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  • 1.
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Jahnke, Annika
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Mayer, Philipp
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    A flow-through passive dosing system for continuously supplying aqueous solutions of hydrophobic chemicals to bioconcentration and aquatic toxicity tests2012Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 86, nr 6, s. 593-599Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A continuous supply of water with defined stable concentrations of hydrophobic chemicals is a requirement in a range of laboratory tests such as the OECD 305 protocol for determining the bioconcentration factor in fish. Satisfying this requirement continues to be a challenge, particularly for hydrophobic chemicals. Here we present a novel solution based on equilibrium passive dosing. It employs a commercially available unit consisting of similar to 16000 polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tubes connected to two manifolds. The chemicals are loaded into the unit by repeatedly perfusing it with a methanol solution of the substances that is progressively diluted with water. Thereafter the unit is perfused with water and the chemicals partition from the unit into the water. The system was tested with nine chemicals with logK(ow) ranging from 4.1 to 6.3. The aqueous concentrations generated were shown to be largely independent of the water flow rate, and the unit to unit reproducibility was within a factor of similar to 2. In continuous flow experiments the aqueous concentrations of most of the study chemicals remained constant over 8 d. A model was assembled that allows prediction of the operating characteristics of the system from the logKow or PDMS/water partition coefficient of the chemical. The system is a simple, safe, predictable and flexible tool that generates stable aqueous concentrations of hydrophobic chemicals.

  • 2.
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    In-vivo passive sampling to measure elimination kinetics in bioaccumulation tests2012Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 88, nr 1, s. 62-68Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of in-tissue passive sampling to quantify chemical kinetics in fish bioconcentration experiments was investigated. A passive sampler consisting of an acupuncture needle covered with a PDMS tube was developed together with a method for its deployment in rainbow trout. The time to steady state for chemical uptake into the passive sampler was >1 d, so it was employed as a kinetically limited sampler with a deployment time of 2 h. The passive sampler was employed in parallel with the established whole tissue extraction method to study the elimination kinetics of 10 diverse chemicals in rainbow trout. 4-n-nonylphenol and 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenol were close to or below the limit of quantification in the sampler. For chlorpyrifos, musk xylene, hexachlorobenzene, 2,5-dichlorobiphenyl and p,p'-DDT. the elimination rate constants determined with the passive sampler method and the established method agreed within 18%. Poorer agreement (35%) was observed for 2,3,4-trichloroanisole and p-diisopropylbenzene because fewer data were obtained with the passive sampling method due to its lower sensitivity. The work shows that in-tissue passive sampling can be employed to measure contaminant elimination kinetics in fish. This opens up the possibility of studying contaminant kinetics in individual fish, thereby reducing the fish requirements and analytical costs for the determination of bioconcentration factors.

  • 3.
    Ahmadi, Hamid
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Bolinius, Dämien Johann
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Jahnke, Annika
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Mass transfer of hydrophobic organic chemicals between siliconesheets and through plant leaves and low-density polyethylene2016Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 164, s. 683-690Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant leaves play an important role in the fate of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in theenvironment. Yet much remains unknown about the permeability of leaves by HOCs. In this pilot studywe measured (i) the kinetics of mass transfer of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and sixpolychlorinated biphenyls between a spiked and an unspiked sheet of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) indirect contact with each other for 24 h and (ii) kinetics of mass transfer of two PAHs through leaves andlow-density polyethylene (LDPE) in a passive dosing experiment by inserting these matrices between thetwo sheets of PDMS for 48 h. The kinetics of mass transfer of fluoranthene between PDMS sheets in directcontact were a factor of 12 slower than those reported in the literature. The kinetics of mass transfer offluorene and phenanthrene through leaves were within the range of those previously reported for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid through isolated cuticles. Our results provide a proof-of-concept demon-stration that the passive dosing method applied in this study can be used to measure the mass transfercoefficients of organic chemicals through leaves. Key recommendations for future experiments are toload the PDMS at the highest feasible concentrations to avoid working at analyte levels close to the limitof detection, to keep the leaves moist and to minimize potential pathways for contamination of the PDMSsheets by exposure to laboratory air.

  • 4. Amstaetter, Katja
    et al.
    Eek, Espen
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Sorption of PAHs and PCBs to activated carbon: Coal versus biomass-based quality2012Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 87, nr 5, s. 573-578Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The addition of activated carbon (AC) is an increasingly popular method for pollutant immobilization, and the AC material can be made of biomass or coal/fossil feedstock. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there are differences between pollutant sorption to biomass and coal-based AC in the presence and absence of sediment. Through N-2 and CO2 adsorption to probe surface area and pore size it was shown that the biomass-based AC had a stronger dominance of narrow pores in the size range 3.5-15 angstrom than the anthracite-based material. In the absence of sediment, sorption isotherms for the probe compounds pyrene and PCB-101 showed stronger sorption for the biomass-based AC (logarithmic Freundlich coefficients 8.15 for pyrene; 9.91 for PCB-101) than for the anthracite-based one (logarithmic Freundlich coefficients 7.20 and 9.70, respectively). In the presence of sediment, the opposite trend was observed, with the stronger sorption for anthracite-based AC. Thus, the presence of competing and/or pore-blocking sediment constituents reduces sorption to a larger extent for biomass-derived AC (factor of 5 for pyrene to almost 100 for PCB-101) than for anthracite-based AC (no reduction for pyrene to factor of 5 for PCB-101). This difference is tentatively attributed to the difference in pore size distribution, narrow pores being more prone to clogging, and could have implications for remediation feasibility with AC from different sources.

  • 5.
    Avagyan, Rozanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Westerholm, Roger
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Suspect screening of OH-PAHs and non-target screening of other organic compounds in wood smoke particles using HR-Orbitrap-MS2016Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 163, s. 313-321Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood combustion has been shown to contribute significantly to emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, compounds with toxic and carcinogenic properties. However, only a small number of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been determined in particles from wood combustion, usually compounds with available reference standards. In this present study, suspect and non-target screening strategies were applied to characterize the wood smoke particles from four different wood types and two combustion conditions with respect to hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other organic compounds. In the suspect screening, 32 peaks corresponding to 12 monohydroxylated masses were tentatively identified by elemental composition assignments and matching of isotopic pattern and fragments. More than one structure was suggested for most of the measured masses. Statistical analysis was performed on the non-target screening data in order to single out significant peaks having intensities that depend on the wood type and/or combustion condition. Significant peaks were found in both negative and positive ionization modes, with unique peaks for each wood type and combustion condition, as well as a combination of both factors. Furthermore, structural elucidation of some peaks was done by comparing the spectra in the samples with spectra found in the spectral databases. Six compounds were tentatively identified in positive ionization mode, and 19 in negative ionization mode. The results in this present study demonstrate that there are significant overall differences in the chemistry of wood smoke particles that depends on both the wood type and the combustion condition used.

  • 6. Awchi, Mo
    et al.
    Gebbink, Wouter A.
    Berendsen, Bjorn J. A.
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap.
    van Leeuwen, Stefan P. J.
    Development, validation, and application of a new method for the quantitative determination of monohydrogen-substituted perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (H-PFCAs) in surface water2022Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 287, artikel-id 132143Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a large and diverse class of chemicals. While some have been phased out internationally due to concerns over their human and environmental health risks, novel alternative PFASs continue to be manufactured and detected in environmental samples. The occurrence and fate of these alternatives remain poorly understood. The present study investigated the occurrence of an emerging class of PFAS alternative, the monohydrogen-substituted perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (H-PFCAs), in conjunction with the more well-known PFCAs. A weak anion exchange solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for quantitative determination of H-PFCAs in surface water was developed, validated, and applied on samples collected from the Netherlands. To improve chromatography, especially for short-chain (H-) PFCAs, an ion-pairing agent, tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulphate, was used. The method was validated for linearity (R2 > 0.99), instrumental detection limits (0.01-0.09 ng/mL), method detection limits (0.03-0.75 ng/ mL), matrix effects (<20%), percent absolute- and relative recovery (57-121%), trueness (130-80%), repeatability (<20%), and within-lab reproducibility (<20%). Eleven out of fourteen PFASs showed acceptable results. Application of the newly validated method to surface water throughout the Netherlands revealed trace levels of H-PFCAs (including two new H-PFCAs) and high concentrations of PFCAs.

