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  • 1.
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Jahnke, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Mayer, Philipp
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    A flow-through passive dosing system for continuously supplying aqueous solutions of hydrophobic chemicals to bioconcentration and aquatic toxicity tests2012In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 86, no 6, p. 593-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A continuous supply of water with defined stable concentrations of hydrophobic chemicals is a requirement in a range of laboratory tests such as the OECD 305 protocol for determining the bioconcentration factor in fish. Satisfying this requirement continues to be a challenge, particularly for hydrophobic chemicals. Here we present a novel solution based on equilibrium passive dosing. It employs a commercially available unit consisting of similar to 16000 polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tubes connected to two manifolds. The chemicals are loaded into the unit by repeatedly perfusing it with a methanol solution of the substances that is progressively diluted with water. Thereafter the unit is perfused with water and the chemicals partition from the unit into the water. The system was tested with nine chemicals with logK(ow) ranging from 4.1 to 6.3. The aqueous concentrations generated were shown to be largely independent of the water flow rate, and the unit to unit reproducibility was within a factor of similar to 2. In continuous flow experiments the aqueous concentrations of most of the study chemicals remained constant over 8 d. A model was assembled that allows prediction of the operating characteristics of the system from the logKow or PDMS/water partition coefficient of the chemical. The system is a simple, safe, predictable and flexible tool that generates stable aqueous concentrations of hydrophobic chemicals.

  • 2.
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    In-vivo passive sampling to measure elimination kinetics in bioaccumulation tests2012In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 88, no 1, p. 62-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of in-tissue passive sampling to quantify chemical kinetics in fish bioconcentration experiments was investigated. A passive sampler consisting of an acupuncture needle covered with a PDMS tube was developed together with a method for its deployment in rainbow trout. The time to steady state for chemical uptake into the passive sampler was >1 d, so it was employed as a kinetically limited sampler with a deployment time of 2 h. The passive sampler was employed in parallel with the established whole tissue extraction method to study the elimination kinetics of 10 diverse chemicals in rainbow trout. 4-n-nonylphenol and 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenol were close to or below the limit of quantification in the sampler. For chlorpyrifos, musk xylene, hexachlorobenzene, 2,5-dichlorobiphenyl and p,p'-DDT. the elimination rate constants determined with the passive sampler method and the established method agreed within 18%. Poorer agreement (35%) was observed for 2,3,4-trichloroanisole and p-diisopropylbenzene because fewer data were obtained with the passive sampling method due to its lower sensitivity. The work shows that in-tissue passive sampling can be employed to measure contaminant elimination kinetics in fish. This opens up the possibility of studying contaminant kinetics in individual fish, thereby reducing the fish requirements and analytical costs for the determination of bioconcentration factors.

  • 3.
    Ahmadi, Hamid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bolinius, Dämien Johann
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Jahnke, Annika
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Mass transfer of hydrophobic organic chemicals between siliconesheets and through plant leaves and low-density polyethylene2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 164, p. 683-690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant leaves play an important role in the fate of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in theenvironment. Yet much remains unknown about the permeability of leaves by HOCs. In this pilot studywe measured (i) the kinetics of mass transfer of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and sixpolychlorinated biphenyls between a spiked and an unspiked sheet of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) indirect contact with each other for 24 h and (ii) kinetics of mass transfer of two PAHs through leaves andlow-density polyethylene (LDPE) in a passive dosing experiment by inserting these matrices between thetwo sheets of PDMS for 48 h. The kinetics of mass transfer of fluoranthene between PDMS sheets in directcontact were a factor of 12 slower than those reported in the literature. The kinetics of mass transfer offluorene and phenanthrene through leaves were within the range of those previously reported for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid through isolated cuticles. Our results provide a proof-of-concept demon-stration that the passive dosing method applied in this study can be used to measure the mass transfercoefficients of organic chemicals through leaves. Key recommendations for future experiments are toload the PDMS at the highest feasible concentrations to avoid working at analyte levels close to the limitof detection, to keep the leaves moist and to minimize potential pathways for contamination of the PDMSsheets by exposure to laboratory air.

  • 4. Amstaetter, Katja
    et al.
    Eek, Espen
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sorption of PAHs and PCBs to activated carbon: Coal versus biomass-based quality2012In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 87, no 5, p. 573-578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The addition of activated carbon (AC) is an increasingly popular method for pollutant immobilization, and the AC material can be made of biomass or coal/fossil feedstock. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there are differences between pollutant sorption to biomass and coal-based AC in the presence and absence of sediment. Through N-2 and CO2 adsorption to probe surface area and pore size it was shown that the biomass-based AC had a stronger dominance of narrow pores in the size range 3.5-15 angstrom than the anthracite-based material. In the absence of sediment, sorption isotherms for the probe compounds pyrene and PCB-101 showed stronger sorption for the biomass-based AC (logarithmic Freundlich coefficients 8.15 for pyrene; 9.91 for PCB-101) than for the anthracite-based one (logarithmic Freundlich coefficients 7.20 and 9.70, respectively). In the presence of sediment, the opposite trend was observed, with the stronger sorption for anthracite-based AC. Thus, the presence of competing and/or pore-blocking sediment constituents reduces sorption to a larger extent for biomass-derived AC (factor of 5 for pyrene to almost 100 for PCB-101) than for anthracite-based AC (no reduction for pyrene to factor of 5 for PCB-101). This difference is tentatively attributed to the difference in pore size distribution, narrow pores being more prone to clogging, and could have implications for remediation feasibility with AC from different sources.

  • 5.
    Avagyan, Rozanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Westerholm, Roger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Suspect screening of OH-PAHs and non-target screening of other organic compounds in wood smoke particles using HR-Orbitrap-MS2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 163, p. 313-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood combustion has been shown to contribute significantly to emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, compounds with toxic and carcinogenic properties. However, only a small number of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been determined in particles from wood combustion, usually compounds with available reference standards. In this present study, suspect and non-target screening strategies were applied to characterize the wood smoke particles from four different wood types and two combustion conditions with respect to hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other organic compounds. In the suspect screening, 32 peaks corresponding to 12 monohydroxylated masses were tentatively identified by elemental composition assignments and matching of isotopic pattern and fragments. More than one structure was suggested for most of the measured masses. Statistical analysis was performed on the non-target screening data in order to single out significant peaks having intensities that depend on the wood type and/or combustion condition. Significant peaks were found in both negative and positive ionization modes, with unique peaks for each wood type and combustion condition, as well as a combination of both factors. Furthermore, structural elucidation of some peaks was done by comparing the spectra in the samples with spectra found in the spectral databases. Six compounds were tentatively identified in positive ionization mode, and 19 in negative ionization mode. The results in this present study demonstrate that there are significant overall differences in the chemistry of wood smoke particles that depends on both the wood type and the combustion condition used.

  • 6.
    Bastos, Patricia Moreira
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Green, Nicholas
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    A standardized method for assessment of oxidative transformations of brominated phenols in water.2008In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 70, no 7, p. 1196-202Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Bejgarn, Sofia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bogdal, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Toxicity of leachate from weathering plastics: An exploratory screening study with Nitocra spinipes2015In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 132, p. 114-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Between 60% and 80% of all marine litter is plastic. Leachate from plastics has previously been shown to cause acute toxicity in the freshwater species Daphnia magna. Here, we present an initial screening of the marine environmental hazard properties of leachates from weathering plastics to the marine harpacticoid copepod [Crustacea] Nitocra spinipes. Twenty-one plastic products made of different polymeric materials were leached and irradiated with artificial sunlight. Eight of the twenty-one plastics (38%) produced leachates that caused acute toxicity. Differences in toxicity were seen for different plastic products, and depending on the duration of irradiation. There was no consistent trend in how toxicity of leachate from plastics changed as a function of irradiation time. Leachate from four plastics became significantly more toxic after irradiation, two became significantly less toxic and two did not change significantly. Analysis of leachates from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by liquid chromatography coupled to a full-scan high-resolution mass spectrometer showed that the leachates were a mixture of substances, but did not show evidence of degradation of the polymer backbone. This screening study demonstrates that leachates from different plastics differ in toxicity to N. spinipes and that the toxicity varies under simulated weathering.

