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  • 1. Agerstrand, M
    et al.
    Wester, M
    Rudén, C
    The Swedish Environmental Classification and Information System for Pharmaceuticals--an empirical investigation of the motivations, intentions and expectations underlying its development and implementation.2009In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 778-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2005 the Swedish Association of the Pharmaceutical Industry (LIF) initiated a national environmental classification and information system for pharmaceuticals. This investigation reports the results from a survey, conducted among the persons involved in the start-up process. The aim of this study is to generate knowledge contributing to the clarification of the motivations, expectations, and intentions underlying the development and implementation of the system. The decision to implement a classification and information system for pharmaceuticals was the result of a combination of several driving forces, mainly political pressure and a possibility to increase the industries' goodwill, while at the same time keeping the process under the industries' control. The expected possible effects of the system, other than increased goodwill, are according to this survey assumed to be low. The system offers little guidance for end-users in the substitution of one pharmaceutical for another. One possible reason for this could be that LIF needs to observe the interests of all its members' and should not affect competition. The affiliation of the involved actors correlates to how these actors view and value the system, but this has not hampered the collaborative process to develop and implement it.

  • 2. Balducci, Catia
    et al.
    Green, David C.
    Romagnoli, Paola
    Perilli, Mattia
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. City of Stockholm, Sweden.
    Panteliadis, Pavlos
    Cecinato, Angelo
    Cocaine and cannabinoids in the atmosphere of Northern Europe cities, comparison with Southern Europe and wastewater analysis2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 97, p. 187-194Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports the first investigation of atmospheric illicit drug concentrations in Northern Europe usingmeasurements of cocaine and cannabinoids in Amsterdam, London and Stockholm. Further, these measurements were compared to those made in Rome to explore the geographical and inter-city variability. Co-located measurements of atmospheric particulate mass and PAHs were used to help describe and interpret the illicit drug measurements with respect to atmospheric dispersion. Cocaine concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 0.14 ng/m(3) in Amsterdam, from 0.02 to 0.33 ng/m(3) in London and were below quantification limit (3pg/m(3)) in Stockholm. Cannabinol was the only cannabinoidmolecule detected in the three cities. During this campaign, London reported the highest concentrations of cocaine and meaningful differences were detected between the urban background and city centre London sites. Mean cocaine concentrations measured in Amsterdam during March 2011 were also compared with those measured simultaneously in eight Italian cities. The cocaine concentration inAmsterdamwas comparable to that measured at an urban background inMilan and at a densely populated site in Florence. Although correlating atmospheric concentrations directlywith drug prevalence is not possible using current data, links between concentrations of cocaine and estimates of abuse prevalence assessed by the more routinely usedwastewater analysiswere also examined. A statistically significant correlationwas found between the two sets of data (R-2= 0.66; p= 0.00131). Results confirmed that meteorology, population rate and habits of consumption influence the atmospheric concentrations of drugs. If these confounding factors were better controlled for, the techniques described here could became an easy and cost effective tool to index the impact of cocaine abuse in the area; especially where local hot spots need to be identified.

  • 3. Barouki, Robert
    et al.
    Kogevinas, Manolis
    Audouze, Karine
    Belesova, Kristine
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Birnbaum, Linda
    Boekhold, Sandra
    Denys, Sebastien
    Desseille, Celine
    Drakvik, Elina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Frumkin, Howard
    Garric, Jeanne
    Destoumieux-Garzon, Delphine
    Haines, Andrew
    Huss, Anke
    Jensen, Genon
    Karakitsios, Spyros
    Klanova, Jana
    Koskela, Iida-Maria
    Laden, Francine
    Marano, Francelyne
    Matthies-Wiesler, Eva Franziska
    Morris, George
    Nowacki, Julia
    Paloniemi, Riikka
    Pearce, Neil
    Peters, Annette
    Rekola, Aino
    Sarigiannis, Denis
    Šebková, Katerinaa
    Slama, Remy
    Staatsen, Brigit
    Tonne, Cathryn
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Vineis, Paolo
    The COVID-19 pandemic and global environmental change: Emerging research needs2021In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 146, article id 106272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The outbreak of COVID-19 raised numerous questions on the interactions between the occurrence of new infections, the environment, climate and health. The European Union requested the H2020 HERA project which aims at setting priorities in research on environment, climate and health, to identify relevant research needs regarding Covid-19. The emergence and spread of SARS-CoV-2 appears to be related to urbanization, habitat destruction, live animal trade, intensive livestock farming and global travel. The contribution of climate and air pollution requires additional studies. Importantly, the severity of COVID-19 depends on the interactions between the viral infection, ageing and chronic diseases such as metabolic, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and obesity which are themselves influenced by environmental stressors. The mechanisms of these interactions deserve additional scrutiny. Both the pandemic and the social response to the disease have elicited an array of behavioural and societal changes that may remain long after the pandemic and that may have long term health effects including on mental health. Recovery plans are currently being discussed or implemented and the environmental and health impacts of those plans are not clearly foreseen. Clearly, COVID-19 will have a longlasting impact on the environmental health field and will open new research perspectives and policy needs.

