes, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Lyman Alpha Emitting Galaxies in the Nearby Universe2015In: Publications Astronomical Society of Australia, ISSN 1323-3580, E-ISSN 1448-6083, Vol. 32, article id e027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Lyman alpha emission line (Ly alpha) of neutral hydrogen (Hi) is intrinsically the brightest emission feature in the spectrum of astrophysical nebulae, making it a very attractive observational feature with which to survey galaxies. Moreover as an ultraviolet resonance line, Ly alpha possesses several unique characteristics that make it useful to study the properties of the interstellar medium and ionising stellar population at all cosmic epochs. In this review, I present a summary of Ly alpha observations of galaxies in the nearby universe. By ultraviolet continuum selection, at the magnitudes reachable with current facilities, only approximate to 5% of the local galaxy population shows a Ly alpha equivalent width (W-Ly alpha) that exceeds 20 angstrom. This fraction increases dramatically at higher redshifts, but only in the local universe can we study galaxies in detail and assemble unprecedented multi-wavelength datasets. I discuss many local Ly alpha observations, showing that when galaxies show net Ly alpha emission, they ubiquitously also produce large-scale halos of scattered Ly alpha, that dominate the integrated luminosity. Concerning global measurements, we discuss how W-Ly alpha and the Ly alpha escape fraction (f(esc)(Ly alpha)) are higher (W-Ly alpha greater than or similar to 20 angstrom and f(esc)(Ly alpha) greater than or similar to 10%) in galaxies that represent the less massive and younger end of the distribution for local objects. This is connected with various properties, such that Ly alpha-emitting galaxies have lower metal abundances (median value of 12 + log(O/H) similar to 8.1) and dust reddening. However, the presence of galactic outflows/winds is also vital to Doppler shift the Ly alpha line out of resonance with the atomic gas, and high W-Ly alpha is found only among galaxies with winds faster than similar to 50 km s(-1). The empirical evidence is then assembled into a coherent picture, and the requirement for star-formation-driven feedback is discussed in the context of an evolutionary sequence where the interstellar medium is accelerated and/or subject to hydrodynamical instabilities, which reduce the scattering of Ly alpha. Concluding remarks take the form of perspectives upon future developments, and the most pressing questions that can be answered by observation.

  • 4. Kamp, I.
    et al.
    Honda, M.
    Nomura, H.
    Audard, M.
    Fedele, D.
    Waters, L. B. F. M.
    Aikawa, Y.
    Banzatti, A.
    Bowey, J. E.
    Bradford, M.
    Dominik, C.
    Furuya, K.
    Habart, E.
    Ishihara, D.
    Johnstone, D.
    Kennedy, G.
    Kim, M.
    Kral, Q.
    Lai, S.-P.
    Larsson, Bengt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    McClure, M.
    Miotello, A.
    Momose, M.
    Nakagawa, T.
    Naylor, D.
    Nisini, B.
    Notsu, S.
    Onaka, T.
    Pantin, E.
    Podio, L.
    Riviere Marichalar, P.
    Rocha, W. R. M.
    Roelfsema, P.
    Shimonishi, T.
    Tang, Y.-W.
    Takami, M.
    Tazaki, R.
    Wolf, S.
    Wyatt, M.
    Ysard, N.
    The formation of planetary systems with SPICA2021In: Publications Astronomical Society of Australia, ISSN 1323-3580, E-ISSN 1448-6083, Vol. 38, article id e055Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this era of spatially resolved observations of planet-forming disks with Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and large groundbased telescopes such as the Very Large Telescope (VLT), Keck, and Subaru, we still lack statistically relevant information on the quantity and composition of the material that is building the planets, such as the total disk gas mass, the ice content of dust, and the state of water in planetesimals. SPace Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) is an infrared space mission concept developed jointly by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and European Space Agency (ESA) to address these questions. The key unique capabilities of SPICA that enable this research are (1) the wide spectral coverage 10-220 mu m, (2) the high line detection sensitivity of (1-2) x10(-19)Wm(-2) with R similar to 2 000-5 000 in the far-IR (SAFARI), and 10-20Wm(-2) with R similar to 29 000 in themid-IR (SPICA Mid-infrared Instrument (SMI), spectrally resolving line profiles), (3) the high far-IR continuum sensitivity of 0.45mJy (SAFARI), and (4) the observing efficiency for point source surveys. This paper details how mid- to far-IR infrared spectra will be unique in measuring the gas masses and water/ice content of disks and how these quantities evolve during the planet-forming period. These observations will clarify the crucial transition when disks exhaust their primordial gas and further planet formation requires secondary gas produced from planetesimals. The high spectral resolution mid-IR is also unique for determining the location of the snowline dividing the rocky and icy mass reservoirs within the disk and how the divide evolves during the build-up of planetary systems. Infrared spectroscopy (mid- to far-IR) of key solid-state bands is crucial for assessing whether extensive radial mixing, which is part of our Solar System history, is a general process occurring in most planetary systems and whether extrasolar planetesimals are similar to our Solar System comets/asteroids. We demonstrate that the SPICA mission concept would allow us to achieve the above ambitious science goals through large surveys of several hundred disks within similar to 2.5 months of observing time.