  • 8.
    Berger, Urs
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Glynn, Anders
    Holmström, Katrin E
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berglund, Marika
    Ankarberg, Emma Halldin
    Törnkvist, Anna
    Fish consumption as a source of human exposure to perfluorinated alkyl substances in Sweden: analysis of edible fish from Lake Vättern and the Baltic Sea2009In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 76, no 6, p. 799-804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) were analyzed in muscle tissue from edible fish species caught in the second largest freshwater lake in Sweden, Lake Vättern (LV), and in the brackish water Baltic Sea (BS). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant PFAS found. PFOS concentrations were higher in LV (medians 2.9-12 ng g(-1) fresh weight) than in BS fish (medians 1.0-2.5 ng g(-1) fresh weight). Moreover, LV fish was more contaminated with several other PFAS than BS fish. This may be due to anthropogenic discharges from urban areas around LV. The PFAS pattern differed between LV and BS fish, indicating different sources of contamination for the two study areas. Human exposure to PFOS via fish intake was calculated for three study groups, based on consumption data from literature. The groups consisted of individuals that reported moderate or high consumption of BS fish or high consumption of LV fish, respectively. The results showed that PFOS intake strongly depended on individual fish consumption as well as the fish catchment area. Median PFOS intakes were estimated to 0.15 and 0.62 ng kg(-1) body weight (bw) d(-1) for the consumers of moderate and high amounts of BS fish, respectively. For the group with high consumption of LV fish a median PFOS intake of 2.7 ng kg(-1)bw d(-1) was calculated. Fish consumption varied considerably within the consumer groups, with maximum PFOS intakes of 4.5 (BS fish) or 9.6 ng kg(-1)bw d(-1) (LV fish). Comparison of our results with literature data on PFOS intake from food suggests that fish from contaminated areas may be a significant source of dietary PFOS exposure.

  • 9.
    Bignert, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Nyberg, Elisabeth
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Miller, Aroha
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Sara
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Consequences of using pooled versus individual samples for designing environmental monitoring sampling strategies2014In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 94, p. 177-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Choosing an appropriate sampling strategy for chemical analysis within environmental monitoring includes the important decision of whether to sample and store individual or pooled samples. This choice impacts on future analyses from Environmental Specimen Bank samples. A number of advantages exist to support using either individual or pooled samples for temporal trend studies. However, it is important to know the total and analytical variance to be able to design the best sampling strategy. Statistical power in temporal or spatial studies is determined by the random/unexplained sample variation. The relationship between chemical analytical error and other sources of variation, as well as the cost for collection, preparation of samples and chemical analysis, will determine the number of individuals in each pool, and the number of pools that should be analysed to achieve high cost efficiency and good statistical power. Various scenarios of different numbers of individual samples, different numbers of pooled samples containing various numbers of individual specimens, the relationships between chemical analytical error and other sources of sample variance, have been compared by simulating random sampling from computer generated populations using realistic measures of variation from ongoing monitoring activities. These results offer guidance in the design of a cost-efficient, statistically sound sampling strategy.

  • 10. Bogdal, Christian
    et al.
    Wang, Zhanyun
    Buser, Andreas M.
    Scheringer, Martin
    Gerecke, Andreas C.
    Schmid, Peter
    Mueller, Claudia E.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hungerbuehler, Konrad
    Emissions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Zurich, Switzerland, determined by a combination of measurements and modeling2014In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 116, p. 15-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used as flame retardants but they are of concern and are currently being phased-out because of their environmentally hazardous properties and their potential to cause adverse health effects. We analyzed PBDEs in Zurich, Switzerland, and applied a multimedia environmental fate model to back-calculate the rate of PBDE emission to air. PBDE concentrations in ambient air were measured in summer 2010 and winter 2011 in the city center of Zurich. Concentrations were higher in summer (sum PBDEs 118-591 pg m(-3)) than in winter (sum PBDEs 17-151 pg m(-3)), and are on the upper end of concentrations reported in literature for urban sites with no point sources of PBDEs. The emissions derived from our measurements (summer: 53-165 mu g capita(-1) d(-1), winter: 25-112 mu g capita(-1) d(-1)) and extrapolated to annual emissions for Switzerland (114-406 kg a(-1)) lie in the middle of ranges reported on the basis of substance flow analyses and emission inventories. The difference between summer and winter emissions is small compared to the difference that would be expected from the temperature dependence of PBDE vapor pressure, which would be consistent with emissions occurring to a large extent from flame-proofed materials located indoors under nearly constant temperature conditions and/or emissions to air occurring by suspension of particles containing PBDEs. Compared to previous studies in Switzerland, concentrations and emissions of PBDEs appear to have increased during the last five years with an increasing contribution of decabromodiphenyl ether, despite the addition of PBDEs to national and international regulations.

  • 11.
    Bogdanska, Jasna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Sundström, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Bergström, Ulrika
    Borg, Daniel
    Abedi-Valugerdi, Manuchehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    DePierre, Joseph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Nobel, Stefan
    Tissue distribution of S-35-labelled perfluorobutanesulfonic acid in adult mice following dietary exposure for 1-5 days2014In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 98, p. 28-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorobutanesulfonyl fluoride (PBSF) has been introduced as a replacement for its eight-carbon homolog perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride (POSF) in the manufacturing of fluorochemicals. Fluorochemicals derived from PBSF may give rise to perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS) as a terminal degradation product. Although basic mammalian toxicokinetic data exist for PFBS, information on its tissue distribution has only been reported in one study focused on rat liver. Therefore, here we characterized the tissue distribution of PFBS in mice in the same manner as we earlier examined its eight-carbon homolog perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) to allow direct comparisons. Following dietary exposure of adult male C57/BL6 mice for 1,3 or 5 d to 16 mg S-35-PFBS kg(-1) d(-1), both scintillation counting and whole-body autoradiography (WBA) revealed the presence of PFBS in all of the 20 different tissues examined, demonstrating its ability to leave the bloodstream and enter tissues. After 5 d of treatment the highest levels were detected in liver, gastrointestinal tract, blood, kidney, cartilage, whole bone, lungs and thyroid gland. WBA revealed relatively high levels of PFBS in male genital organs as well, with the exception of the testis. The tissue levels increased from 1 to 3 d of exposure but appeared thereafter to level-off in most cases. The estimated major body compartments were whole bone, liver, blood, skin and muscle. This exposure to PFBS resulted in 5-40-fold lower tissue levels than did similar exposure to PFOS, as well as in a different pattern of tissue distribution, including lower levels in liver and lungs relative to blood.

  • 12. Brandli, Rahel C.
    et al.
    Hartnik, Thomas
    Henriksen, Thomas
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sorption of native polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to black carbon and amended activated carbon in soil2008In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 73, no 11, p. 1805-1810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic pollutants (e.g. polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)) strongly sorb to carbonaceous sorbents such as black carbon and activated carbon (BC and AC, respectively). For a creosote-contaminated soil (Sigma 15PAH 5500 mg kg(dry weight(dw))-(1)) and an urban soil with moderate PAH content (Sigma 15PAH 38 mg kg(-1)), dry dw total organic carbon-water distribution coefficients (K-TOC) were up to a factor of 100 above values for amorphous (humic) organic carbon obtained by a frequently used Linear-Free-Energy Relationship. This increase could be explained by inclusion of BC (urban soil) or oil (creosote-contaminated soil) into the sorption model. AC is a manufactured sorbent for organic pollutants with similar strong sorption properties as the combustion by-product BC. AC has the potential to be used for in situ remediation of contaminated soils and sediments. The addition of small amounts of powdered AC (2%) to the moderately contaminated urban soil reduced the freely dissolved aqueous concentration of native PAH in soil/water suspensions Lip to 99%. For granulated AC amended to the urban soil, the reduction in freely dissolved concentrations was not as strong (median 64%), especially for the heavier PAH. This is probably due to blockage of the pore system of granulated AC resulting in AC deactivation by soil components. For powdered and granulated AC amended to the heavily contaminated creosote soil, median reductions were 63% and 4%, respectively, probably due to saturation of AC sorption sites by the high PAH concentrations and/or blockage of sorption sites and pores by oil.

  • 13. Brits, Martin
    et al.
    de Vos, Jayne
    Weiss, Jana M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Rohwer, Egmont R.
    de Boer, Jacob
    Critical review of the analysis of brominated flame retardants and their environmental levels in Africa2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 164, p. 174-189Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    World-wide, the prevalence of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) is well documented for routine analysis of environmental and biological matrices. There is, however, limited information on these compounds in the African environment and insufficient information on the analytical approaches used to obtain data. This paper presents a review on BFR levels in the African environment and the various analytical methodologies specifically applied in Africa for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls and alternative-BFRs. The analyses include liquid sample preparation using liquid-liquid and solid phase extraction and solid sample preparation involving Soxhlet extraction, with ultrasound-assisted extraction increasingly being applied. Instrumental detection techniques were limited to gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector and electron impact ionisation with single quadrupole mass spectrometers. Information on congener profile prevalence in indoor dust, soil, aquatic environment (water, sediment, and aquatic organisms), eggs, wastewater treatment plant compartments, landfills (leachate and sediment) and breast milk are presented. Although PBDEs were inconsistently detected, contamination was reported for all investigated matrices in the African environment. The manifestation in remote regions indicates the ubiquitous prevalence and long-range transport of these compounds. Levels in sediment, and breast milk from some African countries were higher than reported for Asia and Europe. Due to limited data or non-detection of alternative-BFRs, it is unclear whether banned formulations were replaced in Africa. Most of the data reported for BFR levels in Africa were obtained in non-African laboratories or in South Africa and formed the basis for our discussion of reported contamination levels and related methodologies.