  • 4.
    Bergman, Åke
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Rydén, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Law, Robin J.
    de Boer, Jacob
    Covaci, Adrian
    Alaee, Mehran
    Birnbaum, Linda
    Petreas, Myrto
    Rose, Martin
    Sakai, Shinichi
    Van den Eede, Nele
    van der Veen, Ike
    A novel abbreviation standard for organobromine, organochlorine and organophosphorus flame retardants and some characteristics of the chemicals2012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 49, p. 57-82Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since the interest in organic environmental contaminants first emerged 50 years ago, there has been a need to present discussion of such chemicals and their transformation products using simple abbreviations so as to avoid the repetitive use of long chemical names. As the number of chemicals of concern has increased, the number of abbreviations has also increased dramatically, sometimes resulting in the use of different abbreviations for the same chemical. In this article, we propose abbreviations for flame retardants (FRs) substituted with bromine or chlorine atoms or including a functional group containing phosphorus, i.e. BFRs, CFRs and PFRs, respectively. Due to the large number of halogenated and organophosphorus FRs, it has become increasingly important to develop a strategy for abbreviating the chemical names of FRs. In this paper, a two step procedure is proposed for deriving practical abbreviations (PRABs) for the chemicals discussed. In the first step, structural abbreviations (STABs) are developed using specific STAB criteria based on the FR structure. However, since several of the derived STABs are complicated and long, we propose instead the use of PRABs. These are, commonly, an extract of the most essential part of the STAB, while also considering abbreviations previously used in the literature. We indicate how these can be used to develop an abbreviation that can be generally accepted by scientists and other professionals involved in FR related work. Tables with PRABs and STABs for BFRs, CFRs and PERs are presented, including CAS (Chemical Abstract Service) numbers, notes of abbreviations that have been used previously, CA (Chemical Abstract) name, common names and trade names, as well as some fundamental physicochemical constants.

  • 5. Breivik, Knut
    et al.
    Czub, Gertje
    McLachlan, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wanja, Frank
    Towards an understanding of the link between environmental emissions and human body burdens of PCBs using CoZMoMAN2010In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 85-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different factors affect how organic contaminants released into the environment over time distribute and accumulate, enter various food-chains, and potentially cause toxic effects in wildlife and humans. A sound chemical risk assessment thus requires the determination of the quantitative relationship between emissions and human exposure. This study aimed to assess the extent of the quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the link between environmental emissions and human body burdens for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the western part of the Baltic Sea drainage basin and to identify any remaining knowledge gaps. An integrated, non-steady state model calculating human body burden from environmental emissions (CoZMoMAN) was created by linking the multi-compartment environmental fate model CoZMo-POP 2 with the human food chain bioaccumulation model ACC-HUMAN. CoZMoMAN predicted concentrations of seven PCB congeners in 11 key model compartments to typically within a factor of 2 to 4 of measured values, although larger discrepancies are noted for soils and humans. We conclude that whereas the most important processes which link emissions of PCBs to human body burdens are quite well understood in this region, some critical knowledge gaps related to the time trend of historical emissions remain to be addressed.

  • 6. Bu, Qingwei
    et al.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wong, Fiona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Toms, Leisa-Maree L.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    Yu, Gang
    Historical intake and elimination of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides by the Australian population reconstructed from biomonitoring data2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 74, p. 82-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantifying the competing rates of intake and elimination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the human body is necessary to understand the levels and trends of POPs at a population level. In this paper we reconstruct the historical intake and elimination of ten polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and five organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from Australian biomonitoring data by fitting a population-level pharmacokinetic (PK) model. Our analysis exploits two sets of cross-sectional biomonitoring data for PCBs and OCPs in pooled blood serum samples from the Australian population that were collected in 2003 and 2009. The modeled adult reference intakes in 1975 for PCB congeners ranged from 0.89 to 24.5 ng/kg bw/day, lower than the daily intakes of OCPs ranging from 73 to 970 ng/kg bw/day. Modeled intake rates are declining with half-times from 1.1 to 1.3 years for PCB congeners and 0.83 to 0.97 years for OCPs. The shortest modeled intrinsic human elimination half-life among the compounds studied here is 6.4 years for hexachlorobenzene, and the longest is 30 years for PCB-74. Our results indicate that it is feasible to reconstruct intakes and to estimate intrinsic human elimination half-lives using the population-level PK model and biomonitoring data only. Our modeled intrinsic human elimination half-lives are in good agreement with values from a similar study carried out for the population of the United Kingdom, and are generally longer than reported values from other industrialized countries in the Northern Hemisphere.

  • 7.
    Bui, Thuy T.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Alves, Andreia
    Palm-Cousins, Anna
    Voorspoels, Stefan
    Covaci, Adrian
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Estimating uptake of phthalate ester metabolites into the human nail plate using pharmacokinetic modelling2017In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 100, p. 148-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding uptake of phthalate esters (PEs) and other chemicals into the human nail plate and thus, clarity concerning the suitability of human nails as a valid alternative matrix for monitoring longterm exposure. In particular, the relative importance of internal uptake of phthalate metabolites (from e.g. blood) compared to external uptake pathways is unknown. This study provides first insights into the partitioning of phthalate-metabolites between blood and nail using pharmacokinetic (PK) modelling and biomonitoring data from a Norwegian cohort. A previously published PK model (Lorber PK model) was used in combination with measured urine data to predict serum concentrations of DEHP and DnBP/DiBP metabolites at steady state. Then, partitioning between blood and nail was assessed assuming equilibrium conditions and treating the nail plate as a tissue, assuming a fixed lipid and water content. Although calculated as a worst-case scenario at equilibrium, the predicted nail concentrations of metabolites were lower than the biomonitoring data by factors of 44 to 1300 depending on the metabolite. It is therefore concluded that internal uptake of phthalate metabolites from blood into nail is a negligible pathway and does not explain the observed nail concentrations. Ingtead, external uptake pathways are more likely to dominate, possibly through deposition of phthalates onto the skin/nail and subsequent metabolism. Modelling gaseous diffusive uptake of PEs from air to nail revealed that this pathway is unlikely to be important. Experimental quantification of internal and external uptake pathways of phthalates and their metabolites into the human nail plate is needed to verify these modelling results. However, based on this model, human nails are not a good indicator of internal human exposure for the phthalate esters studied.