  • 7.
    Bastos, Patricia Moreira
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Green, Nicholas
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    A standardized method for assessment of oxidative transformations of brominated phenols in water.2008Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 70, nr 7, s. 1196-202Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Bejgarn, Sofia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Bogdal, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Toxicity of leachate from weathering plastics: An exploratory screening study with Nitocra spinipes2015Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 132, s. 114-119Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Between 60% and 80% of all marine litter is plastic. Leachate from plastics has previously been shown to cause acute toxicity in the freshwater species Daphnia magna. Here, we present an initial screening of the marine environmental hazard properties of leachates from weathering plastics to the marine harpacticoid copepod [Crustacea] Nitocra spinipes. Twenty-one plastic products made of different polymeric materials were leached and irradiated with artificial sunlight. Eight of the twenty-one plastics (38%) produced leachates that caused acute toxicity. Differences in toxicity were seen for different plastic products, and depending on the duration of irradiation. There was no consistent trend in how toxicity of leachate from plastics changed as a function of irradiation time. Leachate from four plastics became significantly more toxic after irradiation, two became significantly less toxic and two did not change significantly. Analysis of leachates from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by liquid chromatography coupled to a full-scan high-resolution mass spectrometer showed that the leachates were a mixture of substances, but did not show evidence of degradation of the polymer backbone. This screening study demonstrates that leachates from different plastics differ in toxicity to N. spinipes and that the toxicity varies under simulated weathering.

  • 9.
    Berger, Urs
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Glynn, Anders
    Holmström, Katrin E
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Berglund, Marika
    Ankarberg, Emma Halldin
    Törnkvist, Anna
    Fish consumption as a source of human exposure to perfluorinated alkyl substances in Sweden: analysis of edible fish from Lake Vättern and the Baltic Sea2009Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 76, nr 6, s. 799-804Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) were analyzed in muscle tissue from edible fish species caught in the second largest freshwater lake in Sweden, Lake Vättern (LV), and in the brackish water Baltic Sea (BS). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant PFAS found. PFOS concentrations were higher in LV (medians 2.9-12 ng g(-1) fresh weight) than in BS fish (medians 1.0-2.5 ng g(-1) fresh weight). Moreover, LV fish was more contaminated with several other PFAS than BS fish. This may be due to anthropogenic discharges from urban areas around LV. The PFAS pattern differed between LV and BS fish, indicating different sources of contamination for the two study areas. Human exposure to PFOS via fish intake was calculated for three study groups, based on consumption data from literature. The groups consisted of individuals that reported moderate or high consumption of BS fish or high consumption of LV fish, respectively. The results showed that PFOS intake strongly depended on individual fish consumption as well as the fish catchment area. Median PFOS intakes were estimated to 0.15 and 0.62 ng kg(-1) body weight (bw) d(-1) for the consumers of moderate and high amounts of BS fish, respectively. For the group with high consumption of LV fish a median PFOS intake of 2.7 ng kg(-1)bw d(-1) was calculated. Fish consumption varied considerably within the consumer groups, with maximum PFOS intakes of 4.5 (BS fish) or 9.6 ng kg(-1)bw d(-1) (LV fish). Comparison of our results with literature data on PFOS intake from food suggests that fish from contaminated areas may be a significant source of dietary PFOS exposure.

  • 10.
    Bignert, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Nyberg, Elisabeth
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Miller, Aroha
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Sara
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Consequences of using pooled versus individual samples for designing environmental monitoring sampling strategies2014Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 94, s. 177-182Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Choosing an appropriate sampling strategy for chemical analysis within environmental monitoring includes the important decision of whether to sample and store individual or pooled samples. This choice impacts on future analyses from Environmental Specimen Bank samples. A number of advantages exist to support using either individual or pooled samples for temporal trend studies. However, it is important to know the total and analytical variance to be able to design the best sampling strategy. Statistical power in temporal or spatial studies is determined by the random/unexplained sample variation. The relationship between chemical analytical error and other sources of variation, as well as the cost for collection, preparation of samples and chemical analysis, will determine the number of individuals in each pool, and the number of pools that should be analysed to achieve high cost efficiency and good statistical power. Various scenarios of different numbers of individual samples, different numbers of pooled samples containing various numbers of individual specimens, the relationships between chemical analytical error and other sources of sample variance, have been compared by simulating random sampling from computer generated populations using realistic measures of variation from ongoing monitoring activities. These results offer guidance in the design of a cost-efficient, statistically sound sampling strategy.

  • 11. Bogdal, Christian
    et al.
    Wang, Zhanyun
    Buser, Andreas M.
    Scheringer, Martin
    Gerecke, Andreas C.
    Schmid, Peter
    Mueller, Claudia E.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Hungerbuehler, Konrad
    Emissions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Zurich, Switzerland, determined by a combination of measurements and modeling2014Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 116, s. 15-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used as flame retardants but they are of concern and are currently being phased-out because of their environmentally hazardous properties and their potential to cause adverse health effects. We analyzed PBDEs in Zurich, Switzerland, and applied a multimedia environmental fate model to back-calculate the rate of PBDE emission to air. PBDE concentrations in ambient air were measured in summer 2010 and winter 2011 in the city center of Zurich. Concentrations were higher in summer (sum PBDEs 118-591 pg m(-3)) than in winter (sum PBDEs 17-151 pg m(-3)), and are on the upper end of concentrations reported in literature for urban sites with no point sources of PBDEs. The emissions derived from our measurements (summer: 53-165 mu g capita(-1) d(-1), winter: 25-112 mu g capita(-1) d(-1)) and extrapolated to annual emissions for Switzerland (114-406 kg a(-1)) lie in the middle of ranges reported on the basis of substance flow analyses and emission inventories. The difference between summer and winter emissions is small compared to the difference that would be expected from the temperature dependence of PBDE vapor pressure, which would be consistent with emissions occurring to a large extent from flame-proofed materials located indoors under nearly constant temperature conditions and/or emissions to air occurring by suspension of particles containing PBDEs. Compared to previous studies in Switzerland, concentrations and emissions of PBDEs appear to have increased during the last five years with an increasing contribution of decabromodiphenyl ether, despite the addition of PBDEs to national and international regulations.

  • 12.
    Bogdanska, Jasna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Borg, Daniel
    Bergström, Ulrika
    Mellring, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    DePierre, Joseph
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Nobel, Stefan
    Tissue distribution of C-14-labelled perfluorooctanoic acid in adult mice after 1-5 days of dietary exposure to an experimental dose or a lower dose that resulted in blood levels similar to those detected in exposed humans2020Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 239, artikel-id 124755Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a global environmental pollutant detected in both wildlife and human populations, has several pathophysiological effects in experimental animals, including hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and developmental toxicity. However, details concerning the tissue distribution of PFOA, in particular at levels relevant to humans, are lacking, which limits our understanding of how humans, and other mammals, may be affected by this compound. Therefore, we characterized the tissue distribution of C-14-PFOA in mice in the same manner as we earlier examined its analogues perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) in order to allow direct comparisons. Following dietary exposure of adult male C57/BL6 mice for 1, 3 or 5 days to a low dose (0.06 mg/kg/day) or a higher experimental dose (22 mg/kg/day) of C-14-PFOA, both scintillation counting and whole-body autoradiography revealed the presence of PFOA in most of the 19 different tissues examined, demonstrating its ability to leave the bloodstream and enter tissues. There were no differences in the pattern of tissue distribution with the low and high dose and the tissue-to-blood ratios were similar. At both doses, PFOA levels were highest in the liver, followed by blood, lungs and kidneys. The body compartments estimated to contain the largest amounts of PFOA were the liver, blood, skin and muscle. In comparison with our identical studies on PFOS and PFBS, PFOA reached considerably higher tissue levels than PFBS, but lower than PFOS. Furthermore, the distribution of PFOA differed notably from that of PFOS, with lower tissue-to-blood ratios in the liver, lungs, kidneys and skin.

  • 13.
    Bogdanska, Jasna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Sundström, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Bergström, Ulrika
    Borg, Daniel
    Abedi-Valugerdi, Manuchehr
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    DePierre, Joseph
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Nobel, Stefan
    Tissue distribution of S-35-labelled perfluorobutanesulfonic acid in adult mice following dietary exposure for 1-5 days2014Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 98, s. 28-36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorobutanesulfonyl fluoride (PBSF) has been introduced as a replacement for its eight-carbon homolog perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride (POSF) in the manufacturing of fluorochemicals. Fluorochemicals derived from PBSF may give rise to perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS) as a terminal degradation product. Although basic mammalian toxicokinetic data exist for PFBS, information on its tissue distribution has only been reported in one study focused on rat liver. Therefore, here we characterized the tissue distribution of PFBS in mice in the same manner as we earlier examined its eight-carbon homolog perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) to allow direct comparisons. Following dietary exposure of adult male C57/BL6 mice for 1,3 or 5 d to 16 mg S-35-PFBS kg(-1) d(-1), both scintillation counting and whole-body autoradiography (WBA) revealed the presence of PFBS in all of the 20 different tissues examined, demonstrating its ability to leave the bloodstream and enter tissues. After 5 d of treatment the highest levels were detected in liver, gastrointestinal tract, blood, kidney, cartilage, whole bone, lungs and thyroid gland. WBA revealed relatively high levels of PFBS in male genital organs as well, with the exception of the testis. The tissue levels increased from 1 to 3 d of exposure but appeared thereafter to level-off in most cases. The estimated major body compartments were whole bone, liver, blood, skin and muscle. This exposure to PFBS resulted in 5-40-fold lower tissue levels than did similar exposure to PFOS, as well as in a different pattern of tissue distribution, including lower levels in liver and lungs relative to blood.