  • 14. Buser, Andreas M.
    et al.
    Bogdal, Christian
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Scheringer, Martin
    Emissions of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane from Chicago2014In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 107, p. 473-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D-5) is a high-production-volume chemical that is emitted to air in tens of thousands of tonnes each year globally. However, specific information about emission rates to air is still limited. Here we present an estimate of D5 emissions from the city of Chicago based on measurements that have recently been published. We used a multimedia environmental fate model parameterized for Chicago to back-calculate the emission rate of D5 from the measurements. Our estimated average emission rate for D-5 is 500 (2.5-to-97.5-percentile interval: 260-1100) kg d(-1). The corresponding per-capita emissions of 190 (100-420) mg capita(-1) d(-1) agree well with previous estimates for Europe and North America.

  • 15.
    Calado Botelho, Salomé
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Saghafian, Maryam
    Pavlova, Svetlana
    Hassan, Moustapha
    DePierre, Joseph W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Abedi-Valugerdi, Manuchehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; ImmunoBioTox (IBT) AB, Sweden.
    Complement activation is involved in the hepatic injury caused by high-dose exposure of mice to perfluorooctanoic acid2015In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 129, no SI, p. 225-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-dose exposure of mice to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) induces both hepatotoxicity and immunotoxicity. Here, we characterized the effects of TO-day dietary treatment with PFOA (0.002-0.02%, w/w) on the liver and complement system of male C57BL/6 mice. At all four doses, this compound caused hepatomegaly and reduced the serum level of triglycerides (an indicator for activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR alpha)). At the highest dose (0.02%, w/w), this hepatomegaly was associated with the hepatic injury, as reflected in increased activity of alanine aminotranferase (ALAT) in the serum, severe hepatocyte hypertrophy and hepatocellular necrosis. PFOA-induced hepatic injury was associated with in vivo activation of the complement system as indicated by (i) significant attenuation of the serum activities of both the classical and alternative pathways; (ii) a marked reduction in the serum level of the complement factor 0; and (iii) deposition of the complement factor C3 fragment (C3a) in the hepatic parenchyma. PFOA did not activate the alternative pathway of complement in vitro. At doses lower than 0.02%, PFOA induced hepatocyte hypertrophy without causing liver injury or activating complement. These results reveal substantial involvement of activation of complement in the pathogenesis of PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity.

  • 16.
    Cantillana, T.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Lindström, V.
    Eriksson, L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Brandt, I.
    Bergman, Å.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Interindividual differences in o,p '-DDD enantiomer kinetics examined in Göttingen minipigs2009In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Chemosphere, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 167-172Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Cantillana, Tatiana
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Sundström, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Synthesis of 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chloro-3-thiophenol)-1,1-dichloroethene (3-SH-DDE) via Newman-Kwart rearrangement - A precursor for synthesis of radiolabeled and unlabeled alkylsulfonyl-DDEs2009In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, ISSN 0045-6535, Vol. 76, no 6, p. 805-810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the first time, a pathway for synthesis of 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chloro-3-thiophenol)-1,1-dichloroethene (3-SH-DDE), is presented. The compound is of particular interest as a precursor for synthesis of alkylsulfonyl-DDE containing different alkyl groups to discover structural activity relationships, and to promote synthesis of radiolabeled methylsulfonyl-DDE. 2-Chloro-5-methyl phenol was first methylated and further oxidized to the corresponding benzoic acid. The acid was reduced to the corresponding aldehyde (4-chloro-3-methoxy benzaldehyde) via 4-chloro-3-methoxy-benzene methanol. A lead/aluminium bimetal system was used to carry out the reductive addition of tetrachloromethane to 4-chloro-3-methoxy benzaldehyde to obtain 2,2,2-trichloro-1-(4-chloro-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanol,the desired starting material to synthesize the DDT-analogue (2-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chloro-3-methoxy-phenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane). Elimination of hydrochloric acid and removal of the methyl group led to the 3-OH-DDE. The Newman-Kwart rearrangement was applied to convert 3-OH-DDE to 3-SH-DDE via the dimethyl-carbarnothioate derivative. 3-SH-DDE is then used as a precursor for the radiolabel synthesis. The overall yield to acquire 3-SH-DDE after 11 steps was 3%. The step with the lowest yield was the DDT-analog synthesis with a yield of 30%. All other step had a yield of >50%. 3-SH-DDE was methylated with C-14-labeled iodomethane and oxidized by hydrogen peroxide to obtain 3-[C-14]MeSO2-DDE in an overall yield of 30%.

  • 18. Chen, Yiqin
    et al.
    Wang, Xianyu
    Li, Yan
    Toms, Leisa-Maree L.
    Gallen, Michael
    Hearn, Laurence
    Aylward, Lesa L.
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sly, Peter D.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    Persistent organic pollutants in matched breast milk and infant faeces samples2015In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 118, p. 309-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing blood concentration of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in infants is difficult due to the ethical and practical difficulties in obtaining sufficient quantities of blood. To determine whether measuring POPs in faeces might reflect blood concentration during infancy, we measured the concentrations of a range of POPs (i.e. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)) in a pilot study using matched breast milk and infant faecal samples obtained from ten mother-child pairs. All infants were breast fed, with 8 of them also receiving solid food at the time of faecal sampling. In this small dataset faecal concentrations (range 0.01-41 ng g(-1) lipid) are strongly associated with milk concentrations (range 0.02-230 ng g(-1) lipid). Associations with other factors generally could not be detected in this dataset, with the exception of a small effect of age or growth. Different sources (external or internal) of exposure appeared to directly influence faecal concentrations of different chemicals based on different inter-individual variability in the faeces-to-milk concentration ratio R-fm. Overall, the matrix of faeces as an external measure of internal exposure in infants looks promising for some chemicals and is worth assessing further in larger datasets.

  • 19.
    Christiansson, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Hovander, Lotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Jakobsson, Kristina
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in aircraft cabins – a source of human exposure?2008In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 73, no 10, p. 1654-1660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial aircrafts need a high degree of fire protection for passenger safety. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), may be used for this purpose. Because PBDEs readily absorb to dust particles, aircraft crew and passengers may receive significant PBDEs exposure via inhalation. The aims of this work were to assess whether PBDEs could be found in aircraft cabin dust and whether serum levels of PBDEs increased in passengers after long-distance flights. Hence nine subjects on intercontinental flights collected cabin dust samples, as well as donated blood samples before departure and after return to Sweden. Two subjects who were domestic frequent flyers were also investigated. The levels of PBDEs in dust and serum were determined by GC/MS in electron capture negative ionization (ECNI) mode. Authentic reference substances were used for identification and quantitation. PBDEs were found in all aircraft dust samples at high concentrations, higher than in common household dust. Congener patterns indicated that the technical products PentaBDE, OctaBDE and DecaBDE were used in the aircrafts. Serum concentrations in the travellers were similar to those observed in Swedish residents in general. Post-travel serum levels of BDE-28, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, and BDE-154 were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than concentrations prior to travel. The findings from this pilot study call for investigations of occupational exposures to PBDEs in cabin and cockpit crews.