  • 8. Chen, Yiqin
    et al.
    Sjodin, Andreas
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    English, Karin
    Aylward, Lesa L.
    Toms, Leisa-Maree L.
    Varghese, Julie
    Sly, Peter D.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    Persistent organic pollutants in infants and toddlers: Relationship between concentrations in matched plasma and faecal samples2017In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 107, p. 82-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early-childhood biomonitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is challenging due to the logistic and ethical limitations associated with blood sampling. We investigated using faeces as a non-invasive matrix to estimate internal exposure to POPs. The concentrations of selected POPs were measured in matched plasma and faecal samples collected from 20 infants/toddlers (aged 13 +/- 4.8 months), including a repeat sample time point for 13 infants (similar to 5 months apart). We observed higher rates of POP quantification in faeces (2 g dry weight) than in plasma (0.5 mL). Among the five chemicals that had quantification frequencies over 50% in both matrices, except for HCB, log concentration in faeces (C-f) and blood (C-b) were correlated (r > 0.74, P < 0.05) for p.p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), 2,3', 4,4', 5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB118), 2,2', 3,4,4', 5'-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB138) and 2,2', 4,4', 5,5'-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB153). We determined faeces: plasma concentration ratios (K-fb), which can be used to estimate C-b from measurements of C-f for infants/toddlers. For a given chemical, the variation in K-fb across individuals was considerable (CV from 0.46 to 0.70). Between 5% and 50% of this variation was attributed to short-term intra-individual variability between successive faecal samples. This variability could be reduced by pooling faeces samples over several days. Some of the remaining variability was attributed to longer-term intra-individual variability, which was consistent with previously reported observations of a decrease in K-fb over the first year of life. The strong correlations between C-f and C-b demonstrate the promise of using faeces for biomonitoring of these compounds. Future research on the sources of variability in K-fb could improve the precision and utility of this technique.

  • 9. Cole-Hunter, Thomas
    et al.
    Zhang, Jiawei
    So, Rina
    Samoli, Evangelia
    Liu, Shuo
    Chen, Jie
    Strak, Maciej
    Wolf, Kathrin
    Weinmayr, Gudrun
    Rodopolou, Sophia
    Remfry, Elizabeth
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Bellander, Tom
    Brandt, Jørgen
    Concin, Hans
    Zitt, Emanuel
    Fecht, Daniela
    Forastiere, Francesco
    Gulliver, John
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A.
    Jöckel, Karl-Heinz
    Mortensen, Laust H.
    Ketzel, Matthias
    Méndez, Diego Yacamán
    Leander, Karin
    Ljungman, Petter
    Faure, Elodie
    Lee, Pei-Chen
    Elbaz, Alexis
    Magnusson, Patrik K. E.
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Pershagen, Göran
    Peters, Annette
    Rizzuto, Debora
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Sweden.
    Vermeulen, Roel C. H.
    Schramm, Sara
    Stafoggia, Massimo
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Hoek, Gerard
    Lim, Youn-Hee
    Andersen, Zorana J.
    Long-term air pollution exposure and Parkinson's disease mortality in a large pooled European cohort: An ELAPSE study2023In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 171, article id 107667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The link between exposure to ambient air pollution and mortality from cardiorespiratory diseases is well established, while evidence on neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson’s Disease (PD) remains limited.

    Objective: We examined the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and PD mortality in seven European cohorts.

    Methods: Within the project ‘Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe’ (ELAPSE), we pooled data from seven cohorts among six European countries. Annual mean residential concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC), and ozone (O3), as well as 8 PM2.5 components (copper, iron, potassium, nickel, sulphur, silicon, vanadium, zinc), for 2010 were estimated using Europe-wide hybrid land use regression models. PD mortality was defined as underlying cause of death being either PD, secondary Parkinsonism, or dementia in PD. We applied Cox proportional hazard models to investigate the associations between air pollution and PD mortality, adjusting for potential confounders.

    Results: Of 271,720 cohort participants, 381 died from PD during 19.7 years of follow-up. In single-pollutant analyses, we observed positive associations between PD mortality and PM2.5 (hazard ratio per 5 µg/m3: 1.25; 95% confidence interval: 1.01–1.55), NO2 (1.13; 0.95–1.34 per 10 µg/m3), and BC (1.12; 0.94–1.34 per 0.5 × 10-5m-1), and a negative association with O3 (0.74; 0.58–0.94 per 10 µg/m3). Associations of PM2.5, NO2, and BC with PD mortality were linear without apparent lower thresholds. In two-pollutant models, associations with PM2.5 remained robust when adjusted for NO2 (1.24; 0.95–1.62) or BC (1.28; 0.96–1.71), whereas associations with NO2 or BC attenuated to null. O3 associations remained negative, but no longer statistically significant in models with PM2.5. We detected suggestive positive associations with the potassium component of PM2.5.

    Conclusion: Long-term exposure to PM2.5, at levels well below current EU air pollution limit values, may contribute to PD mortality.