  • 14.
    Bonaglia, Stefano
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik. University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Broman, Elias
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholms universitets Östersjöcentrum.
    Brindefalk, Björn
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Hedlund, Erika
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Hjorth, Tomas
    Rolff, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholms universitets Östersjöcentrum.
    Nascimento, Francisco J. A.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholms universitets Östersjöcentrum.
    Udekwu, Klas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Activated carbon stimulates microbial diversity and PAH biodegradation under anaerobic conditions in oil-polluted sediments2020Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 248, artikel-id 126023Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodegradation by microorganisms is a useful tool that helps alleviating hydrocarbon pollution in nature. Microbes are more efficient in degradation under aerobic than anaerobic conditions, but the majority of sediment by volume is generally anoxic. Incubation experiments were conducted to study the biodegradation potential of naphthalene-a common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-and the diversity of microbial communities in presence/absence of activated carbon (AC) under aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Radio-respirometry experiments with endogenous microorganisms indicated that degradation of naphthalene was strongly stimulated (96%) by the AC addition under anaerobic conditions. In aerobic conditions, however, AC had no effects on naphthalene biodegradation. Bioaugmentation tests with cultured microbial populations grown on naphthalene showed that AC further stimulated (92%) naphthalene degradation in anoxia. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences implied that sediment amendment with AC increased microbial community diversity and changed community structure. Moreover, the relative abundance of Geobacter, Thiobacillus, Sulfuricurvum, and methanogenic archaea increased sharply after amendment with AC under anaerobic conditions. These results may be explained by the fact that AC particles promoted direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between microorganisms involved in PAH degradation pathways. We suggest that important ecosystem functions mediated by microbes-such as hydrocarbon degradation-can be induced and that AC enrichment strategies can be exploited for facilitating bioremediation of anoxic oil-contaminated sediments and soils.

  • 15. Brandli, Rahel C.
    et al.
    Hartnik, Thomas
    Henriksen, Thomas
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Sorption of native polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to black carbon and amended activated carbon in soil2008Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 73, nr 11, s. 1805-1810Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic pollutants (e.g. polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)) strongly sorb to carbonaceous sorbents such as black carbon and activated carbon (BC and AC, respectively). For a creosote-contaminated soil (Sigma 15PAH 5500 mg kg(dry weight(dw))-(1)) and an urban soil with moderate PAH content (Sigma 15PAH 38 mg kg(-1)), dry dw total organic carbon-water distribution coefficients (K-TOC) were up to a factor of 100 above values for amorphous (humic) organic carbon obtained by a frequently used Linear-Free-Energy Relationship. This increase could be explained by inclusion of BC (urban soil) or oil (creosote-contaminated soil) into the sorption model. AC is a manufactured sorbent for organic pollutants with similar strong sorption properties as the combustion by-product BC. AC has the potential to be used for in situ remediation of contaminated soils and sediments. The addition of small amounts of powdered AC (2%) to the moderately contaminated urban soil reduced the freely dissolved aqueous concentration of native PAH in soil/water suspensions Lip to 99%. For granulated AC amended to the urban soil, the reduction in freely dissolved concentrations was not as strong (median 64%), especially for the heavier PAH. This is probably due to blockage of the pore system of granulated AC resulting in AC deactivation by soil components. For powdered and granulated AC amended to the heavily contaminated creosote soil, median reductions were 63% and 4%, respectively, probably due to saturation of AC sorption sites by the high PAH concentrations and/or blockage of sorption sites and pores by oil.

  • 16. Brits, Martin
    et al.
    de Boer, Jacob
    Rohwer, Egmont R.
    De Vos, Jayne
    Weiss, Jana M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Brandsma, Sicco H.
    Short-, medium-, and long-chain chlorinated paraffins in South African indoor dust and cat hair2020Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 238, artikel-id 124643Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Polychlorinated n-alkanes or chlorinated paraffins (CPs) contain a magnitude of structural isomers and are categorized as short-chain (SCCPs), medium-chain (MCCPs), and long-chain (LCCPs) CPs, according to the carbon chain lengths. In this study the Sigma SCCPs, Sigma MCCPs, and Sigma LCCP concentrations are reported for South African indoor dust and pet cat hair. The median concentrations of the Sigma CPs (C-9-C-37) ranged from 33 to 663 mu g/g for freshly collected dust (FD), 36-488 mu g/g for dust collected from household vacuum cleaner bags (VD), and 1.2-15 mu g/g for cat hair (CH) samples. MCCPs were the dominant CP group, followed by SCCPs and LCCPs. The Sigma MCCP concentration ranged from 13 to 498 mu g/g in dust and 0.6-6.5 mu g/g in cat hair. SCCPs with shorter carbon chains and lower chlorine substitution were observed in cat hair. LCCPs with carbon chains > C(20)were detected in dust and hair samples, possibly indicating the use of wax grade LCCP formulations. Non-traditional Kendrick mass defect plots were used to obtain information on the magnitude of CPs and provide evidence of possible interfering compounds. This is the first report on the occurrence of SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in the South African indoor environment. 

  • 17. Brits, Martin
    et al.
    de Vos, Jayne
    Weiss, Jana M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Rohwer, Egmont R.
    de Boer, Jacob
    Critical review of the analysis of brominated flame retardants and their environmental levels in Africa2016Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 164, s. 174-189Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    World-wide, the prevalence of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) is well documented for routine analysis of environmental and biological matrices. There is, however, limited information on these compounds in the African environment and insufficient information on the analytical approaches used to obtain data. This paper presents a review on BFR levels in the African environment and the various analytical methodologies specifically applied in Africa for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls and alternative-BFRs. The analyses include liquid sample preparation using liquid-liquid and solid phase extraction and solid sample preparation involving Soxhlet extraction, with ultrasound-assisted extraction increasingly being applied. Instrumental detection techniques were limited to gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector and electron impact ionisation with single quadrupole mass spectrometers. Information on congener profile prevalence in indoor dust, soil, aquatic environment (water, sediment, and aquatic organisms), eggs, wastewater treatment plant compartments, landfills (leachate and sediment) and breast milk are presented. Although PBDEs were inconsistently detected, contamination was reported for all investigated matrices in the African environment. The manifestation in remote regions indicates the ubiquitous prevalence and long-range transport of these compounds. Levels in sediment, and breast milk from some African countries were higher than reported for Asia and Europe. Due to limited data or non-detection of alternative-BFRs, it is unclear whether banned formulations were replaced in Africa. Most of the data reported for BFR levels in Africa were obtained in non-African laboratories or in South Africa and formed the basis for our discussion of reported contamination levels and related methodologies.

  • 18.
    Budnyak, Tetyana
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Onwumere, Joy
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Pylypchuk, Ievgen
    Jaworski, Aleksander
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Chen, Jianhong
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Rokicińska, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Lindström, Mikael E.
    Kuśtrowski, Piotr
    Sevastyanova, Olena
    Slabon, Adam
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    LignoPhot: Conversion of hydrolysis lignin into the photoactive hybrid lignin/Bi4O5Br2/BiOBr composite for simultaneous dyes oxidation and Co2+ and Ni2+ recycling2021Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 279, artikel-id 130538Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Valorization of lignin is still an open question and lignin has therefore remained an underutilized biomaterial. This situation is even more pronounced for hydrolysis lignin, which is characterized by a highly condensed and excessively cross-linked structure. We demonstrate the synthesis of photoactive lignin/Bi4O5Br2/BiOBr bio-inorganic composites consisting of a lignin substrate that is coated by semiconducting nanosheets. The XPS analysis reveals that growing these nanosheets on lignin instead on cellulose prevents the formation of Bi5+ ions at the surface region, yielding thus a modified heterojunction Bi4O5Br2/BiOBr. The material contains 18.9% of Bi4O5Br2/BiOBr and is effective for the photocatalytic degradation of cationic methylene blue (MB) and zwitterionic rhodamine B (RhB) dyes under light irradiation. Lignin/Bi4O5Br2/BiOBr decreases the dye concentration from 80 mg L−1 to 12.3 mg L−1 for RhB (85%) and from 80 mg L−1 to 4.4 mg L−1 for MB (95%). Complementary to the dye degradation, the lignin as a main component of the composite, was found to be efficient and rapid biosorbent for nickel, lead, and cobalt ions. The low cost, stability and ability to simultaneously photo-oxidize organic dyes and adsorb metal ions, make the photoactive lignin/Bi4O5Br2/BiOBr composite a prospective material for textile wastewaters remediation and metal ions recycling.