  • 20. Cordell, D.
    et al.
    Rosemarin, Arno
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Schröder, J.J.
    Smit, A.L.
    Towards global phosphorus security: systemic framework for phosphorus recovery and reuse options2011In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 84, no 6, p. 747-758Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bignert, Anders
    Legradi, Jessica
    Legler, Juliette
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Anthropogenic and naturally produced brominated substances in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) from two sites in the Baltic Sea2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 144, p. 2408-2414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the eutrophicated Baltic Sea, several naturally produced hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been found in marine biota. OH-PBDEs are toxic to adult and developing zebrafish and shown to be potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Disturbed OXPHOS can result in altered energy metabolism and weight loss. In herring, the concentration of OH-PBDEs (i.e. 2'-OH-BDE68 and 6-OH-BDE47) has increased during the period 1980-2010 in the Baltic Proper. Over the same time period, the condition and fat content in Baltic herring have decreased. Given the toxicity and increasing trends of OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring it is important to further assess the exposure to OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring. In this study, the concentrations of OH-PBDEs and related brominated substances i.e. polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in herring sampled in the northern Baltic Proper (Asko, n = 12) and the southern Bothnian Sea (Angskarsklubb, n = 12). The geometric mean (GM) concentrations (ng/g l.w.) at Asko and Angskarsklubb were; Sigma(2)PBPs: 4.3 and 9.6, Sigma 2PBAs: 34 and 20, Sigma 6OH-PBDEs: 9.4 and 10, Sigma 7MeO-PBDEs: 42 and 150, Sigma 6PBDEs: 54 and 27, respectively. 6-OH-BDE47 dominated the OH-PBDE profile and comprised 87% (Asko) and 91% (Angskarsklubb) of the Sigma OH-PBDEs. At Angskarsklubb the mean concentration of Sigma MeO-PBDEs (150 ng/g l.w.) was 15 times higher than Sigma OH-PBDEs. As other fish species are known to metabolically transform MeO-PBDEs to OH-PBDEs, high levels of MeO-PBDEs can be of concern as a precursor for more toxic OH-PBDEs in herring and their roe.

  • 22.
    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Lindberg Chen, Vivian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center (Swetox), Sweden.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) and their main food, Baltic blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus x Mytilus edulis).2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 144, p. 1475-1483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) that breed in northern Europe and western Siberia and commonly winter in the Baltic Sea, are threatened by a significant population decrease. The ducks are, by primarily feeding on Baltic blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus x Mytilus edulis) while wintering in the Baltic Sea, potentially subjected to high levels of toxic hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs). To assess long-tailed ducks exposure to polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), their methylated counterparts (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), livers of ten long-tailed ducks wintering in the Baltic Sea were analysed. Pattern and levels of analytes in long-tailed ducks (liver) and blue mussels sampled in March and May at nine sites in the Baltic Sea were compared. The geometric mean concentration (ng/g l.w.) in livers of long-tailed ducks and Baltic blue mussels were: Sigma(2)PBPs: 0.57 and 48; Sigma 2PBAs: 0.83 and 11; Sigma 7OH-PBDEs: 6.1 and 45; Sigma 7MeO-PBDEs: 3.8 and 69; Sigma 7PBDEs: 8.0 and 7.2, respectively. Based on an estimated daily intake of 450 g fresh blue mussel meat, long-tailed ducks daily dietary intake of brominated substances while foraging in the Baltic Sea in March-May was estimated to; 390 ng Sigma(2)PBPs, 90 ng Sigma 2PBAs, 370 ng Sigma 7OH-PBDEs, 590 ng Sigma 7MeO-PBDEs and 59 ng Sigma 7PBDEs. The low levels of PBPs, PBAs, OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs in the long-tailed duck livers compared to blue mussel, despite a continuous daily intake, suggest that these compounds are poorly retained in long-tailed ducks.

  • 23.
    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Norrgran, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Hovander, Lotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Recovery discrepancies of OH-PBDEs and polybromophenols in human plasma and cat serum versus herring and long-tailed duck plasma2014In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 94, p. 97-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been identified as metabolites of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and/or as natural products. The OH-PBDEs and polybromophenols have come into focus over the last decade due to their abundance in biota and their potential adverse health effects. The present recovery study aims to validate a commonly used method (published by Hovander et al. 2000) for OH-PBDE analysis in human plasma. Further, the authors intended to determine the method's applicability to serum/plasma matrices from other species than humans. The investigated matrices were human plasma, cat serum, herring- and long-tailed duck plasma. The recovery study included nine OH-PBDEs, four polybromophenols and three methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs). Five replicates of each matrix were spiked with these compounds at two dose levels; a low dose (0.5 ng) and a high dose (5 ng) and were cleaned up according to the Hovander method. The recovery of OH-PBDEs and polybromophenols in human plasma and cat serum were high and reproducible at both dose levels whereas the recovery for herring and long-tailed duck plasma were low and insufficient with great variability amongst OH-PBDE congeners at both dose levels. Our data show that the method can be fully applied to matrices like human plasma and cat serum but not for herring and long-tailed duck plasma without further method development. Hence care needs to be taken when applying the method onto other blood matrices without validation since the present study have demonstrated that the recoveries may differ amongst OH-PBDE congeners and specie.

  • 24. Dahlgren, Elin
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Dennis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Dahlgren, Henrik
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Lehtila, Kari
    Trophic transfer of naturally produced brominated aromatic compounds in a Baltic Sea food chain2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 144, p. 1597-1604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brominated aromatic compounds (BACs) are widely distributed in the marine environment. Some of these compounds are highly toxic, such as certain hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs). In addition to anthropogenic emissions through use of BACs as e.g. flame retardants, BACs are natural products formed by marine organisms such as algae, sponges, and cyanobacteria. Little is known of the transfer of BACs from natural producers and further up in the trophic food chain. In this study it was observed that total sum of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and OH-PBDEs increased in concentration from the filamentous red alga Ceramium tenuicorne, via Gammarus sp. and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to perch (Perca fluviatilis). The MeO-PBDEs, which were expected to bioaccumulate, increased in concentration accordingly up to perch, where the levels suddenly dropped dramatically. The opposite pattern was observed for OH-PBDEs, where the concentration exhibited a general trend of decline up the food web, but increased in perch, indicating metabolic demethylation of MeO-PBDEs. Debromination was also indicated to occur when progressing through the food chain resulting in high levels of tetra-brominated MeO-PBDE and OH-PBDE congeners in fish, while some penta- and hexa-brominated congeners were observed to be the dominant products in the alga. As it has been shown that OH-PBDEs are potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation and that mixtures of different congener may act synergistically in terms of this toxic mode of action, the high levels of OH-PBDEs detected in perch in this study warrants further investigation into potential effects of these compounds on Baltic wildlife, and monitoring of their levels.

  • 25. Drage, Daniel S.
    et al.
    Newton, Seth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Harrad, Stuart
    Concentrations of legacy and emerging flame retardants in air and soil on a rural-urban transect in the UK West Midlands2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 148, p. 195-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Passive air samples were collected monthly for 6 months from 8 sites along a transect of Birmingham, United Kingdom between June 2012 and January 2013. Soil samples were collected once at each site. Average concentrations of BDE-209, ΣPBDEs17:183 and ΣPBDEs in ambient air were 150, 49, and 180 pg m−3, respectively. Atmospheric concentrations of PBDEs were negatively correlated with distance from the city centre, exhibiting an “urban pulse”. The average ΣHBCDD air concentration was 100 pg m−3, however concentrations were not correlated with distance from the city centre. Several emerging flame retardants (EFRs) were identified in air and/or soil samples: 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEH-TEBP), 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2 dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH or DBE-DBCH), allyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (ATE), 2-bromoallyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (BATE), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), and dechlorane plus (DP or DDC-CO). Average concentrations of BDE-209, ΣPBDEs17:183 and ΣPBDEs in soil were 11, 3.6, and 15 ng g−1 soil organic matter. PBDE concentrations in soil were higher at sites closest to the city centre, however correlations with distance from the city centre were not significant. BDEs-47 and -99 contributed more to ΣPBDEs in soil samples than air samples, but in both, the predominant congener was BDE-209. BATE was more abundant in air than soil but ATE was abundant in soil but not air.

  • 26.
    Egebäck, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sellström, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Decabromodiphenyl ethane and decabromodiphenyl ether in Swedish background air2012In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 86, no 3, p. 264-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DPDPE) is a flame retardant that has been on the market for more than 20 years and is used as a replacement for decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209). Environmental data on DPDPE are scarce but for BDE-209, studies have shown that long-range transport in the atmosphere leads to contamination of remote regions. Given their similar physical-chemical properties, we hypothesized that this is also true for DPDPE. In this study we explored the European continent as a source for DBDPE by collecting air samples at a back-ground location in southern Sweden. Twelve samples with stable air mass back trajectories over the 24 h sampling period were analysed. BDE-209 and 5 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also included in the study. The concentration ranges of DBDPE and BDE-209 were similar, 0.077-7.9 and 0.093-1.8 pg m(-3) air, respectively. The highest concentrations were detected when the air originated from the European continent and the lowest during periods with rather stagnant air over southern Scandinavia. The concentrations of DBDPE and BDE-209 did not co-vary, indicating that there are different major sources of the two compounds. In air, the compounds measured in this study are predominantly associated with particles. PAHs in the atmosphere are known to originate primarily from combustion processes and their concentrations were highly correlated with several measures of atmospheric particle concentration, i.e. PM 10, PM 2.5, soot, and N 450 (number of particles in the size range approximately 420-450 nm). No clear correlations were found between the concentrations of DBDPE or BDE-209 and any of the measures of particle concentrations, indicating that the emissions of these are not related to the major sources of emissions of soot or small particles.