  • 5. Roelfsema, P. R.
    et al.
    Shibai, H.
    Armus, L.
    Arrazola, D.
    Audard, M.
    Audley, M. D.
    Bradford, C. M.
    Charles, I
    Dieleman, P.
    Doi, Y.
    Duband, L.
    Eggens, M.
    Evers, J.
    Funaki, I
    Gao, J. R.
    Giard, M.
    di Giorgio, A.
    Gonzalez Fernandez, L. M.
    Griffin, M.
    Helmich, F. P.
    Hijmering, R.
    Huisman, R.
    Ishihara, D.
    Isobe, N.
    Jackson, B.
    Jacobs, H.
    Jellema, W.
    Kamp, I
    Kaneda, H.
    Kawada, M.
    Kemper, F.
    Kerschbaum, F.
    Khosropanah, P.
    Kohno, K.
    Kooijman, P. P.
    Krause, O.
    van der Kuur, J.
    Kwon, J.
    Laauwen, W. M.
    de Lange, G.
    Larsson, Bengt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    van Loon, D.
    Madden, S. C.
    Matsuhara, H.
    Najarro, F.
    Nakagawa, T.
    Naylor, D.
    Ogawa, H.
    Onaka, T.
    Oyabu, S.
    Poglitsch, A.
    Reveret, V
    Rodriguez, L.
    Spinoglio, L.
    Sakon, I
    Sato, Y.
    Shinozaki, K.
    Shipman, R.
    Sugita, H.
    Suzuki, T.
    van der Tak, F. F. S.
    Torres Redondo, J.
    Wada, T.
    Wang, S. Y.
    Wafelbakker, C. K.
    van Weers, H.
    Withington, S.
    Vandenbussche, B.
    Yamada, T.
    Yamamura, I
    SPICA-A Large Cryogenic Infrared Space Telescope: Unveiling the Obscured Universe2018In: Publications Astronomical Society of Australia, ISSN 1323-3580, E-ISSN 1448-6083, Vol. 35, article id e030Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity. SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope. cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions. SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R similar to 50 through 11 000 in the 17-230 mu m domain and R similar to 28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 mu m.SPICA will provide efficient 30-37 mu m broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 mu m. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of similar to 5 x 10(-20) W m (-2) (5 sigma/1 h)-over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.

  • 6.
    Sarin, Nikhil
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Monash University, Australia; 2OzGrav: The ARC Centre of Excellence for Gravitational Wave Discovery, Australia.
    Lasky, Paul D.
    Multimessenger astronomy with a kHz-band gravitational-wave observatory2022In: Publications Astronomical Society of Australia, ISSN 1323-3580, E-ISSN 1448-6083, Vol. 39, article id e007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proposed next-generation networks of gravitational-wave observatories include dedicated kilohertz instruments that target neutron star science, such as the proposed Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory, NEMO. The original proposal for NEMO highlighted the need for it to exist in a network of gravitational-wave observatories to ensure detection confidence and sky localisation of sources. We show that NEMO-like observatories have significant utility on their own as coincident electromagnetic observations can provide the detection significance and sky localisation. We show that, with a single NEMO-like detector and expected electromagnetic observatories in the late 2020 s and early 2030 s such as the Vera C. Rubin observatory and SVOM, approximately 40% of all binary neutron star mergers detected with gravitational waves could be confidently identified as coincident multimessenger detections. We show that we expect 2(-1)(+10)yr(-1) coincident observations of gravitational-wave mergers with gamma-ray burst prompt emission, 13(-10)(+23)yr(-1) detections with kionova observations, and 4(-3)(+18)yr(-1) with broadband afterglows and kionovae, where the uncertainties are 90% confidence intervals arising from uncertainty in current merger-rate estimates. Combined, this implies a coincident detection rate of 14(-11)(+25)yr(-1) out to 300 Mpc. These numbers indicate significant science potential for a single kilohertz gravitational-wave detector operating without a global network of other gravitational-wave observatories.

  • 7. Spinoglio, L.
    et al.
    Alonso-Herrero, A.
    Armus, L.
    Baes, M.
    Bernard-Salas, J.
    Bianchi, S.
    Bocchio, M.
    Bolatto, A.
    Bradford, C.
    Braine, J.
    Carrera, F. J.
    Ciesla, L.
    Clements, D. L.
    Dannerbauer, H.
    Doi, Y.
    Efstathiou, A.
    Egami, E.
    Fernandez-Ontiveros, J. A.
    Ferrara, A.
    Fischer, J.
    Franceschini, A.
    Gallerani, S.
    Giard, M.
    Gonzalez-Alfonso, E.
    Gruppioni, C.
    Guillard, P.
    Hatziminaoglou, E.
    Imanishi, M.
    Ishihara, D.
    Isobe, N.
    Kaneda, H.
    Kawada, M.
    Kohno, K.
    Kwon, J.
    Madden, S.
    Malkan, M. A.
    Marassi, S.
    Matsuhara, H.
    Matsuura, M.
    Miniutti, G.
    Nagamine, K.
    Nagao, T.
    Najarro, F.
    Nakagawa, T.
    Onaka, T.
    Oyabu, S.
    Pallottini, A.
    Piro, L.
    Pozzi, F.
    Rodighiero, G.
    Roelfsema, P.
    Sakon, I.
    Santini, P.
    Schaerer, D.
    Schneider, R.
    Scott, D.
    Serjeant, S.
    Shibai, H.
    Smith, J. -D. T.
    Sobacchi, E.
    Sturm, E.
    Suzuki, T.
    Vallini, Livia
    Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita). Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, INAF, Italy; Universitá di Bologna, Italy.
    van der Tak, F.
    Vignali, C.
    Yamada, T.
    Wada, T.
    Wang, L.
    Galaxy Evolution Studies with the &ITSPace IR Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics&IT (&ITSPICA&IT): The Power of IR Spectroscopy2017In: Publications Astronomical Society of Australia, ISSN 1323-3580, E-ISSN 1448-6083, Vol. 34, article id e057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IR spectroscopy in the range 12-230 mu m with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA's large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z similar to 6.

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