  • 19. Buser, Andreas M.
    et al.
    Bogdal, Christian
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Scheringer, Martin
    Emissions of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane from Chicago2014Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 107, s. 473-475Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D-5) is a high-production-volume chemical that is emitted to air in tens of thousands of tonnes each year globally. However, specific information about emission rates to air is still limited. Here we present an estimate of D5 emissions from the city of Chicago based on measurements that have recently been published. We used a multimedia environmental fate model parameterized for Chicago to back-calculate the emission rate of D5 from the measurements. Our estimated average emission rate for D-5 is 500 (2.5-to-97.5-percentile interval: 260-1100) kg d(-1). The corresponding per-capita emissions of 190 (100-420) mg capita(-1) d(-1) agree well with previous estimates for Europe and North America.

  • 20.
    Calado Botelho, Salomé
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Saghafian, Maryam
    Pavlova, Svetlana
    Hassan, Moustapha
    DePierre, Joseph W.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Abedi-Valugerdi, Manuchehr
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik. Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; ImmunoBioTox (IBT) AB, Sweden.
    Complement activation is involved in the hepatic injury caused by high-dose exposure of mice to perfluorooctanoic acid2015Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 129, nr SI, s. 225-231Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High-dose exposure of mice to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) induces both hepatotoxicity and immunotoxicity. Here, we characterized the effects of TO-day dietary treatment with PFOA (0.002-0.02%, w/w) on the liver and complement system of male C57BL/6 mice. At all four doses, this compound caused hepatomegaly and reduced the serum level of triglycerides (an indicator for activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR alpha)). At the highest dose (0.02%, w/w), this hepatomegaly was associated with the hepatic injury, as reflected in increased activity of alanine aminotranferase (ALAT) in the serum, severe hepatocyte hypertrophy and hepatocellular necrosis. PFOA-induced hepatic injury was associated with in vivo activation of the complement system as indicated by (i) significant attenuation of the serum activities of both the classical and alternative pathways; (ii) a marked reduction in the serum level of the complement factor 0; and (iii) deposition of the complement factor C3 fragment (C3a) in the hepatic parenchyma. PFOA did not activate the alternative pathway of complement in vitro. At doses lower than 0.02%, PFOA induced hepatocyte hypertrophy without causing liver injury or activating complement. These results reveal substantial involvement of activation of complement in the pathogenesis of PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity.

  • 21.
    Cantillana, T.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Lindström, V.
    Eriksson, L.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysikalisk kemi, oorganisk kemi och strukturkemi.
    Brandt, I.
    Bergman, Å.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Interindividual differences in o,p '-DDD enantiomer kinetics examined in Göttingen minipigs2009Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Chemosphere, Vol. 76, nr 2, s. 167-172Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 22.
    Cantillana, Tatiana
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Sundström, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Synthesis of 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chloro-3-thiophenol)-1,1-dichloroethene (3-SH-DDE) via Newman-Kwart rearrangement - A precursor for synthesis of radiolabeled and unlabeled alkylsulfonyl-DDEs2009Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, ISSN 0045-6535, Vol. 76, nr 6, s. 805-810Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For the first time, a pathway for synthesis of 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chloro-3-thiophenol)-1,1-dichloroethene (3-SH-DDE), is presented. The compound is of particular interest as a precursor for synthesis of alkylsulfonyl-DDE containing different alkyl groups to discover structural activity relationships, and to promote synthesis of radiolabeled methylsulfonyl-DDE. 2-Chloro-5-methyl phenol was first methylated and further oxidized to the corresponding benzoic acid. The acid was reduced to the corresponding aldehyde (4-chloro-3-methoxy benzaldehyde) via 4-chloro-3-methoxy-benzene methanol. A lead/aluminium bimetal system was used to carry out the reductive addition of tetrachloromethane to 4-chloro-3-methoxy benzaldehyde to obtain 2,2,2-trichloro-1-(4-chloro-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanol,the desired starting material to synthesize the DDT-analogue (2-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chloro-3-methoxy-phenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane). Elimination of hydrochloric acid and removal of the methyl group led to the 3-OH-DDE. The Newman-Kwart rearrangement was applied to convert 3-OH-DDE to 3-SH-DDE via the dimethyl-carbarnothioate derivative. 3-SH-DDE is then used as a precursor for the radiolabel synthesis. The overall yield to acquire 3-SH-DDE after 11 steps was 3%. The step with the lowest yield was the DDT-analog synthesis with a yield of 30%. All other step had a yield of >50%. 3-SH-DDE was methylated with C-14-labeled iodomethane and oxidized by hydrogen peroxide to obtain 3-[C-14]MeSO2-DDE in an overall yield of 30%.

  • 23. Chen, Yiqin
    et al.
    Wang, Xianyu
    Li, Yan
    Toms, Leisa-Maree L.
    Gallen, Michael
    Hearn, Laurence
    Aylward, Lesa L.
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Sly, Peter D.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    Persistent organic pollutants in matched breast milk and infant faeces samples2015Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 118, s. 309-314Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing blood concentration of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in infants is difficult due to the ethical and practical difficulties in obtaining sufficient quantities of blood. To determine whether measuring POPs in faeces might reflect blood concentration during infancy, we measured the concentrations of a range of POPs (i.e. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)) in a pilot study using matched breast milk and infant faecal samples obtained from ten mother-child pairs. All infants were breast fed, with 8 of them also receiving solid food at the time of faecal sampling. In this small dataset faecal concentrations (range 0.01-41 ng g(-1) lipid) are strongly associated with milk concentrations (range 0.02-230 ng g(-1) lipid). Associations with other factors generally could not be detected in this dataset, with the exception of a small effect of age or growth. Different sources (external or internal) of exposure appeared to directly influence faecal concentrations of different chemicals based on different inter-individual variability in the faeces-to-milk concentration ratio R-fm. Overall, the matrix of faeces as an external measure of internal exposure in infants looks promising for some chemicals and is worth assessing further in larger datasets.

  • 24.
    Christiansson, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Hovander, Lotta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Jakobsson, Kristina
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in aircraft cabins – a source of human exposure?2008Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 73, nr 10, s. 1654-1660Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial aircrafts need a high degree of fire protection for passenger safety. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), may be used for this purpose. Because PBDEs readily absorb to dust particles, aircraft crew and passengers may receive significant PBDEs exposure via inhalation. The aims of this work were to assess whether PBDEs could be found in aircraft cabin dust and whether serum levels of PBDEs increased in passengers after long-distance flights. Hence nine subjects on intercontinental flights collected cabin dust samples, as well as donated blood samples before departure and after return to Sweden. Two subjects who were domestic frequent flyers were also investigated. The levels of PBDEs in dust and serum were determined by GC/MS in electron capture negative ionization (ECNI) mode. Authentic reference substances were used for identification and quantitation. PBDEs were found in all aircraft dust samples at high concentrations, higher than in common household dust. Congener patterns indicated that the technical products PentaBDE, OctaBDE and DecaBDE were used in the aircrafts. Serum concentrations in the travellers were similar to those observed in Swedish residents in general. Post-travel serum levels of BDE-28, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, and BDE-154 were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than concentrations prior to travel. The findings from this pilot study call for investigations of occupational exposures to PBDEs in cabin and cockpit crews.