  • 10. Cooper, Glinda S.
    et al.
    Lunn, Ruth M.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Glenn, Barbara S.
    Kraft, Andrew D.
    Luke, April M.
    Ratcliffe, Jennifer M.
    Study sensitivity: Evaluating the ability to detect effects in systematic reviews of chemical exposures2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 92-93, p. 605-610Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A critical step in systematic reviews of potential health hazards is the structured evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the included studies; risk of bias is a term often used to represent this process, specifically with respect to the evaluation of systematic errors that can lead to inaccurate (biased) results (i.e. focusing on internal validity). Systematic review methods developed in the clinical medicine arena have been adapted for use in evaluating environmental health hazards; this expansion raises questions about the scope of risk of bias tools and the extent to which they capture the elements that can affect the interpretation of results from environmental and occupational epidemiology studies and in vivo animal toxicology studies, (the studies typically available for assessment of risk of chemicals). One such element, described here as sensitivity, is a measure of the ability of a study to detect a true effect or hazard. This concept is similar to the concept of the sensitivity of an assay; an insensitive study may fail to show a difference that truly exists, leading to a false conclusion of no effect Factors relating to study sensitivity should be evaluated in a systematic manner with the same rigor as the evaluation of other elements within a risk of bias framework. We discuss the importance of this component for the interpretation of individual studies, examine approaches proposed or in use to address it, and describe how it relates to other evaluation components. The evaluation domains contained within a risk of bias tool can include, or can be modified to include, some features relating to study sensitivity; the explicit inclusion of these sensitivity criteria with the same rigor and at the same stage of study evaluation as other bias-related criteria can improve the evaluation process. In some cases, these and other features may be better addressed through a separate sensitivity domain. The combined evaluation of risk of bias and sensitivity can be used to identify the most informative studies, to evaluate the confidence of the findings from individual studies and to identify those study elements that may help to explain heterogeneity across the body of literature.

  • 11.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Vestergren, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Wang, Zhanyun
    Scheringer, Martin
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    The precautionary principle and chemicals management: The example of perfluoroalkyl acids in groundwater2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 94, p. 331-340Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Already in the late 1990s microgram-per-liter levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were measured in water samples from areas where fire-fighting foams were used or spilled. Despite these early warnings, the problems of groundwater, and thus drinking water, contaminated with perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) including PFOS are only beginning to be addressed. It is clear that this PFAS contamination is poorly reversible and that the societal costs of clean-up will be high. This inability to reverse exposure in a reasonable timeframe is a major motivation for application of the precautionary principle in chemicals management. We conclude that exposure can be poorly reversible; 1) due to slow elimination kinetics in organisms, or 2) due to poorly reversible environmental contamination that leads to continuous exposure. In the second case, which is relevant for contaminated groundwater, the reversibility of exposure is not related to the magnitude of a chemical's bioaccumulation potential. We argue therefore that all PFASs entering groundwater, irrespective of their perfluoroalkyl chain length and bioaccumulation potential, will result in poorly reversible exposures and risks as well as further clean-up costs for society. To protect groundwater resources for future generations, society should consider a precautionary approach to chemicals management and prevent the use and release of highly persistent and mobile chemicals such as PFASs. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 12. Covaci, Adrian
    et al.
    Harrad, Stuart
    Abdallah, Mohamed A. -E.
    Ali, Nadeem
    Law, Robin J.
    Herzke, Dorte
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Novel brominated flame retardants: A review of their analysis, environmental fate and behaviour2011In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 532-556Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review summarises current knowledge about production volumes, physico-chemical properties, analysis, environmental occurrence, fate and behaviour and human exposure to the novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs). We define the term NBFRs as relating to BFRs which are new to the market or newly/recently observed in the environment. Restrictions and bans on the use of some polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) formulations, in many jurisdictions, have created a market for the use of NBFRs. To date, most data on NBFRs have arisen as additional information generated by research designed principally to study more traditional BFRs, such as PBDEs. This has led to a wide variety of analytical approaches for sample extraction, extract purification and instrumental analysis of NBFRs. An overview of environmental occurrence in abiotic matrices, aquatic biota, terrestrial biota and birds is presented. Evidence concerning the metabolism and absorption of different NBFRs is reviewed. Human exposure to NBFRs via different exposure pathways is discussed, and research gaps related to analysis, environmental sources, fate, and behaviour and human exposure are identified.

  • 13. Dai, Qingyuan
    et al.
    Xu, Xijin
    Eskenazi, Brenda
    Asante, Kwadwo Ansong
    Chen, Aimin
    Fobil, Julius
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. Örebro University, Sweden; Tongji University, China.
    Brennan, Lesley
    Sly, Peter D.
    Nnorom, Innocent Chidi
    Pascale, Antonio
    Wang, Qihua
    Zeng, Eddy Y.
    Zeng, Zhijun
    Landrigan, Philip J.
    Drisse, Marie-Noel Brune
    Huo, Xia
    Severe dioxin-like compound (DLC) contamination in e-waste recycling areas: An under-recognized threat to local health2020In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 139, article id 105731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) burning and recycling activities have become one of the main emission sources of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Workers involved in e-waste recycling operations and residents living near e-waste recycling sites (EWRS) are exposed to high levels of DLCs. Epidemiological and experimental in vivo studies have reported a range of interconnected responses in multiple systems with DLC exposure. However, due to the compositional complexity of DLCs and difficulties in assessing mixture effects of the complex mixture of e-waste-related contaminants, there are few studies concerning human health outcomes related to DLC exposure at informal EWRS. In this paper, we have reviewed the environmental levels and body burdens of DLCs at EWRS and compared them with the levels reported to be associated with observable adverse effects to assess the health risks of DLC exposure at EWRS. In general, DLC concentrations at EWRS of many countries have been decreasing in recent years due to stricter regulations on e-waste recycling activities, but the contamination status is still severe. Comparison with available data from industrial sites and well-known highly DLC contaminated areas shows that high levels of DLCs derived from crude e-waste recycling processes lead to elevated body burdens. The DLC levels in human blood and breast milk at EWRS are higher than those reported in some epidemiological studies that are related to various health impacts. The estimated total daily intakes of DLCs for people in EWRS far exceed the WHO recommended total daily intake limit. It can be inferred that people living in EWRS with high DLC contamination have higher health risks. Therefore, more well-designed epidemiological studies are urgently needed to focus on the health effects of DLC pollution in EWRS. Continuous monitoring of the temporal trends of DLC levels in EWRS after actions is of highest importance.