  • 27.
    Filipovic, Marko
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Are perfluoroalkyl acids in waste water treatment plant effluents the result of primary emissions from the technosphere or of environmental recirculation?2014In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 129, p. 74-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have been suggested to be one of the major pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from the technosphere to the aquatic environment. The origin of PFAAs in WWTP influents is either from current primary emissions or a result of recirculation of PFAAs that have been residing and transported in the environment for several years or decades. Environmental recirculation can then occur when PFAAs from the environment enter the wastewater stream in, e.g., tap water. In this study 13 PFAAs and perfluorooctane sulfonamide were analyzed in tap water as well as WWTP influent, effluent and sludge from three Swedish cities: Bromma (in the metropolitan area of Stockholm), Bollebygd and Umeå. A mass balance of the WWTPs was assembled for each PFAA. Positive mass balances were observed for PFHxA and PFOA in all WWTPs, indicating the presence of precursor compounds in the technosphere. With regard to environmental recirculation, tap water was an important source of PFAAs to the Bromma WWTP influent, contributing >40% for each quantified sulfonic acid and up to 30% for the carboxylic acids. The PFAAs in tap water from Bollebygd and Umeå did not contribute significantly to the PFAA load in the WWTP influents. Our results show that in order to estimate current primary emissions from the technosphere, it may be necessary to correct the PFAA emission rates in WWTP effluents for PFAAs present in tap water, especially in the case of elevated levels in tap water.

  • 28.
    Filipovic, Marko
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Woldegiorgis, Andreas
    Norström, Karin
    Bibi, Momina
    Lindberg, Maria
    Österås, Ann-Helen
    Historical usage of aqueous film forming foam: A case study of the widespread distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids from a military airport to groundwater, lakes, soils and fish2014In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 129, p. 39-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historical usage of aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs) at military airports is a potential source of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to the nearby environment. In this study, the distribution of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in soil, groundwater, surface water, tap water well, and fish muscle was investigated at a closed down military airfield (F18) and its surroundings in Stockholm, Sweden. The presence of PFOS at AFFF training sites was inventoried.

    One major finding of the study is that a former airfield, abandoned since 1994, may still be a point source of PFAAs to nearby recipients. PFOS and PFOA were ubiquitous in the soil samples at former AFFF training sites with concentrations ranging from 2.18 to 8520 ng g−1 dry weight and <0.12–287 ng g−1 dry weight respectively. The sum of PFAAs in the groundwater and surface waters ranged from 738 to 51 000 ng L−1 and <MDL to 79.0 ng L−1, respectively. PFOS in European perch ranged from 76.5 to 370 ng g−1 wet weight muscle tissue which is among the highest previously reported worldwide. Our results provide evidence that the historical use of AFFF at the site have contaminated an aquifer (7500 m3 d−1), that will require constant PFAA purification before being used for drinking water production. Despite the fact that the water turnover time in the investigated recipients (of 4–6 months) suggest a depletion of PFAA-contaminants over a quarter of a decade, abandoned airfields may still pose an environmental and human health concern.

  • 29.
    Fridén, Ulrika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Jansson, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Parlar, Harun
    Chemical Technical Analysis, Technical University Munich, Germany.
    Photolytic clean-up of biological samples for gas chromatographic analysis of chlorinated paraffins2004In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 54, no 8, p. 1079-1083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method based on gas chromatography electron capture detection (GC-ECD) for the analysis of chlorinatedparaffins (CPs) in biological samples has been investigated. The method includes photolytic destruction of halogenatedaromatic compounds, such as PCBs, to eliminate some of the interferences in the analysis of CPs in environmental samples. Gel permeation chromatography was used to isolate CPs from the interfering components of Toxaphene andchlordane after the photolysis. GC-ECD gave a detection limit of 20 ng CPs/g fresh muscle tissue. The recovery of CPsfrom a spiked moose liver sample was estimated to 94%.

  • 30.
    Fritioff, Åsa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Växtfysiologi.
    Greger, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Växtfysiologi.
    Fate of cadmium in Elodea canadensis2007In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Chemosphere, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 365-375Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Elodea canadensis is a submersed macrophytes, widely distributed in stormwater treatment ponds and able to remove heavy metals

    from water. This study examines the Cd uptake, translocation, and efflux patterns in Elodea. Several experiments were set up in a climate

    chamber. To study the root and shoot Cd uptake, living and dead roots and shoots were treated with 109Cd in one- and two-compartment

    systems. Furthermore, to examine Cd translocation and distribution, either roots or shoots were treated with 109Cd. Finally, the efflux of

    Cd from roots and shoots, respectively, to the external solution was studied after loading whole plants with 109Cd. Results from the two

    compartment studies show that Cd is accumulated via direct uptake by both roots and shoots of Elodea. The Cd accumulation proved

    not to be metabolically dependent in Elodea, and the apoplastic uptake in particular was decreased by Cd pretreatment. In one week, up

    to 23% of the root uptake was translocated to the shoots, while about 2% of the Cd accumulated by shoots was translocated to the roots.

    Thus, slight dispersion of Cd is possible, while metal immobilization will not be directly mediated via the Elodea plant. The efflux experiment

    proved that both shoots of dead plants and roots of living plants had a faster efflux than did shoots of living plants. This information

    is relevant for an understanding of the fate of Cd in stormwater treatment ponds with Elodea.

  • 31.
    Fritioff, Åsa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Greger, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Uptake and distribution of Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb in an aquatic plant Potamogeton natans2006In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 220-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A better understanding of metal uptake and translocation by aquatic plants can be used to enhance the performance of constructed wetland systems for stormwater treatment. Specifically, this study examines whether the uptake of Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb by Potamogeton natans is via the leaves, stems, or roots, and whether there is translocation from organs of uptake to other plant parts. Competition between the metals at uptake and at the level of the cell wall-bound part of the metals accumulated in stem and leaf tissue was also examined. The results show that Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb were taken up by the leaves, stems, and roots, with the highest accumulation found in the roots. At the elevated metal concentrations common in stormwater the uptake of Cu, but not of Zn, Cd, or Pb, by the roots was somewhat limited at uptake due to competition with other metals. Between 24% and 59% of the metal content was bound to the cell walls of the plant. Except in the case of Pb, the cell wall-bound fraction was generally smaller in stems than in leaves. No translocation of the metals to other parts of the plant was found, except for Cd which was translocated from leaf to stem and vice versa. Dispersion of metals from sediment to water through P. natans is therefore unlikely.

  • 32.
    Fängström, Britta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Bignert, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Grandjean, Philippe
    Weihe, P
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and traditional organochlorine pollutants in fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from the Faroe Islands2005In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 60, no 7, p. 836-843Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The observed high-level burdens of organohalogens among the residents of the Faroe Islands, needs to be explained. Long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) blubber and meat are known sources of environmental exposure. The present study focus on the organohalogen contamination of the fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis). The compounds quantified in fulmar muscle, fat, and egg are PCBs, DDTs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The dominating pollutants are the 4,4′-DDT metabolite 4,4′-DDE and the two PCB congeners, CB-153 and CB-180, which are present in geometric mean concentrations of 7100, 4700 and 2500 ng/g lipid weight (l.w.), respectively, in adult fulmar muscle. 4,4′-DDT and HCB concentrations are approximately 250 ng/g l.w., each. Concentrations in the eggs are about 50% of the fulmar muscle levels, due to differences in lipid amounts, 4% in muscle and 10% in the eggs, the exposure contribution on a fresh weight basis is almost the same. As a result, both the egg and the adult fulmar muscle may lead to a significant exposure risk, if consumed by humans.

    BDE-153, the most abundant PBDE congener in fulmar muscle, with a geometric mean concentration of 6.5 ng/g l.w., is much lower than the individual PCB congeners and 4,4′-DDE concentrations. In the adult fulmar muscle, the relative PBDE congener pattern is different from that previously observed in biota, with BDE-153 and BDE-154 as the dominating congeners, rather than BDE-47. In contrast, BDE-47 is the most abundant congener in juvenile muscle and subcutaneous fat. The ∑PBDE concentrations are almost the same in egg, muscle (adult and juvenile) and subcutaneous fat (juvenile). For the polybrominated biphenyl (BB-153) the concentrations are considerably higher in the adult bird and egg than in the juvenile bird; this is also seen for the PCB and 4,4′-DDE concentrations.