  • 25. Cordell, D.
    et al.
    Rosemarin, Arno
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Schröder, J.J.
    Smit, A.L.
    Towards global phosphorus security: systemic framework for phosphorus recovery and reuse options2011Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 84, nr 6, s. 747-758Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 26.
    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Bignert, Anders
    Legradi, Jessica
    Legler, Juliette
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Anthropogenic and naturally produced brominated substances in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) from two sites in the Baltic Sea2016Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 144, s. 2408-2414Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the eutrophicated Baltic Sea, several naturally produced hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been found in marine biota. OH-PBDEs are toxic to adult and developing zebrafish and shown to be potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Disturbed OXPHOS can result in altered energy metabolism and weight loss. In herring, the concentration of OH-PBDEs (i.e. 2'-OH-BDE68 and 6-OH-BDE47) has increased during the period 1980-2010 in the Baltic Proper. Over the same time period, the condition and fat content in Baltic herring have decreased. Given the toxicity and increasing trends of OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring it is important to further assess the exposure to OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring. In this study, the concentrations of OH-PBDEs and related brominated substances i.e. polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in herring sampled in the northern Baltic Proper (Asko, n = 12) and the southern Bothnian Sea (Angskarsklubb, n = 12). The geometric mean (GM) concentrations (ng/g l.w.) at Asko and Angskarsklubb were; Sigma(2)PBPs: 4.3 and 9.6, Sigma 2PBAs: 34 and 20, Sigma 6OH-PBDEs: 9.4 and 10, Sigma 7MeO-PBDEs: 42 and 150, Sigma 6PBDEs: 54 and 27, respectively. 6-OH-BDE47 dominated the OH-PBDE profile and comprised 87% (Asko) and 91% (Angskarsklubb) of the Sigma OH-PBDEs. At Angskarsklubb the mean concentration of Sigma MeO-PBDEs (150 ng/g l.w.) was 15 times higher than Sigma OH-PBDEs. As other fish species are known to metabolically transform MeO-PBDEs to OH-PBDEs, high levels of MeO-PBDEs can be of concern as a precursor for more toxic OH-PBDEs in herring and their roe.

  • 27.
    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Lindberg Chen, Vivian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center (Swetox), Sweden.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) and their main food, Baltic blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus x Mytilus edulis).2016Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 144, s. 1475-1483Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) that breed in northern Europe and western Siberia and commonly winter in the Baltic Sea, are threatened by a significant population decrease. The ducks are, by primarily feeding on Baltic blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus x Mytilus edulis) while wintering in the Baltic Sea, potentially subjected to high levels of toxic hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs). To assess long-tailed ducks exposure to polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), their methylated counterparts (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), livers of ten long-tailed ducks wintering in the Baltic Sea were analysed. Pattern and levels of analytes in long-tailed ducks (liver) and blue mussels sampled in March and May at nine sites in the Baltic Sea were compared. The geometric mean concentration (ng/g l.w.) in livers of long-tailed ducks and Baltic blue mussels were: Sigma(2)PBPs: 0.57 and 48; Sigma 2PBAs: 0.83 and 11; Sigma 7OH-PBDEs: 6.1 and 45; Sigma 7MeO-PBDEs: 3.8 and 69; Sigma 7PBDEs: 8.0 and 7.2, respectively. Based on an estimated daily intake of 450 g fresh blue mussel meat, long-tailed ducks daily dietary intake of brominated substances while foraging in the Baltic Sea in March-May was estimated to; 390 ng Sigma(2)PBPs, 90 ng Sigma 2PBAs, 370 ng Sigma 7OH-PBDEs, 590 ng Sigma 7MeO-PBDEs and 59 ng Sigma 7PBDEs. The low levels of PBPs, PBAs, OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs in the long-tailed duck livers compared to blue mussel, despite a continuous daily intake, suggest that these compounds are poorly retained in long-tailed ducks.

  • 28.
    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Norrgran, Jessica
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Hovander, Lotta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Recovery discrepancies of OH-PBDEs and polybromophenols in human plasma and cat serum versus herring and long-tailed duck plasma2014Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 94, s. 97-103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been identified as metabolites of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and/or as natural products. The OH-PBDEs and polybromophenols have come into focus over the last decade due to their abundance in biota and their potential adverse health effects. The present recovery study aims to validate a commonly used method (published by Hovander et al. 2000) for OH-PBDE analysis in human plasma. Further, the authors intended to determine the method's applicability to serum/plasma matrices from other species than humans. The investigated matrices were human plasma, cat serum, herring- and long-tailed duck plasma. The recovery study included nine OH-PBDEs, four polybromophenols and three methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs). Five replicates of each matrix were spiked with these compounds at two dose levels; a low dose (0.5 ng) and a high dose (5 ng) and were cleaned up according to the Hovander method. The recovery of OH-PBDEs and polybromophenols in human plasma and cat serum were high and reproducible at both dose levels whereas the recovery for herring and long-tailed duck plasma were low and insufficient with great variability amongst OH-PBDE congeners at both dose levels. Our data show that the method can be fully applied to matrices like human plasma and cat serum but not for herring and long-tailed duck plasma without further method development. Hence care needs to be taken when applying the method onto other blood matrices without validation since the present study have demonstrated that the recoveries may differ amongst OH-PBDE congeners and specie.

  • 29. Dahlgren, Elin
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Dennis
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Dahlgren, Henrik
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Lehtila, Kari
    Trophic transfer of naturally produced brominated aromatic compounds in a Baltic Sea food chain2016Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 144, s. 1597-1604Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Brominated aromatic compounds (BACs) are widely distributed in the marine environment. Some of these compounds are highly toxic, such as certain hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs). In addition to anthropogenic emissions through use of BACs as e.g. flame retardants, BACs are natural products formed by marine organisms such as algae, sponges, and cyanobacteria. Little is known of the transfer of BACs from natural producers and further up in the trophic food chain. In this study it was observed that total sum of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and OH-PBDEs increased in concentration from the filamentous red alga Ceramium tenuicorne, via Gammarus sp. and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to perch (Perca fluviatilis). The MeO-PBDEs, which were expected to bioaccumulate, increased in concentration accordingly up to perch, where the levels suddenly dropped dramatically. The opposite pattern was observed for OH-PBDEs, where the concentration exhibited a general trend of decline up the food web, but increased in perch, indicating metabolic demethylation of MeO-PBDEs. Debromination was also indicated to occur when progressing through the food chain resulting in high levels of tetra-brominated MeO-PBDE and OH-PBDE congeners in fish, while some penta- and hexa-brominated congeners were observed to be the dominant products in the alga. As it has been shown that OH-PBDEs are potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation and that mixtures of different congener may act synergistically in terms of this toxic mode of action, the high levels of OH-PBDEs detected in perch in this study warrants further investigation into potential effects of these compounds on Baltic wildlife, and monitoring of their levels.

  • 30. de Wit, Cynthia A
    An overview of brominated flame retardants in the environment.2002Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 46, nr 5, s. 583-624Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of brominated flame retardant (BFR) chemicals, and particularly polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), has become of increasing concern to scientists over the past decade. Environmental studies conducted primarily in Europe, Japan and North America indicate that these chemicals are ubiquitous in sediment and biota. The levels of PBDEs seem to be increasing, and several trends, including in humans, indicate that this increase may be rapid. The occurrence of high concentrations of certain PBDE isomers may be sufficient to elicit adverse effects in some wildlife. There is also concern that levels could cause adverse effects in sensitive human populations such as young children, indigenous peoples, and fish consumers. However, our knowledge about these chemicals, their sources, environmental behavior, and toxicity is limited, making risk assessment difficult. In this paper, the current state of knowledge is reviewed and areas for further research recommended to improve future monitoring and risk assessment efforts.

  • 31. de Wit, Cynthia A.
    et al.
    Alaee, Mehran
    Muir, Derek C.G.
    Levels and trends of brominated flame retardants in the Arctic2006Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 64, nr 2, s. 209-233Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 32. Drage, Daniel S.
    et al.
    Newton, Seth
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Harrad, Stuart
    Concentrations of legacy and emerging flame retardants in air and soil on a rural-urban transect in the UK West Midlands2016Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 148, s. 195-203Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Passive air samples were collected monthly for 6 months from 8 sites along a transect of Birmingham, United Kingdom between June 2012 and January 2013. Soil samples were collected once at each site. Average concentrations of BDE-209, ΣPBDEs17:183 and ΣPBDEs in ambient air were 150, 49, and 180 pg m−3, respectively. Atmospheric concentrations of PBDEs were negatively correlated with distance from the city centre, exhibiting an “urban pulse”. The average ΣHBCDD air concentration was 100 pg m−3, however concentrations were not correlated with distance from the city centre. Several emerging flame retardants (EFRs) were identified in air and/or soil samples: 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEH-TEBP), 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2 dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH or DBE-DBCH), allyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (ATE), 2-bromoallyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (BATE), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), and dechlorane plus (DP or DDC-CO). Average concentrations of BDE-209, ΣPBDEs17:183 and ΣPBDEs in soil were 11, 3.6, and 15 ng g−1 soil organic matter. PBDE concentrations in soil were higher at sites closest to the city centre, however correlations with distance from the city centre were not significant. BDEs-47 and -99 contributed more to ΣPBDEs in soil samples than air samples, but in both, the predominant congener was BDE-209. BATE was more abundant in air than soil but ATE was abundant in soil but not air.