  • 14. Darnerud, Per Ola
    et al.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. Örebro University, Sweden; Tongji University, China.
    Critical review on disposition of chlorinated paraffins in animals and humans2022In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, Vol. 163, article id 107195Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though the chlorinated paraffins (CPs) have been on the environmental pollution agenda throughout the last 50 years it is a class of chemicals that only now is discussed in terms of an emerging issue with extensive annual publication rates. Major reviews on CPs have been produced, but a deeper understanding of the chemical fate of CPs, including formation of metabolites in animals and humans, is still missing. Thus, the present review aims to critically compile our present knowledge on the disposition, i.e. Adsorption, Disposition, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) of CPs in biota and to identify research needs.

    We conclude that CPs could be effectively absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract (GI) tract, and probably also from the lungs, and transported to various organs. A biphasic elimination is suggested, with a rapid initial phase followed by a terminal phase, the latter (e.g., fat tissues) covering half-lives of weeks and months. CPs are metabolized in the liver and excreted mainly via the bile and faeces, and the metabolic rate and type of metabolites are dependent on chlorine content and chain length. Results that strengthen CP metabolism are in vivo findings of phase II metabolites in bile, and CP degradation to carbon fragments in experimental animals. Still the metabolic transformations of CPs are poorly studied, and no metabolic scheme has yet been presented. Further, toxicokinetic mass balance calculations suggest that a large part of a given dose (not found as parent compound) is transformation products of CPs, and in vitro metabolism studies present numerous CP metabolites (e.g., chloroalkenes, chlorinated ketones, aldehydes, and carboxylic acids).

  • 15. de Hoogh, Kees
    et al.
    Korek, Michal
    Vienneau, Danielle
    Keuken, Menno
    Kukkonen, Jaakko
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.
    Badaloni, Chiara
    Beelen, Rob
    Bolignano, Andrea
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Pradas, Marta Cirach
    Cyrys, Josef
    Douros, John
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Forastiere, Francesco
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Fuks, Kateryna
    Gehring, Ulrike
    Gryparis, Alexandros
    Gulliver, John
    Hansell, Anna L.
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Jonkers, Sander
    Kangas, Leena
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Kuenzli, Nino
    Lanki, Timo
    Memmesheimer, Michael
    Moussiopoulos, Nicolas
    Modig, Lars
    Pershagen, Goran
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Schindler, Christian
    Schikowski, Tamara
    Sugiri, Dorothee
    Teixido, Oriol
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Yli-Tuomi, Tarja
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Hoek, Gerard
    Bellander, Tom
    Comparing land use regression and dispersion modelling to assess residential exposure to ambient air pollution for epidemiological studies2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 73, p. 382-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Land-use regression (LUR) and dispersion models (DM) are commonly used for estimating individual air pollution exposure in population studies. Few comparisons have however been made of the performance of these methods. Objectives: Within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) we explored the differences between LUR and DM estimates for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5. Methods: The ESCAPE study developed LUR models for outdoor air pollution levels based on a harmonised monitoring campaign. In thirteen ESCAPE study areas we further applied dispersion models. We compared LUR and DM estimates at the residential addresses of participants in 13 cohorts for NO2; 7 for PM10 and 4 for PM2.5. Additionally, we compared the DM estimates with measured concentrations at the 20-40 ESCAPE monitoring sites in each area. Results: The median Pearson R (range) correlation coefficients between LUR and DM estimates for the annual average concentrations of NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 were 0.75 (0.19-0.89), 0.39 (0.23-0.66) and 0.29 (0.22-0.81) for 112,971 (13 study areas), 69,591 (7) and 28,519(4) addresses respectively. The median Pearson R correlation coefficients (range) between DM estimates and ESCAPE measurements were of 0.74(0.09-0.86) for NO2; 0.58 (0.36-0.88) for PM10 and 0.58 (0.39-0.66) for PM2.5. Conclusions: LUR and dispersion model estimates correlated on average well for NO2 but only moderately for PM10 and PM2.5, with large variability across areas. DM predicted a moderate to large proportion of the measured variation for NO2 but less for PM10 and PM2.5.

  • 16.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Björklund, Justina Awasum
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Thuresson, Kaj
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Tri-decabrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in indoor air and dust from Stockholm microenvironments 2: Indoor sources and human exposure2012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 141-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data on polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) concentrations from Stockholm, Sweden, indoor microenvironments were combined with information from detailed questionnaires regarding the sampling location characteristics, including furnishing and equipment present. These were used to elucidate relationships between possible flame-retarded sources and the contaminant concentrations found in air and dust. Median concentration ranges of Sigma Penta-, Sigma Octa-, Sigma DecaBDE and HBCD from all microenvironments were 19-570, 1.7-280, 29-3200 and <1.6-2 pg/m(3) in air and 22-240, 6.1-80, 330-1400 and 45-340 ng/g in dust, respectively. Significant correlations were found between concentrations of some PBDEs and HBCD in air and/or dust and the presence of electronic/electrical devices, foam furniture, PUF mattresses and synthetic bed pillows in, as well as floor area and construction year of the microenvironment. Car interiors were a source to indoor air in dealership halls. Using median and maximum concentrations of Sigma Penta-, Sigma Octa-, Sigma DecaBDE and HBCD in air and dust, adult and toddler (12-24 months) intakes from inhalation and dust ingestion were estimated. Toddlers had higher estimated intakes of Sigma Penta-, Sigma DecaBDE and HBCD (7.8, 43, 7.6 ng/d, respectively) from dust ingestion than adults (5.8, 38, 6.0 ng/d, respectively). Air inhalation in offices was also an important exposure pathway for Sigma Penta-, Sigma Octa- and Sigma DecaBDE in adults. For Sigma PentaBDE and HBCD, air inhalation and dust ingestion play minor roles when compared to previously published Swedish dietary intakes (median exposures). However, in worst case scenarios using maximum concentrations, dust ingestion may represent 77 and 95% of toddler intake for Sigma PentaBDE and HBCD, respectively.