    PCB concentrations found in fulmar egg and muscle are in the same range as seen in the pilot whale, i.e. 590–5700 ng/g l.w. for CB-153. Hence humans are also exposed to PCBs at a reasonable degree via intake of fulmar and/or fulmar egg and not only via pilot whale blubber.

  • 33.
    Gebbink, Wouter A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bossi, Rossana
    Rigét, Frank F.
    Rosing-Asvid, Aqqalu
    Sonne, Christian
    Dietz, Rune
    Observation of emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Greenland marine mammals2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 144, p. 2384-2391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present pilot study examined emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), i.e., a suite of short chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), PFAA precursors and replacement chemicals, and legacy PFASs (long chain length PFAAs) in livers from ringed seals, polar bears and, for the first time, killer whales from East Greenland collected in 2012-2013. Among the emerging PFASs, perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS) and F-53B (a chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acid) were detected in Arctic wildlife, albeit at concentrations approximately four orders of magnitude lower compared to perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS). PFOS was positively correlated with F-53B, but not PFBS in all three species. A total of 17 PFASs were detected in killer whales, including in a mother-fetus pair, demonstrating maternal transfer. Sigma PFAS concentrations in killer whales (269 +/- 90 ng/g) were comparable to concentrations found in ringed seals (138 +/- 7 ng/g), however, an order of magnitude lower compared to concentrations found in polar bear livers (2336 +/- 263 ng/g). Patterns of long chain PFAAs in killer whales differed from the pattern in ringed seals and polar bears. Of the monitored PFAA precursors, only perfluorooctanesulfonamide (FOSA) was detected in all three species, and FOSA/PFOS ratios and isomer patterns indicated that killer whales have a potential lower metabolic capacity to degrade FOSA compared to polar bears and ringed seals.

  • 34. Glynn, Anders
    et al.
    Larsdotter, Maria
    Aune, Marie
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    Bjerselius, Rickard
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Changes in serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated PCB metabolites and pentachlorophenol during pregnancy2011In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 144-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied pregnancy-related changes in serum concentrations of five polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, CB 118, CB 138, CB 153, CB 156, CB 180), three hydroxylated PCB metabolites (4-OH-CB107, 4-OH-CB146, 4-OH-CB187), and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Median serum lipid content increased 2-fold between early (weeks 9-13) and late pregnancy (weeks 35-36) (N = 10). whereas median PCB levels in serum lipids decreased 20-46%, suggesting a dilution of PCB concentrations in serum lipids. Nevertheless, strong positive intra-individual correlations (Spearman's r = 0.61-0.99) were seen for PCBs during the whole study period. Thus, if samples have been collected within the same relative narrow time window during pregnancy, PCB results from one single sampling occasion can be used in assessment of relative differences in body burdens during the whole pregnancy period. Concentrations of OH-PCBs in blood serum tended to decline as pregnancy progressed, although among some women the concentrations increased at the end of pregnancy. Positive intra-individual correlations (r = 0.66-0.99) between OH-PCB concentrations were observed during the first and second trimester, whereas correlations with third trimester concentrations were more diverging (r = -0.70-0.85). No decline in PCP concentrations was observed during pregnancy and no significant correlations were found between concentrations at different sampling periods. Our results suggest that for both OH-PCBs and PCP, sampling has to be more specifically timed depending on the time period during pregnancy that is of interest. The differences in patterns of intra- and inter-individual variability of the studied compounds may be due to a combination of factors, including lipid solubility, persistence of the compounds, distribution in blood, metabolic formation, and pregnancy-related changes in body composition and physiological processes.

  • 35.
    Granelli, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Reductive debromination of nonabrominated diphenyl ethers by sodium borohydride and identification of octabrominated diphenyl ether products2011In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 82, no 6, p. 839-846Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method was developed to study reductive transformation of highly brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs). The method development is a part of a broader project where it will be used to determine the susceptibility of environmental pollutants to reductive conditions, in an attempt to create a scheme for determination of chemical’s persistence. This paper focuses on identification of octabrominated diphenyl ether transformation products from reductive debromination of the three nonabrominated diphenyl congeners (nonaBDE), BDE-206, -207 and -208. Sodium borohydride was used to explore the reductive debromination of the nonaBDEs. The transformation products were collected at two time-points and identified products were quantified by GC–MS. The reduction of the nonaBDEs lead primarily to debrominated products, mainly octaBDEs. The three nonabrominated DEs gave isomer-related transformation product patterns. BDE-207 and BDE-208 showed a propensity for ortho-debromination in the initial reaction step, while no discrimination between initial debromination positions was seen for BDE-206. All three nonabrominated DEs displayed a preferred initial debromination on the fully brominated DE ring.

  • 36.
    Granelli, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Sodium borohydride reduction of individual polybrominated diphenyl ethers2012In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 86, no 10, p. 1008-1012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many chemicals in use today lack appropriate documentation on their environmental properties, fate, and effects. To counteract this lack of documentation it is vital to thoroughly investigate a compound's fate in the environment before it comes into use. The present study is describing a novel method for assessing the reduction potential of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as a part of a project aimed to create an experimental model for determination of chemical persistence. The reductive transformation of 15 PBDE congeners using sodium borohydride was determined. Pseudo-first-order reaction rate constants of the transformations were determined by monitoring the disappearance of the investigated congeners. The reductions lead primarily to formation of lower brominated PBDEs. Each PBDE congener was tested in a total of ten replicates which showed a relative standard deviation of 31% or less. The deca-BDE, BDE-209 was approximately 3 times as prone to reductive transformation as BDE-207. The three nonaBDEs, BDE-206, BDE-207, and BDE-208, showed similar reductive potential. The reactivity of the tested octaBDEs was quite variable, from 5% to 24% of the reactivity of BDE-209 for BDE-196 and BDE-198, respectively. The heptaBDEs studied were in the range of the less reactive octaBDEs, except for BDE-181 which was as high as 13% of the reactivity of BDE-209. The results presented give a method for measuring the propensity of PBDEs, and possibly similar compounds, to undergo reductions. They indicate a potential route to a vital piece of information in the assessment of environmental persistence of chemicals.

  • 37. Hale, S. E.
    et al.
    Alling, V.
    Martinsen, V.
    Mulder, J.
    Breedveld, G. D.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    The sorption and desorption of phosphate-P, ammonium-N and nitrate-N in cacao shell and corn cob biochars2013In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 91, no 11, p. 1612-1619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sorption of PO4-P, NH4-N and NO3-N to cacao shell and corn cob biochars produced at 300-350 degrees C was quantified. The biochars were used; (i) as received (unwashed), (ii) after rinsing with Millipore water and (iii) following leaching with Millipore water. In addition to sorption, desorption of PO4-P from the unwashed biochars was quantified. There was no sorption of PO4-P to either washed or rinsed biochars, but following leaching, both biochars adsorbed PO4-P and distribution coefficients (K-d L kg(-1)) were very similar for both materials (10(1.1 +/- 0.5) for cacao shell biochar and 10(1.0 +/- 0.2) for corn cob biochar). The BET surface area and micropore volume increased 80% and 60% for the cacao shell and corn cob biochars following leaching. After 60 d, 1483 +/- 45 mg kg(-1) and 172 +/- 1 mg kg PO4-P was released from the cacao shell and corn cob biochars. NH4-N was sorbed by both unwashed biochars, albeit weakly with K-d values around 10(2) L kg(-1). We speculate that NH4-N could bind via an electrostatic exchange with other cationic species on the surface of the biochar. There was no significant release or sorption of NO3-N from or to either of the biochars.

  • 38. Hale, Sarah E.
    et al.
    Arp, Hans Peter H.
    Kupryianchyk, Darya
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Norway; Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    A synthesis of parameters related to the binding of neutral organic compounds to charcoal2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 144, p. 65-74Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sorption strength of neutral organic compounds to charcoal, also called biochar was reviewed and related to charcoal and compound properties. From 29 studies, 507 individual Freundlich sorption.coefficients were compiled that covered the sorption strength of 107 organic contaminants. These sorption coefficients were converted into charcoal-water distribution coefficients (K-D) at aqueous concentrations of 1 ng/L, 1 mu g/L and 1 mg/L. Reported log K-D values at 1 mu g/L varied from 0.38 to 8.25 across all data. Variation was also observed within the compound classes; pesticides, herbicides and insecticides, PAHs, phthalates, halogenated organics, small organics, alcohols and PCBs. Five commonly reported variables; charcoal production temperature T, surface area SA, H/C and 0/C ratios and organic compound octanolwater partitioning coefficient, were correlated with K-D values using single and multiple-parameter linear regressions. The sorption strength of organic compounds to charcoals increased with increasing charcoal production temperature T, charcoal SA and organic pollutant octanol-water partitioning coefficient and decreased with increasing charcoal O/C ratio and charcoal H/C ratio. T was found to be correlated with SA (r(2) = 0.66) and O/C (r(2) = 0.50), particularly for charcoals produced from wood feedstocks (r2 = 0.73 and 0.80, respectively). The resulting regression: log K-D = (0.18 +/- 0.06) log K-ow + (5.74 +/- 1.40) log T + (0.85 +/- 0.15) log SA + (1.60 +/- 0.29) log OC + (-0.89 +/- 0.20) log HC + (-13.20 +/- 3.69), r(2) = 0.60, root mean squared error = 0.95, n = 151 was obtained for all variables. This information can be used as an initial screening to identify charcoals for contaminated soil and sediment remediation.