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  • 33. Ebinghaus, Ralf
    et al.
    Barbaro, Elena
    Bengtson Nash, Susan
    de Avila, Cristina
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap.
    Dulio, Valeria
    Felden, Janine
    Franco, Antonio
    Gandrass, Juergen
    Grotti, Marco
    Herata, Heike
    Hughes, Kevin A.
    Jartun, Morten
    Joerss, Hanna
    Kallenborn, Roland
    Koschorreck, Jan
    Küster, Anette
    Lohmann, Rainer
    Wang, Zhanyun
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap.
    Pugh, Rebecca
    Rauert, Caren
    Slobodnik, Jaroslav
    Sühring, Roxana
    Vorkamp, Katrin
    Xie, Zhiyong
    Berlin statement on legacy and emerging contaminants in polar regions2023Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 327, artikel-id 138530Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Polar regions should be given greater consideration with respect to the monitoring, risk assessment, and management of potentially harmful chemicals, consistent with requirements of the precautionary principle. Protecting the vulnerable polar environments requires (i) raising political and public awareness and (ii) restricting and preventing global emissions of harmful chemicals at their sources. The Berlin Statement is the outcome of an international workshop with representatives of the European Commission, the Arctic Council, the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting, the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), environmental specimen banks, and data centers, as well as scientists from various international research institutions. The statement addresses urgent chemical pollution issues in the polar regions and provides recommendations for improving screening, monitoring, risk assessment, research cooperation, and open data sharing to provide environmental policy makers and chemicals management decision-makers with relevant and reliable contaminant data to better protect the polar environments. The consensus reached at the workshop can be summarized in just two words: “Act now!”

    Specifically, “Act now!” to reduce the presence and impact of anthropogenic chemical pollution in polar regions by.

    •Establishing participatory co-development frameworks in a permanent multi-disciplinary platform for Arctic-Antarctic collaborations and establishing exchanges between the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP) of the Arctic Council and the Antarctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AnMAP) of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) to increase the visibility and exchange of contaminant data and to support the development of harmonized monitoring programs.

    •Integrating environmental specimen banking, innovative screening approaches and archiving systems, to provide opportunities for improved assessment of contaminants to protect polar regions.

  • 34.
    Egebäck, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Sellström, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Decabromodiphenyl ethane and decabromodiphenyl ether in Swedish background air2012Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 86, nr 3, s. 264-269Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DPDPE) is a flame retardant that has been on the market for more than 20 years and is used as a replacement for decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209). Environmental data on DPDPE are scarce but for BDE-209, studies have shown that long-range transport in the atmosphere leads to contamination of remote regions. Given their similar physical-chemical properties, we hypothesized that this is also true for DPDPE. In this study we explored the European continent as a source for DBDPE by collecting air samples at a back-ground location in southern Sweden. Twelve samples with stable air mass back trajectories over the 24 h sampling period were analysed. BDE-209 and 5 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also included in the study. The concentration ranges of DBDPE and BDE-209 were similar, 0.077-7.9 and 0.093-1.8 pg m(-3) air, respectively. The highest concentrations were detected when the air originated from the European continent and the lowest during periods with rather stagnant air over southern Scandinavia. The concentrations of DBDPE and BDE-209 did not co-vary, indicating that there are different major sources of the two compounds. In air, the compounds measured in this study are predominantly associated with particles. PAHs in the atmosphere are known to originate primarily from combustion processes and their concentrations were highly correlated with several measures of atmospheric particle concentration, i.e. PM 10, PM 2.5, soot, and N 450 (number of particles in the size range approximately 420-450 nm). No clear correlations were found between the concentrations of DBDPE or BDE-209 and any of the measures of particle concentrations, indicating that the emissions of these are not related to the major sources of emissions of soot or small particles.

  • 35. Esterhuizen, Maranda
    et al.
    Buchenhorst, Lucille
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik. Technische Universität Berlin, Germany.
    Kim, Young Jun
    Pflugmacher, Stephan
    In vivo oxidative stress responses of the freshwater basket clam Corbicula javanicus to microplastic fibres and particles2022Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 296, artikel-id 134037Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Microplastics have been detected in several aquatic organisms, especially bivalves such as clams, oysters, and mussels. To understand the ecotoxicological implication of microplastic accumulation in biota, it is crucial to investigate effects at the physiological level to identify knowledge gaps regarding the threat posed to the environment and assist decision-makers to set the necessary priorities. Typically, xenobiotics elicit an overproduction of reactive oxygen species in organisms, resulting in oxidative stress and cellular damage when not combated by the antioxidative system. Therefore, the present study aimed to establish the impacts of microplastic particles and fibres on the freshwater basket clam Corbicula javanicus. We measured the oxidative stress responses following microplastic exposure as the specific activities of the antioxidative enzymes glutathione S-transferase and catalase. When exposed to polyester fibres from the fleece jackets, the enzyme activities increased in the clams, while the enzyme activities decreased with high-density polyethylene microplastic fragments from bottle caps. All the exposures showed that the adverse effects on the antioxidative response system were elicited, indicating the negative ecotoxicological implications of microplastic pollution.

  • 36. Felizeter, Sebastian
    et al.
    Jürling, Heinrich
    Kotthoff, Matthias
    De Voogt, Pim
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap.
    Influence of soil on the uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids by lettuce: A comparison between a hydroponic study and a field study2020Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 260, artikel-id 127608Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores whether mechanistic understanding of plant uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) derived from hydroponic experiments can be applied to soil systems. Lettuces (Lactuca sativa) were grown in outdoor lysimeters in soil spiked with 4 different concentrations of 13 PFAAs. PFAA concentrations were measured in soil, soil pore water, lettuce roots, and foliage. The PFAA uptake by the lettuce was compared with uptake measured in a hydroponic study. The foliage:pore water concentration ratios in the lysimeter were similar to the foliage:water concentration ratios from the hydroponic experiment. In contrast, the root:pore water concentration ratios in the lysimeter were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than in the hydroponic study for PFAAs with 6 or more perfluorinated carbons. Hence, hydroponic studies can be expected to provide a good quantitative measure of PFAA transfer from soil to foliage if one accounts for soil:pore water partitioning and differences in transpiration rate. However, hydroponic studies will be of little value for estimating PFAA transfer from soil to roots because sorption to the root surface is greatly enhanced under hydroponic conditions.

  • 37. Fernandes, A. R.
    et al.
    Falandysz, J.
    Yuan, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap.
    Widening knowledge horizons on legacy POPs: Chlorinated paraffins and polychlorinated naphthalenes2022Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 289, artikel-id 133131Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 38.
    Filipovic, Marko
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Are perfluoroalkyl acids in waste water treatment plant effluents the result of primary emissions from the technosphere or of environmental recirculation?2014Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 129, s. 74-80Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have been suggested to be one of the major pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from the technosphere to the aquatic environment. The origin of PFAAs in WWTP influents is either from current primary emissions or a result of recirculation of PFAAs that have been residing and transported in the environment for several years or decades. Environmental recirculation can then occur when PFAAs from the environment enter the wastewater stream in, e.g., tap water. In this study 13 PFAAs and perfluorooctane sulfonamide were analyzed in tap water as well as WWTP influent, effluent and sludge from three Swedish cities: Bromma (in the metropolitan area of Stockholm), Bollebygd and Umeå. A mass balance of the WWTPs was assembled for each PFAA. Positive mass balances were observed for PFHxA and PFOA in all WWTPs, indicating the presence of precursor compounds in the technosphere. With regard to environmental recirculation, tap water was an important source of PFAAs to the Bromma WWTP influent, contributing >40% for each quantified sulfonic acid and up to 30% for the carboxylic acids. The PFAAs in tap water from Bollebygd and Umeå did not contribute significantly to the PFAA load in the WWTP influents. Our results show that in order to estimate current primary emissions from the technosphere, it may be necessary to correct the PFAA emission rates in WWTP effluents for PFAAs present in tap water, especially in the case of elevated levels in tap water.

  • 39.
    Filipovic, Marko
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Woldegiorgis, Andreas
    Norström, Karin
    Bibi, Momina
    Lindberg, Maria
    Österås, Ann-Helen
    Historical usage of aqueous film forming foam: A case study of the widespread distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids from a military airport to groundwater, lakes, soils and fish2014Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 129, s. 39-45Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Historical usage of aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs) at military airports is a potential source of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to the nearby environment. In this study, the distribution of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in soil, groundwater, surface water, tap water well, and fish muscle was investigated at a closed down military airfield (F18) and its surroundings in Stockholm, Sweden. The presence of PFOS at AFFF training sites was inventoried.

