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  • 1. Chang, Guoqing
    et al.
    Wieder, Benjamin J.
    Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita). Princeton University, USA; University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Schindler, Frank
    Sanchez, Daniel S.
    Belopolski, Ilya
    Huang, Shin-Ming
    Singh, Bahadur
    Wu, Di
    Chang, Tay-Rong
    Neupert, Titus
    Xu, Su-Yang
    Lin, Hsin
    Hasan, M. Zahid
    Topological quantum properties of chiral crystals2018In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 17, no 11, p. 978-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chiral crystals are materials with a lattice structure that has a well-defined handedness due to the lack of inversion, mirror or other roto-inversion symmetries. Although it has been shown that the presence of crystalline symmetries can protect topological band crossings, the topological electronic properties of chiral crystals remain largely uncharacterized. Here we show that Kramers-Weyl fermions are a universal topological electronic property of all non-magnetic chiral crystals with spin-orbit coupling and are guaranteed by structural chirality, lattice translation and time-reversal symmetry. Unlike conventional Weyl fermions, they appear at time-reversal-invariant momenta. We identify representative chiral materials in 33 of the 65 chiral space groups in which Kramers-Weyl fermions are relevant to the low-energy physics. We determine that all point-like nodal degeneracies in non-magnetic chiral crystals with relevant spin-orbit coupling carry non-trivial Chern numbers. Kramers-Weyl materials can exhibit a monopole-like electron spin texture and topologically non-trivial bulk Fermi surfaces over an unusually large energy window.

  • 2.
    Iota, Valentin
    et al.
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
    Yoo, Choong-Shik
    Klepeis, Jae-Hyun
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
    Jenei, Zsolt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Evans, William
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
    Cynn, Hyunchae
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
    Six-fold coordinated carbon dioxide VI2007In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 6, p. 34-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under standard conditions, carbon dioxide (CO2) is a simple molecular gas and an important atmospheric constituent, whereas silicon dioxide (SiO2) is a covalent solid, and one of the fundamental minerals of the planet. The remarkable dissimilarity between these two group IV oxides is diminished at higher pressures and temperatures as CO2 transforms to a series of solid phases, from simple molecular to a fully covalent extended-solid V, structurally analogous to SiO2 tridymite. Here, we present the discovery of an extended-solid phase of CO2: a six-fold coordinated stishovite-like phase VI, obtained by isothermal compression of associated CO2-II (refs 1,2) above 50 GPa at 530–650 K. Together with the previously reported CO2-V (refs 3–5) and a-carbonia6, this extended phase indicates a fundamental similarity between CO2 (a prototypical molecular solid) and SiO2 (one of Earth's fundamental building blocks). We present a phase diagram with a limited stability domain for molecular CO2-I, and suggest that the conversion to extended-network solids above 40–50 GPa occurs via intermediate phases II (refs 1,2), III (refs 7,8) and IV (refs 9,10). The crystal structure of phase VI suggests strong disorder along the c axis in stishovite-like P42/mnm, with carbon atoms manifesting an average six-fold coordination within the framework of sp3 hybridization.

  • 3. Lin, Jia
    et al.
    Lai, Minliang
    Dou, Letian
    Kley, Christopher S.
    Chen, Hong
    Peng, Fei
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Sun, Junliang
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Lu, Dylan
    Hawks, Steven A.
    Xie, Chenlu
    Cui, Fan
    Alivisatos, A. Paul
    Limmer, David T.
    Yang, Peidong
    Thermochromic halide perovskite solar cells2018In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 261-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart photovoltaic windows represent a promising green technology featuring tunable transparency and electrical power generation under external stimuli to control the light transmission and manage the solar energy. Here, we demonstrate a thermochromic solar cell for smart photovoltaic window applications utilizing the structural phase transitions in inorganic halide perovskite caesium lead iodide/bromide. The solar cells undergo thermally-driven, moisture-mediated reversible transitions between a transparent non-perovskite phase (81.7% visible transparency) with low power output and a deeply coloured perovskite phase (35.4% visible transparency) with high power output. The inorganic perovskites exhibit tunable colours and transparencies, a peak device efficiency above 7%, and a phase transition temperature as low as 105 degrees C. We demonstrate excellent device stability over repeated phase transition cycles without colour fade or performance degradation. The photovoltaic windows showing both photoactivity and thermochromic features represent key stepping-stones for integration with buildings, automobiles, information displays, and potentially many other technologies.