  • 17.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Bossi, Rossana
    Dietz, Rune
    Dreyer, Annekatrin
    Faxneld, Suzanne
    Garbus, Svend Erik
    Hellström, Peter
    Koschorreck, Jan
    Lohmann, Nina
    Roos, Anna
    Sellström, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Sonne, Christian
    Treu, Gabriele
    Vorkamp, Katrin
    Yuan, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Eulaers, Igor
    Organohalogen compounds of emerging concern in Baltic Sea biota: Levels, biomagnification potential and comparisons with legacy contaminants2020In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 144, article id 106037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While new chemicals have replaced major toxic legacy contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), knowledge of their current levels and biomagnification potential in Baltic Sea biota is lacking. Therefore, a suite of chemicals of emerging concern, including organophosphate esters (OPEs), short-chain, medium-chain and long-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs, MCCPs, LCCPs), halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), were analysed in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), viviparous eelpout (Zoarces viviparus), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), common eider (Somateria mollissima), common guillemot (Uria aalge) and white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) from the Baltic Proper, sampled between 2006 and 2016. Results were benchmarked with existing data for legacy contaminants. The mean concentrations for Sigma OPEs ranged from 57 to 550 ng g(-1) lipid weight (lw), for Sigma CPs from 110 to 640 ng g(-1) lw for Sigma HFRs from 0.42 to 80 ng g(-1) lw, and for Sigma PFAS from 1.1 to 450 ng g(-1) wet weight. Perfluoro-4-ethyl-cyclohexanesulfonate (PFECHS) was detected in most species. Levels of OPEs, CPs and HFRs were generally similar or higher than those of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and/or hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD). OPE, CP and HFR concentrations were also similar to PCBs and DDTs in blue mussel, viviparous eelpout and Atlantic herring. In marine mammals and birds, PCB and DDT concentrations remained orders of magnitude higher than those of OPEs, CPs, HFRs and PFAS. Predator-prey ratios for individual OPEs (0.28-3.9) and CPs (0.40-5.0) were similar or somewhat lower than those seen for BDE-47 (5.0-29) and HBCDD (2.4-13). Ratios for individual HFRs (0.010-37) and PFAS (0.15-47) were, however, of the same order of magnitude as seen for p,p'-DDE (4.7-66) and CB-153 (31-190), indicating biomagnification potential for many of the emerging contaminants. Lack of toxicity data, including for complex mixtures, makes it difficult to assess the risks emerging contaminants pose. Their occurence and biomagnification potential should trigger risk management measures, particularly for MCCPs, HFRs and PFAS.

  • 18.
    de Wit, Cynthia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Björklund, Justina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Thuresson, Kaj
    Tri- to decabrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in indoor air and dust from Stockholm microenvironments 2: Indoor sources and human exposureIn: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19. Derakhshan, Arash
    et al.
    Shu, Huan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Peeters, Robin P.
    Kortenkamp, Andreas
    Lindh, Christian H.
    Demeneix, Barbara
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Korevaar, Tim I. M.
    Association of urinary bisphenols and triclosan with thyroid function during early pregnancy2019In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 133, article id 105123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Bisphenols and triclosan are considered as potential thyroid disruptors. While mild alterations in maternal thyroid function can result in adverse pregnancy and child developmental outcomes, there is still uncertainty whether bisphenols or triclosan can interfere with thyroid function during pregnancy. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the association of urinary bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF) and triclosan with early pregnancy thyroid function. Methods: This study was embedded in the Swedish Environmental Longitudinal, Mother and child, Asthma and allergy study (SELMA), a population-based prospective pregnancy cohort. In total, 1996 participants were included in the current study. Maternal urinary concentrations of three bisphenols and triclosan, collected at median (95% range) 10 (6-14) weeks of pregnancy as well as serum concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), total thyroxine (TT4), and total triiodothyronine (TT3) were measured. Results: Higher BPA levels were associated with lower TT4 concentrations (non-monotonic, P=0.03), a lower FT4/FT3 ratio (beta [SE] -0.02 [0.01], P=0.03) and a lower TT4/TT3 ratio (beta [SE] -0.73 [0.27], P=0.008). Higher BPF levels were associated with a higher FT3 (beta [SE] 0.01 [0.007], P=0.04). There were no associations between other bisphenols or triclosan and absolute TSH, (F)T4 or (F)T3 concentrations. The association of BPA with thyroid function differed with gestational age. The negative association of BPA with FT4/FT3 and TT4/TT3 ratios was only apparent in early but not late gestation (P for interaction: 0.003, 0.008, respectively). Conclusion: These human data during pregnancy substantiate experimental findings suggesting that BPA could potentially affect thyroid function and deiodinase activities in early gestation.