    One major finding of the study is that a former airfield, abandoned since 1994, may still be a point source of PFAAs to nearby recipients. PFOS and PFOA were ubiquitous in the soil samples at former AFFF training sites with concentrations ranging from 2.18 to 8520 ng g−1 dry weight and <0.12–287 ng g−1 dry weight respectively. The sum of PFAAs in the groundwater and surface waters ranged from 738 to 51 000 ng L−1 and <MDL to 79.0 ng L−1, respectively. PFOS in European perch ranged from 76.5 to 370 ng g−1 wet weight muscle tissue which is among the highest previously reported worldwide. Our results provide evidence that the historical use of AFFF at the site have contaminated an aquifer (7500 m3 d−1), that will require constant PFAA purification before being used for drinking water production. Despite the fact that the water turnover time in the investigated recipients (of 4–6 months) suggest a depletion of PFAA-contaminants over a quarter of a decade, abandoned airfields may still pose an environmental and human health concern.

  • 40.
    Fridén, Ulrika
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Jansson, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Parlar, Harun
    Chemical Technical Analysis, Technical University Munich, Germany.
    Photolytic clean-up of biological samples for gas chromatographic analysis of chlorinated paraffins2004Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 54, nr 8, s. 1079-1083Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A method based on gas chromatography electron capture detection (GC-ECD) for the analysis of chlorinatedparaffins (CPs) in biological samples has been investigated. The method includes photolytic destruction of halogenatedaromatic compounds, such as PCBs, to eliminate some of the interferences in the analysis of CPs in environmental samples. Gel permeation chromatography was used to isolate CPs from the interfering components of Toxaphene andchlordane after the photolysis. GC-ECD gave a detection limit of 20 ng CPs/g fresh muscle tissue. The recovery of CPsfrom a spiked moose liver sample was estimated to 94%.

  • 41.
    Fritioff, Åsa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Botaniska institutionen. Växtfysiologi.
    Greger, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Botaniska institutionen. Växtfysiologi.
    Fate of cadmium in Elodea canadensis2007Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Chemosphere, Vol. 67, nr 2, s. 365-375Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Elodea canadensis is a submersed macrophytes, widely distributed in stormwater treatment ponds and able to remove heavy metals

    from water. This study examines the Cd uptake, translocation, and efflux patterns in Elodea. Several experiments were set up in a climate

    chamber. To study the root and shoot Cd uptake, living and dead roots and shoots were treated with 109Cd in one- and two-compartment

    systems. Furthermore, to examine Cd translocation and distribution, either roots or shoots were treated with 109Cd. Finally, the efflux of

    Cd from roots and shoots, respectively, to the external solution was studied after loading whole plants with 109Cd. Results from the two

    compartment studies show that Cd is accumulated via direct uptake by both roots and shoots of Elodea. The Cd accumulation proved

    not to be metabolically dependent in Elodea, and the apoplastic uptake in particular was decreased by Cd pretreatment. In one week, up

    to 23% of the root uptake was translocated to the shoots, while about 2% of the Cd accumulated by shoots was translocated to the roots.

    Thus, slight dispersion of Cd is possible, while metal immobilization will not be directly mediated via the Elodea plant. The efflux experiment

    proved that both shoots of dead plants and roots of living plants had a faster efflux than did shoots of living plants. This information

    is relevant for an understanding of the fate of Cd in stormwater treatment ponds with Elodea.

  • 42.
    Fritioff, Åsa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Botaniska institutionen.
    Greger, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Botaniska institutionen.
    Uptake and distribution of Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb in an aquatic plant Potamogeton natans2006Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 63, nr 2, s. 220-227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A better understanding of metal uptake and translocation by aquatic plants can be used to enhance the performance of constructed wetland systems for stormwater treatment. Specifically, this study examines whether the uptake of Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb by Potamogeton natans is via the leaves, stems, or roots, and whether there is translocation from organs of uptake to other plant parts. Competition between the metals at uptake and at the level of the cell wall-bound part of the metals accumulated in stem and leaf tissue was also examined. The results show that Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb were taken up by the leaves, stems, and roots, with the highest accumulation found in the roots. At the elevated metal concentrations common in stormwater the uptake of Cu, but not of Zn, Cd, or Pb, by the roots was somewhat limited at uptake due to competition with other metals. Between 24% and 59% of the metal content was bound to the cell walls of the plant. Except in the case of Pb, the cell wall-bound fraction was generally smaller in stems than in leaves. No translocation of the metals to other parts of the plant was found, except for Cd which was translocated from leaf to stem and vice versa. Dispersion of metals from sediment to water through P. natans is therefore unlikely.

  • 43.
    Fängström, Britta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Bignert, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Grandjean, Philippe
    Weihe, P
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and traditional organochlorine pollutants in fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from the Faroe Islands2005Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 60, nr 7, s. 836-843Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The observed high-level burdens of organohalogens among the residents of the Faroe Islands, needs to be explained. Long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) blubber and meat are known sources of environmental exposure. The present study focus on the organohalogen contamination of the fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis). The compounds quantified in fulmar muscle, fat, and egg are PCBs, DDTs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The dominating pollutants are the 4,4′-DDT metabolite 4,4′-DDE and the two PCB congeners, CB-153 and CB-180, which are present in geometric mean concentrations of 7100, 4700 and 2500 ng/g lipid weight (l.w.), respectively, in adult fulmar muscle. 4,4′-DDT and HCB concentrations are approximately 250 ng/g l.w., each. Concentrations in the eggs are about 50% of the fulmar muscle levels, due to differences in lipid amounts, 4% in muscle and 10% in the eggs, the exposure contribution on a fresh weight basis is almost the same. As a result, both the egg and the adult fulmar muscle may lead to a significant exposure risk, if consumed by humans.

    BDE-153, the most abundant PBDE congener in fulmar muscle, with a geometric mean concentration of 6.5 ng/g l.w., is much lower than the individual PCB congeners and 4,4′-DDE concentrations. In the adult fulmar muscle, the relative PBDE congener pattern is different from that previously observed in biota, with BDE-153 and BDE-154 as the dominating congeners, rather than BDE-47. In contrast, BDE-47 is the most abundant congener in juvenile muscle and subcutaneous fat. The ∑PBDE concentrations are almost the same in egg, muscle (adult and juvenile) and subcutaneous fat (juvenile). For the polybrominated biphenyl (BB-153) the concentrations are considerably higher in the adult bird and egg than in the juvenile bird; this is also seen for the PCB and 4,4′-DDE concentrations.

    PCB concentrations found in fulmar egg and muscle are in the same range as seen in the pilot whale, i.e. 590–5700 ng/g l.w. for CB-153. Hence humans are also exposed to PCBs at a reasonable degree via intake of fulmar and/or fulmar egg and not only via pilot whale blubber.

  • 44.
    Gebbink, Wouter A.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Bossi, Rossana
    Rigét, Frank F.
    Rosing-Asvid, Aqqalu
    Sonne, Christian
    Dietz, Rune
    Observation of emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Greenland marine mammals2016Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 144, s. 2384-2391Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present pilot study examined emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), i.e., a suite of short chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), PFAA precursors and replacement chemicals, and legacy PFASs (long chain length PFAAs) in livers from ringed seals, polar bears and, for the first time, killer whales from East Greenland collected in 2012-2013. Among the emerging PFASs, perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS) and F-53B (a chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acid) were detected in Arctic wildlife, albeit at concentrations approximately four orders of magnitude lower compared to perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS). PFOS was positively correlated with F-53B, but not PFBS in all three species. A total of 17 PFASs were detected in killer whales, including in a mother-fetus pair, demonstrating maternal transfer. Sigma PFAS concentrations in killer whales (269 +/- 90 ng/g) were comparable to concentrations found in ringed seals (138 +/- 7 ng/g), however, an order of magnitude lower compared to concentrations found in polar bear livers (2336 +/- 263 ng/g). Patterns of long chain PFAAs in killer whales differed from the pattern in ringed seals and polar bears. Of the monitored PFAA precursors, only perfluorooctanesulfonamide (FOSA) was detected in all three species, and FOSA/PFOS ratios and isomer patterns indicated that killer whales have a potential lower metabolic capacity to degrade FOSA compared to polar bears and ringed seals.