  • 39. Hale, Sarah E.
    et al.
    Endo, Satoshi
    Arp, Hans Peter H.
    Zimmerman, Andrew R.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Norway; University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Sorption of the monoterpenes alpha-pinene and limonene to carbonaceous geosorbents including biochar2015In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 119, p. 881-888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sorption of two monoterpenes, alpha pinene and limonene to the carbonaceous geosorbents graphite, bituminous coal, lignite coke, biochar and Pahokee peat was quantified. Polyethylene (PE) passive samplers were calibrated for the first time for these compounds by determining the PE-water partitioning coefficients and used as a tool to determine sorption to the carbonaceous geosorbents. Log KPE-water values were 3.49 +/- 0.58 for alpha pinene and 4.08 +/- 0.27 for limonene. The sorption of limonene to all materials was stronger than that for a pinene (differences of 0.2-13 log units between distribution coefficients for the monoterpenes). Placing K-d values in increasing order for a pinene gave biochar approximate to Pahokee peat approximate to bituminous coal approximate to lignite coke < graphite. For limonene the order was: Pahokee peat approximate to biochar approximate to bituminous coal < graphite approximate to lignite coke. Micropore (defined as pores <1.5 nm) and nanopore surface area (defined as pores 1.5 nm to 50 nm) normalised carbonaceous geosorbent-water distribution coefficients were also calculated. There was no clear correlation of these distribution coefficients with SA. Elemental composition was used to assess the degree of condensation (or alteration) of the carbonaceous geosorbents. The degree of carbonisation increased in the order; Pahokee peat < lignite coke < bituminous coal < biochar < graphite, however this was not correlated with an increase in the experimental distribution coefficients.

  • 40. Heimstad, Eldbjørg Sofie
    et al.
    Moreira Bastos, Patricia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Harju, Mikael
    Quantitative structure-Photodegradation relationships of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phenoxyphenols and selected organochlorines2009In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 77, no 7, p. 914-921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among other developments, the technological revolution has lead to introduction of new chemicals to better serve in instruments and materials. The consequences of the extensive increase in use of new chemicals can be detected in the environment world wide, i.e. in wildlife and humans. To ensure this problem to be minimised in the future, new chemicals need to be subjected to predictive assessments before commercialised. To facilitate screening, qualitative structure-activity relationships, quantitative structure-activity relationships may be applied to describe reactivity of chemicals. Physico-chemical properties of chemicals such as partition coefficients and half-lives for the various environmental compartments are essential input data in multimedia environmental fate models. In this study we examine how structural characteristics can quantitatively describe laboratory determined photolytic half-lives of halogenated compounds of different classes, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated brominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), and other organohalogens. A total of 30 chemicals with experimentally measured half-lives are used. Results reveal that the most important descriptors for describing the half-lives of the brominated compounds are the energy gap (GAP-1) between HOMO-1 and LUMO, the lowest partial charge on a halogen atom (Qhal-), topological polar surface area (TPSA), the atom with highest radical superdelocalizability (Rad-super+) and LUMO density (LUMO+).

  • 41. Hilber, Isabel
    et al.
    Mayer, Philipp
    Gouliarmou, Varvara
    Hale, Sarah E.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Norwegian Geotechnical Institute NGI, Norway; Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Norway.
    Schmidt, Hans-Peter
    Bucheli, Thomas D.
    Bioavailability and bioaccessibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from (post-pyrolytically treated) biochars2017In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 174, p. 700-707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioaccessibility data of PAHs from biochar produced under real world conditions is scarce and the influence of feedstock and various post-pyrolysis treatments common in agriculture, such as co composting or lacto-fermentation to produce silage fodder, on their bioavailability and bioaccessibility has hardly been studied. The total (C-total), and freely dissolved (i.e., bioavailable) concentrations (C-free) of the sum of 16 US EPA PAHs of 43 biochar samples produced and treated in such ways ranged from 0.4 to almost 2000 mg/kg, and from 12 to 81 ng/L, respectively, which resulted in very high biochar-water partition coefficients (4.2 < log K-D < 8.8 L/kg) for individual PAHs. Thirty three samples were incubated in contaminant traps that combined a diffusive carrier and a sorptive sink. Incubations yielded samples only containing desorption-resistant PAHs (C-res). The desorption resistant PAH fraction was dominant, since only eight out of 33 biochar samples showed statistically significant bioaccessible fractions (f(bioaccessible) = 1 - C-res/C-total). Bioavailability correlated positively with C-total/surface area. Other relationships of bioavailability and accessibility with the investigated post-pyrolysis processes or elemental composition could not be found. PAH exposure was very limited (low C-free, high C-res) for all samples with low to moderate C-total whereas higher exposure was determined in some biochars with C-total > 10 mg/kg.

  • 42.
    Hoppe, Sabina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, J. -P.
    Borg, H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Can natural levels of Al influence Cu speciation and toxicity to Daphnia magna in a Swedish soft water lake?2015In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 138, p. 205-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that chemical parameters, such as natural organic matter (NOM), cation content and pH may influence speciation and toxicity of metals in freshwaters. Advanced bioavailability models, e.g. Biotic Ligand Models (BLMs), can use these and other chemical parameters to calculate site specific recommendations for metals in the aquatic environment. However, since Al is not an input parameter in the BLM v.2.2.3, used in this study, there could be a discrepancy between calculated and measured results in Al rich waters. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the presence of Al in a circumneutral (pH similar to 6) soft humic freshwater, Lake St. Envattern, will affect the Cu speciation and thereby the toxicity to the cladoceran Daphnia magna. The results show a statistically significant increase in the free Cu2+ concentration with Al additions and that measured levels of Cu2+ significantly differed from BLM calculated levels of Cu2+. Furthermore, there was also a statistically significant elevated acute toxic response to D. magna at low additions of Al (10 mu g/L). However, since the large difference between calculated and measured Cu2+ resulted in a significant but minor (factor of 2.3) difference between calculated and measured toxicity, further studies should be conducted in Al rich soft waters to evaluate the importance of adding Al as an input parameter into the BLM software.

  • 43.
    Jahnke, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Mayer, Philipp
    Broman, Dag
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Possibilities and limitations of equilibrium sampling using polydimethylsiloxane in fish tissue.2009In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 77, no 6, p. 764-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has been used for passive equilibrium sampling in numerous abiotic environmental matrices. Recently, this approach was extended to lipid-rich tissue. This work investigated the possibilities and limitations of using PDMS thin-film extraction for in tissue equilibrium sampling in fish species of varying lipid content. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used as model lipophilic organic pollutants. PDMS thin-films were inserted in intact fish tissue for differing time periods (1h up to 1 week). The thin-films were then solvent-extracted and the extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Whether equilibrium had been established was investigated either by using PDMS thin-films of multiple thicknesses (140-620 microm) or by assessing kinetics by means of time series. Equilibration was found to be rapid (i.e. in the range of hours) in lipid-rich fish whereas equilibrium was not achieved within one week in tissues with low or medium lipid content (i.e. up to 2% lipids). Regarding lipid-rich fish, the newly developed method was found to be sufficiently sensitive to determine equilibrium partitioning concentrations of PCBs in lipids of samples from the Baltic Sea, and it is a promising approach for any kind of fatty tissue.