  • 20. Descatha, Alexis
    et al.
    Sembajwe, Grace
    Baer, Michael
    Boccuni, Fabio
    Di Tecco, Cristina
    Duret, Clement
    Evanoff, Bradley A.
    Gagliardi, Diana
    Ivanov, Ivan D.
    Leppink, Nancy
    Marinaccio, Alessandro
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Ozguler, Anna
    Pega, Frank
    Pell, John
    Pico, Fernando
    Pruss-Ustun, Annette
    Ronchetti, Matteo
    Roquelaure, Yves
    Sabbath, Erika
    Stevens, Gretchen A.
    Tsutsumi, Akizumi
    Ujita, Yuka
    Iavicoli, Sergio
    WHO/ILO work-related burden of disease and injury: Protocol for systematic reviews of exposure to long working hours and of the effect of exposure to long working hours on stroke2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 119, p. 366-378Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing a joint methodology for estimating the national and global work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO joint methodology), with contributions from a large network of experts. In this paper, we present the protocol for two systematic reviews of parameters for estimating the number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years from stroke attributable to exposure to long working hours, to inform the development of the WHO/ILO joint methodology. Objectives: We aim to systematically review studies on occupational exposure to long working hours (called Systematic Review 1 in the protocol) and systematically review and meta-analyse estimates of the effect of long working hours on stroke (called Systematic Review 2), applying the Navigation Guide systematic review methodology as an organizing framework, conducting both systematic reviews in tandem and in a harmonized way. Data sources: Separately for Systematic Reviews 1 and 2, we will search electronic academic databases for potentially relevant records from published and unpublished studies, including Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, CISDOC and PsychINFO. We will also search electronic grey literature databases, Internet search engines and organizational websites; hand-search reference list of previous systematic reviews and included study records; and consult additional experts. Study eligibility and criteria: We will include working-age (>= 15 years) workers in the formal and informal economy in any WHO and/or ILO Member State, but exclude children (< 15 years) and unpaid domestic workers. For Systematic Review 1, we will include quantitative prevalence studies of relevant levels of occupational exposure to long working hours (i.e. 35-40, 41-48, 49-54 and >= 55 h/week) stratified by country, sex, age and industrial sector or occupation, in the years 2005-2018. For Systematic Review 2, we will include randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and other non-randomized intervention studies with an estimate of the relative effect of a relevant level of long working hours on the incidence of or mortality due to stroke, compared with the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (i.e. 35-40 h/week). Study appraisal and synthesis methods: At least two review authors will independently screen titles and abstracts against the eligibility criteria at a first stage and full texts of potentially eligible records at a second stage, followed by extraction of data from qualifying studies. At least two review authors will assess risk of bias and the quality of evidence, using the most suited tools currently available. For Systematic Review 2, if feasible, we will combine relative risks using meta-analysis. We will report results using the guidelines for accurate and transparent health estimates reporting (GATHER) for Systematic Review 1 and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines (PRISMA) for Systematic Review 2.

  • 21. Descatha, Alexis
    et al.
    Sembajwe, Grace
    Pega, Frank
    Ujita, Yuka
    Baer, Michael
    Boccuni, Fabio
    Di Tecco, Cristina
    Duret, Clement
    Evanoff, Bradley A.
    Gagliardi, Diana
    Godderis, Lode
    Kang, Seong-Kyu
    Kim, Beon Joon
    Li, Jian
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Marinaccio, Alessandro
    Ozguler, Anna
    Pachito, Daniela
    Pell, John
    Pico, Fernando
    Ronchetti, Matteo
    Roquelaure, Yves
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Schouteden, Martijn
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Tsutsumi, Akizumi
    Iavicoli, Sergio
    The effect of exposure to long working hours on stroke: A systematic review and meta-analysis from the WHO/ILO Joint Estimates of the Work-related Burden of Disease and Injury2020In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 142, article id 105746Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing joint estimates of the work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO Joint Estimates), with contributions from a large network of individual experts. Evidence from mechanistic data and prior studies suggests that exposure to long working hours may cause stroke. In this paper, we present a systematic review and meta-analysis of parameters for estimating the number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years from stroke that are attributable to exposure to long working hours, for the development of the WHO/ILO Joint Estimates.

    Objectives: We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse estimates of the effect of exposure to long working hours (three categories: 41-48, 49-54 and >= 55 h/week), compared with exposure to standard working hours (35-40 h/week), on stroke (three outcomes: prevalence, incidence, and mortality).

    Data sources: A protocol was developed and published, applying the Navigation Guide to systematic reviews as an organizing framework where feasible. We searched electronic databases for potentially relevant records from published and unpublished studies, including Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, CISDOC, PsycINFO, and WHO ICTRP. We also searched grey literature databases, Internet search engines, and organizational websites; hand-searched reference lists of previous systematic reviews; and consulted additional experts.

    Study eligibility and criteria: We included working-age (>= 15 years) individuals in the formal and informal economy in any WHO and/or ILO Member State but excluded children (aged < 15 years) and unpaid domestic workers. We included randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and other non-randomized intervention studies with an estimate of the effect of exposure to long working hours (41-48, 49-54 and >= 55 h/week), compared with exposure to standard working hours (35-40 h/week), on stroke (prevalence, incidence or mortality).

    Study appraisal and synthesis methods: At least two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts against the eligibility criteria at a first review stage and full texts of potentially eligible records at a second stage, followed by extraction of data from qualifying studies. Missing data were requested from principal study authors. We combined relative risks using random-effects meta-analysis. Two or more review authors assessed the risk of bias, quality of evidence and strength of evidence, using the Navigation Guide and GRADE tools and approaches adapted to this project.