  • 45. Glynn, Anders
    et al.
    Larsdotter, Maria
    Aune, Marie
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    Bjerselius, Rickard
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Changes in serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated PCB metabolites and pentachlorophenol during pregnancy2011Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 83, nr 2, s. 144-151Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied pregnancy-related changes in serum concentrations of five polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, CB 118, CB 138, CB 153, CB 156, CB 180), three hydroxylated PCB metabolites (4-OH-CB107, 4-OH-CB146, 4-OH-CB187), and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Median serum lipid content increased 2-fold between early (weeks 9-13) and late pregnancy (weeks 35-36) (N = 10). whereas median PCB levels in serum lipids decreased 20-46%, suggesting a dilution of PCB concentrations in serum lipids. Nevertheless, strong positive intra-individual correlations (Spearman's r = 0.61-0.99) were seen for PCBs during the whole study period. Thus, if samples have been collected within the same relative narrow time window during pregnancy, PCB results from one single sampling occasion can be used in assessment of relative differences in body burdens during the whole pregnancy period. Concentrations of OH-PCBs in blood serum tended to decline as pregnancy progressed, although among some women the concentrations increased at the end of pregnancy. Positive intra-individual correlations (r = 0.66-0.99) between OH-PCB concentrations were observed during the first and second trimester, whereas correlations with third trimester concentrations were more diverging (r = -0.70-0.85). No decline in PCP concentrations was observed during pregnancy and no significant correlations were found between concentrations at different sampling periods. Our results suggest that for both OH-PCBs and PCP, sampling has to be more specifically timed depending on the time period during pregnancy that is of interest. The differences in patterns of intra- and inter-individual variability of the studied compounds may be due to a combination of factors, including lipid solubility, persistence of the compounds, distribution in blood, metabolic formation, and pregnancy-related changes in body composition and physiological processes.

  • 46.
    Granelli, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Reductive debromination of nonabrominated diphenyl ethers by sodium borohydride and identification of octabrominated diphenyl ether products2011Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 82, nr 6, s. 839-846Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A method was developed to study reductive transformation of highly brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs). The method development is a part of a broader project where it will be used to determine the susceptibility of environmental pollutants to reductive conditions, in an attempt to create a scheme for determination of chemical’s persistence. This paper focuses on identification of octabrominated diphenyl ether transformation products from reductive debromination of the three nonabrominated diphenyl congeners (nonaBDE), BDE-206, -207 and -208. Sodium borohydride was used to explore the reductive debromination of the nonaBDEs. The transformation products were collected at two time-points and identified products were quantified by GC–MS. The reduction of the nonaBDEs lead primarily to debrominated products, mainly octaBDEs. The three nonabrominated DEs gave isomer-related transformation product patterns. BDE-207 and BDE-208 showed a propensity for ortho-debromination in the initial reaction step, while no discrimination between initial debromination positions was seen for BDE-206. All three nonabrominated DEs displayed a preferred initial debromination on the fully brominated DE ring.

  • 47.
    Granelli, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Sodium borohydride reduction of individual polybrominated diphenyl ethers2012Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 86, nr 10, s. 1008-1012Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many chemicals in use today lack appropriate documentation on their environmental properties, fate, and effects. To counteract this lack of documentation it is vital to thoroughly investigate a compound's fate in the environment before it comes into use. The present study is describing a novel method for assessing the reduction potential of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as a part of a project aimed to create an experimental model for determination of chemical persistence. The reductive transformation of 15 PBDE congeners using sodium borohydride was determined. Pseudo-first-order reaction rate constants of the transformations were determined by monitoring the disappearance of the investigated congeners. The reductions lead primarily to formation of lower brominated PBDEs. Each PBDE congener was tested in a total of ten replicates which showed a relative standard deviation of 31% or less. The deca-BDE, BDE-209 was approximately 3 times as prone to reductive transformation as BDE-207. The three nonaBDEs, BDE-206, BDE-207, and BDE-208, showed similar reductive potential. The reactivity of the tested octaBDEs was quite variable, from 5% to 24% of the reactivity of BDE-209 for BDE-196 and BDE-198, respectively. The heptaBDEs studied were in the range of the less reactive octaBDEs, except for BDE-181 which was as high as 13% of the reactivity of BDE-209. The results presented give a method for measuring the propensity of PBDEs, and possibly similar compounds, to undergo reductions. They indicate a potential route to a vital piece of information in the assessment of environmental persistence of chemicals.

  • 48. Gustafsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap. Örebro University, Sweden.
    Weiss, Jana M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap.
    Estimated daily intake of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances related to different particle size fractions of house dust2022Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 303, part 2, artikel-id 135061Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor environmental pollutants are a threat to human health. In the current study, we analysed 25 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in seven different size fraction of house dust including the two relevant for exposure via ingestion and inhalation. The highest PFAS concentration is found in the inhalable particulate fraction which is explained by the increased surface area as the particulate's sizes decrease. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of the individual PFAS and exposure pathways were calculated for children and adults. In addition, the total EDI for PFOA and its precursors was estimated. The polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (diPAP), followed by PFOA and PFHxA fluortelomer, showed the highest concentrations of PFAS analysed. The cumulative EDI of PFAS for children was 3.0 ng/kg bw per day, a worst-case scenario, which is 17 times higher than the calculated EDI for adults. For children, ingestion of dust was found to result in 800 times higher PFOA exposure than via inhalation. The contribution from PFOA precursors corresponded to only 1% of the EDI from dust indicating PFOA as the main source of exposure. The EDI's of PFOA and PFOS from dust were lower than the calculated EDI's from food ingestion reported by the Swedish Food Agency. Our data indicate that the EDI for the sum of four PFASs: PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS and PFOS from dust intake alone is close to the established tolerable weakly intake of 4.4 ng/kg bw in children, set by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2020. The combined EDI levels PFOA and PFOS from both dust and food exceeded the EFSA TWI for both children and adults. This study demonstrates that dust is a relevant exposure pathway for PFAS intake and that analysis of relevant particle size fractions is important for evaluation of dust as an exposure pathway.

  • 49. Hale, S. E.
    et al.
    Alling, V.
    Martinsen, V.
    Mulder, J.
    Breedveld, G. D.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    The sorption and desorption of phosphate-P, ammonium-N and nitrate-N in cacao shell and corn cob biochars2013Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 91, nr 11, s. 1612-1619Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The sorption of PO4-P, NH4-N and NO3-N to cacao shell and corn cob biochars produced at 300-350 degrees C was quantified. The biochars were used; (i) as received (unwashed), (ii) after rinsing with Millipore water and (iii) following leaching with Millipore water. In addition to sorption, desorption of PO4-P from the unwashed biochars was quantified. There was no sorption of PO4-P to either washed or rinsed biochars, but following leaching, both biochars adsorbed PO4-P and distribution coefficients (K-d L kg(-1)) were very similar for both materials (10(1.1 +/- 0.5) for cacao shell biochar and 10(1.0 +/- 0.2) for corn cob biochar). The BET surface area and micropore volume increased 80% and 60% for the cacao shell and corn cob biochars following leaching. After 60 d, 1483 +/- 45 mg kg(-1) and 172 +/- 1 mg kg PO4-P was released from the cacao shell and corn cob biochars. NH4-N was sorbed by both unwashed biochars, albeit weakly with K-d values around 10(2) L kg(-1). We speculate that NH4-N could bind via an electrostatic exchange with other cationic species on the surface of the biochar. There was no significant release or sorption of NO3-N from or to either of the biochars.

  • 50. Hale, Sarah E.
    et al.
    Arp, Hans Peter H.
    Kupryianchyk, Darya
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM). Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Norway; Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    A synthesis of parameters related to the binding of neutral organic compounds to charcoal2016Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 144, s. 65-74Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The sorption strength of neutral organic compounds to charcoal, also called biochar was reviewed and related to charcoal and compound properties. From 29 studies, 507 individual Freundlich sorption.coefficients were compiled that covered the sorption strength of 107 organic contaminants. These sorption coefficients were converted into charcoal-water distribution coefficients (K-D) at aqueous concentrations of 1 ng/L, 1 mu g/L and 1 mg/L. Reported log K-D values at 1 mu g/L varied from 0.38 to 8.25 across all data. Variation was also observed within the compound classes; pesticides, herbicides and insecticides, PAHs, phthalates, halogenated organics, small organics, alcohols and PCBs. Five commonly reported variables; charcoal production temperature T, surface area SA, H/C and 0/C ratios and organic compound octanolwater partitioning coefficient, were correlated with K-D values using single and multiple-parameter linear regressions. The sorption strength of organic compounds to charcoals increased with increasing charcoal production temperature T, charcoal SA and organic pollutant octanol-water partitioning coefficient and decreased with increasing charcoal O/C ratio and charcoal H/C ratio. T was found to be correlated with SA (r(2) = 0.66) and O/C (r(2) = 0.50), particularly for charcoals produced from wood feedstocks (r2 = 0.73 and 0.80, respectively). The resulting regression: log K-D = (0.18 +/- 0.06) log K-ow + (5.74 +/- 1.40) log T + (0.85 +/- 0.15) log SA + (1.60 +/- 0.29) log OC + (-0.89 +/- 0.20) log HC + (-13.20 +/- 3.69), r(2) = 0.60, root mean squared error = 0.95, n = 151 was obtained for all variables. This information can be used as an initial screening to identify charcoals for contaminated soil and sediment remediation.

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