  • 44. Jakob, Lena
    et al.
    Hartnik, Thomas
    Henriksen, Thomas
    Elmquist, Marie
    Brandli, Rahel C.
    Hale, Sarah E.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    PAH-sequestration capacity of granular and powder activated carbon amendments in soil, and their effects on earthworms and plants2012In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 88, no 6, p. 699-705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A field lysimeter study was carried out to investigate whether the amendment of 2% powder and granular activated carbon (PAC and GAC) to a soil with moderate PAH contamination had an impact on the PAH bioaccumulation of earthworms and plants, since AC is known to be a strong sorbent for organic pollutants. Furthermore, secondary effects of AC on plants and earthworms were studied through growth and nutrient uptake, and survival and weight gain. Additionally, the effect of AC amendments on soil characteristics like pH, water holding capacity, and the water retention curve of the soil were investigated. Results show that the amendment of 2% PAC had a negative effect on plant growth while the GAC increased the growth rate of plants. PAC was toxic to earthworms, demonstrated by a significant weight loss, while the results for GAC were less clear due to ambiguous results of a field and a parallel laboratory study. Both kinds of AC significantly reduced biota to soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) of PAHs in earthworms and plants. The GAC reduced the BSAFs of earthworms by an average of 47 +/- 44% and the PAC amendment reduced them by 72 +/- 19%. For the investigated plants the BSAFs were reduced by 46 +/- 36% and 53 +/- 22% by the GAC and PAC, respectively.

  • 45.
    Jorundsdottir, Hronn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Löfstrand, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Svavarsson, Jorundur
    Bignert, Anders
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in seven different marine bird species from Iceland2013In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 93, no 8, p. 1526-1532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data on distribution, concentration and trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) is scarce in biota from the sub-Arctic region of the Atlantic. The present study is an investigation on PBDE and HBCD concentrations in eggs from seven marine bird species from Iceland, i.e. common eider (Somateria mollissima), arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), guillemot (Uria aalge), fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus), great black-backed gull (Larus marinus) and great skua (Stercorarius skua). Concentrations of sum PBDEs ranged from 44 ng g(-1) fat in eider eggs to 2400 ng g(-1) fat in great skua eggs. The contribution of different PBDE congeners to the sum concentration differed between species. Concentration of HBCDs (sum of alpha-,beta- and gamma- HBCD) ranged from 1.3 ng g(-1) fat in arctic tern eggs to 41 ng g(-1) fat in great black-backed gull. PCA on PBDE and HBCD shows different trends between the two BFR groups, further indicating different sources/usage. Investigations on any potential health or population effects of environmental pollutants on the great skua are advised since both the PBDE and HBCD concentrations are high.

  • 46. Josefsson, Sarah
    et al.
    Karlsson, O. Magnus
    Malmaeus, J. Mikael
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wiberg, Karin
    Structure-related distribution of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and HCB in a river-sea system2011In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 85-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water concentrations of PCDD/Fs, HCB, and non-ortho, mono-ortho, and non-dioxin-like PCBs were measured four times during 1 year in a coastal area of the Baltic Sea, to investigate background levels and distribution behaviour. Sampling sites included two rivers, an estuary, and the sea. Particulate and apparently dissolved concentrations were determined using active sampling (filters + PUFs), while freely dissolved concentrations were determined using passive sampling (POM-samplers). The distribution between particulate + colloidal and freely dissolved phases, in the form of TOC-normalized distribution ratios (K(roc)), was found to be near or at equilibrium. The observed Kroc were not significantly different between sampling sites or seasons. For PCDD/Fs, the concentrations were significantly correlated to suspended particulate matter (SPM), while no correlation to organic carbon (TOC) was observed. In the estuary and the sea, PCB concentrations were correlated to TOC. The sorption of various congeners to SPM and TOC appeared to be related to both hydrophobicity and 3D-structure. The PCDD/F concentration in the sea decreased to one third in May, likely connected to the increased vertical flux of particles during the spring bloom.

  • 47. Josefsson, Sarah
    et al.
    Leonardsson, Kjell
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Influence of contaminant burial depth on the bioaccumulation of PCBs and PBDEs by two benthic invertebrates (Monoporeia affinis and Marenzelleria spp.)2011In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 85, no 9, p. 1444-1451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bioaccumulation of buried polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) added to specific depths in sediment (2.0-2.5, 5.0-5.5 and 10.0-10.5 cm) was studied in two infaunal species with similar feeding habits (surface deposit-feeders) but different bioturbation modes. The deep-burrowing polychaetes Marenzelleria spp. (Mz) displayed up to 36 times higher tissue concentrations of buried (spiked) contaminants than the surface-dwelling biodiffusing amphipod Monoporeia affinis. The differences in bioaccumulation were most pronounced for less hydrophobic contaminants due to the bioirrigating activity of Mz. Contaminants buried at shallow depths displayed higher accumulation than more deeply buried contaminants. In contrast, the bioaccumulation of unspiked (native) contaminants with a unifo vertical distribution in the sediment was similar between the species. For Mz, the BSAFs increased with increased K(ow) for the uniformly distributed contaminants, but decreased for the buried contaminants, which indicates that the dominant uptake routes of the buried contaminants can differ from the uniformly distributed contaminants. The surface sediment concentration of buried contaminants increased in Mz treatments, showing that Mz bioturbation can remobilize historically buried contaminants to the biologically active surface layer and increase the exposure for surface-dwelling species.

  • 48.
    Kierkegaard, Amelie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bignert, Anders
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bioaccumulation of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane in perch in Swedish lakes2013In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 93, no 5, p. 789-793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), a high production volume chemical used in personal care products, enters the environment both via air and sewage treatment plant (STP) recipients. It has been found in fish, and there is concern that it may be a bioaccumulative substance. In this work D5 was analyzed in perch from six Swedish lakes that did not receive STP effluent, and in perch and sediment from six lakes that received STP effluent. In the lakes receiving the STP effluent, the D5 concentrations in sediment varied over three orders of magnitude and were correlated with the number of persons connected to the STP normalized to the surface area of the receiving body. In the lakes not receiving effluent, the D5 levels in perch were all below the LOQ while D5 was above the LOQ in almost all perch from lakes that received effluent. The D5 concentrations in perch and sediment from the lakes receiving STP effluent were correlated. This shows that STP effluent is a much more important source of D5 to aquatic ecosystems than atmospheric deposition, and that the risk of adverse effects of D5 on aquatic life will be greatest in small recipients receiving large amounts of STP effluent. The bioaccumulation of D5 was compared to that of PCB 180 on the basis of multimedia bioaccumulation factors (mmBAFs), which describe the fraction of the contaminant present in the whole aquatic environment (i.e. water and surface sediment) that is transferred to the fish. In four of the six lakes the mmBAF of D5 was >0.3 of the mmBAF of PCB 180. Given that PCB 180 is a known highly bioaccumulative chemical, this indicates that the bioaccumulation of D5 in perch is considerable.

  • 49.
    Kierkegaard, Amelie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bignert, Anders
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in fish from the Baltic Sea2013In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 93, no 5, p. 774-778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory studies suggest that the cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (05) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) will persist in the aquatic environment and bioaccumulate in fish. Here these cVMS were measured in herring collected in the Swedish waters of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea and in grey seals from the Baltic Proper. D4, D5, and D6 were present in herring muscle at concentrations around 10, 200, and 40 ng g(-1) lipid weight, respectively. The ratio of these concentrations was similar to the relative magnitude of estimated emissions to water, suggesting that the efficiency of overall transfer through the environment and food web was similar (within a factor 2-3) for the three chemicals. The concentrations of D5 and D6 were similar in herring caught in the highly populated Baltic Proper and in the less populated Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. The D4 concentrations were lower at the most remote northern station, suggesting that D4 is less persistent than D5 and D6. Herring from the North Sea had lower levels of all three chemicals. The concentrations of D4, D5 and D6 in grey seal blubber were lower than the lipid normalized concentrations in herring, indicating that they do not biomagnify in grey seals.

  • 50.
    Kong, Deguo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Modelling the influence of climate change on the chemical concentrations in the Baltic Sea region with the POPCYCLING-Baltic model2014In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 110, p. 31-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of projected future changes in temperature, wind speed, precipitation and particulate organic carbon on concentrations of persistent organic chemicals in the Baltic Sea regional environment is evaluated using the POPCYCLING-Baltic multimedia chemical fate model. Steady-state concentrations of hypothetical perfectly persistent chemicals with property combinations that encompass the entire plausible range for non-ionizing organic substances are modelled under two alternative climate change scenarios (IPCC A2 and B2) and compared to a baseline climate scenario. The contributions of individual climate parameters are deduced in model experiments in which only one of the four parameters is changed from the baseline scenario. Of the four selected climate parameters, temperature is the most influential, and wind speed is least. Chemical concentrations in the Baltic region are projected to change by factors of up to 3.0 compared to the baseline climate scenario. For chemicals with property combinations similar to legacy persistent organic pollutants listed by the Stockholm Convention, modelled concentration ratios between two climate change scenarios and the baseline scenario range from factors of 0.5 to 2.0. This study is a first step toward quantitatively assessing climate change-induced changes in the environmental concentrations of persistent organic chemicals in the Baltic Sea region.

123 1 - 50 of 111
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