  • 4.
    Ma, Yanhang
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). ShanghaiTech University, China.
    Oleynikov, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). ShanghaiTech University, China.
    Terasaki, Osamu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). ShanghaiTech University, China.
    Electron crystallography for determining the handedness of a chiral zeolite nanocrystal2017In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 755-759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chiral crystals can be exploited for applications in enantioselective separation and catalysis. However, the study of chirality at the atomic level in a sub-micrometre-sized crystal is difficult due to the lack of adequate characterization methods. Herein, we present two efficient and practical methods of characterization that are based on electron crystallography. These methods are successfully applied to reveal the handedness of a chiral, zeolite nanocrystal. The handedness is identified through either a comparison of two high-resolution transmission electron microscope images, taken from the same nanocrystal but along different zone axes by tilting it around its screw axis, or the intensity asymmetry of a Bijvoet pair of reflections in a single precession electron-diffraction pattern. These two approaches provide new ways to determine the handedness of small, chiral crystals.

  • 5. Narayan, Awadhesh
    et al.
    Cano, Andrés
    Balatsky, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita). Institute for Materials Science, USA; University of Connecticut, USA.
    Spaldin, Nicola A.
    Multiferroic quantum criticality2019In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 223-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The zero-temperature limit of a continuous phase transition is marked by a quantum critical point, which can generate physical effects that extend to elevated temperatures. Magnetic quantum criticality is now well established, and has been explored in systems ranging from heavy fermion metals to quantum Ising materials. Ferroelectric quantum critical behaviour has also been recently demonstrated, motivating a flurry of research investigating its consequences. Here, we introduce the concept of multi-ferroic quantum criticality, in which both magnetic and ferroelectric quantum criticality occur in the same system. We develop the phenomenology of multiferroic quantum criticality and describe the associated experimental signatures, such as phase stability and modified scaling relations of observables. We propose several material systems that could be tuned to multiferroic quantum criticality utilizing alloying and strain as control parameters. We hope that these results stimulate exploration of the interplay between different kinds of quantum critical behaviours.

  • 6.
    Peng, Fei
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Jia, Lin
    Lai, Minliang
    Dou, Letian
    Kley, Christopher
    Chen, Hong
    Sun, Junliang
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Hawks, Steven A.
    Limmer, David T.
    Alicisatos, A. Paul
    Yang, Peidong
    Thermochromic Phase Transition Inorganic Perovskite Solar CellsIn: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Tang, Liqiu
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Shi, Lei
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Bonneau, Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Sun, Junlaing
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Yue, Huijuan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Ojuva, Arto
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Lee, Bao Lin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Kritikos, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Bell, Robert G.
    Zoltán, Bacsik
    Mink, Janos
    Zou, Xiaodong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    A zeolite family with chiral and achiral structures built from the same building layer2008In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 381-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Porosity and chirality are two of the most important properties for materials in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry. Inorganic microporous materials such as zeolites have been widely used in ion-exchange, selective sorption/separation and catalytic processes. The pore size and shape in zeolites play important roles for specific applications(1-3). Chiral inorganic microporous materials are particularly desirable with respect to their possible use in enantioselective sorption, separation and catalysis(4). At present, among the 179 zeolite framework types reported, only three exhibit chiral frameworks(5-7). Synthesizing enantiopure, porous tetrahedral framework structures represents a great challenge for chemists. Here, we report the silicogermanates SU-32 (polymorph A), SU-15 (polymorph B) (SU, Stockholm University) and a hypothetical polymorph C, all built by different stacking of a novel building layer. Whereas polymorphs B and C are achiral, each crystal of polymorph A exhibits only one hand and has an intrinsically chiral zeolite structure. SU-15 and SU-32 are thermally stable on calcination.

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