    Results: Twenty-two studies (20 cohort studies, 2 case-control studies) met the inclusion criteria, comprising a total of 839,680 participants (364,616 females) in eight countries from three WHO regions (Americas, Europe, and Western Pacific). The exposure was measured using self-reports in all studies, and the outcome was assessed with administrative health records (13 studies), self-reported physician diagnosis (7 studies), direct diagnosis by a physician (1 study) or during a medical interview (1 study). The outcome was defined as an incident non-fatal stroke event in nine studies (7 cohort studies, 2 case-control studies), incident fatal stroke event in one cohort study and incident non-fatal or fatal (mixed) event in 12 studies (all cohort studies). Cohort studies were judged to have a relatively low risk of bias; therefore, we prioritized evidence from these studies, but synthesised evidence from case-control studies as supporting evidence. For the bodies of evidence for both outcomes with any eligible studies (i.e. stroke incidence and mortality), we did not have serious concerns for risk of bias (at least for the cohort studies). Eligible studies were found on the effects of long working hours on stroke incidence and mortality, but not prevalence. Compared with working 35-40 h/week, we were uncertain about the effect on incidence of stroke due to working 41-48 h/week (relative risk (RR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-1.14, 18 studies, 277,202 participants, I-2 0%, low quality of evidence). There may have been an increased risk for acquiring stroke when working 49-54 h/week compared with 35-40 h/week (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.00-1.28, 17 studies, 275,181participants, I-2 0%, p 0.04, moderate quality of evidence). Compared with working 35-40 h/week, working >= 55 h/week may have led to a moderate, clinically meaningful increase in the risk of acquiring stroke, when followed up between one year and 20 years (RR 1.35, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.61, 7 studies, 162,644 participants, I-2 3%, moderate quality of evidence). Compared with working 35-40 h/week, we were very uncertain about the effect on dying (mortality) of stroke due to working 41-48 h/week (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.91-1.12, 12 studies, 265,937 participants, I-2 0%, low quality of evidence), 49-54 h/week (RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.99-1.29, 11 studies, 256,129 participants, I-2 0%, low quality of evidence) and 55 h/week (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.89-1.31, 10 studies, 664,647 participants, I-2 20%, low quality of evidence). Subgroup analyses found no evidence for differences by WHO region, age, sex, socioeconomic status and type of stroke. Sensitivity analyses found no differences by outcome definition (exclusively non-fatal or fatal versus mixed) except for the comparison working >= 55 h/week versus 35-40 h/week for stroke incidence (p for subgroup differences: 0.05), risk of bias (high/probably high ratings in any domain versus low/probably low in all domains), effect estimate measures (risk versus hazard versus odds ratios) and comparator (exact versus approximate definition).

    Conclusions: We judged the existing bodies of evidence for human evidence as inadequate evidence for harmfulness for all exposure categories for stroke prevalence and mortality and for exposure to 41-48 h/week for stroke incidence. Evidence on exposure to 48-54 h/week and >= 55 h/week was judged as limited evidence for harmfulness and sufficient evidence for harmfulness for stroke incidence, respectively. Producing estimates for the burden of stroke attributable to exposures to working 48-54 and >= 55 h/week appears evidencebased, and the pooled effect estimates presented in this systematic review could be used as input data for the WHO/ILO Joint Estimates.

  • 22. Diamond, Miriam L.
    et al.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Molander, Sverker
    Scheringer, Martin
    Backhaus, Thomas
    Lohmann, Rainer
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    Bergman, Åke
    Hauschild, Michael
    Holoubek, Ivan
    Persson, Linn
    Suzuki, Noriyuki
    Vighi, Marco
    Zetzsch, Cornelius
    Exploring the planetary boundary for chemical pollution2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 78, p. 8-15Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rockstrom et al. (2009a, 2009b) have warned that humanity must reduce anthropogenic impacts defined by nine planetary boundaries if unacceptable global change is to be avoided. Chemical pollution was identified as one of those boundaries for which continued impacts could erode the resilience of ecosystems and humanity. The central concept of the planetary boundary (or boundaries) for chemical pollution (PBCP or PBCPs) is that the Earth has a finite assimilative capacity for chemical pollution, which includes persistent as well as readily degradable chemicals released at local to regional scales, which in aggregate threaten ecosystem and human viability. The PBCP allows humanity to explicitly address the increasingly global aspects of chemical pollution throughout a chemical's life cycle and the need for a global response of internationally coordinated control measures. We submit that sufficient evidence shows stresses on ecosystem and human health at local to global scales, suggesting that conditions are transgressing the safe operating space delimited by a PBCP. As such, current local to global pollution control measures are insufficient. However, while the PBCP is an important conceptual step forward, at this point single or multiple PBCPs are challenging to operationalize due to the extremely large number of commercial chemicals or mixtures of chemicals that cause myriad adverse effects to innumerable species and ecosystems, and the complex linkages between emissions, environmental concentrations, exposures and adverse effects. As well, the normative nature of a PBCP presents challenges of negotiating pollution limits amongst societal groups with differing viewpoints. Thus, a combination of approaches is recommended as follows: develop indicators of chemical pollution, for both control and response variables, that will aid in quantifying a PBCP(s) and gauging progress towards reducing chemical pollution; develop new technologies and technical and social approaches to mitigate global chemical pollution that emphasize a preventative approach; coordinate pollution control and sustainability efforts; and facilitate implementation of multiple (and potentially decentralized) control efforts involving scientists, civil society, government, non-governmental organizations and international bodies.

  • 23. Dickerson, Aisha S.
    et al.
    Ransome, Yusuf
    Karlsson, Oskar
    Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Human prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and risk behaviors in adolescence2019In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 129, p. 247-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are chemicals used in a variety of products before they were widely banned due to toxic effects in humans and wildlife. Because of continued persistence and ubiquity of these contaminants, risk of exposure to people living in industrialized countries is still high. Experimental research show that developmental exposure to PCB may alter function of brain pleasure centers and potentially influence disinhibitory behaviors, including tobacco and alcohol use. Yet, the potential effects of developmental PCB exposure on adolescent substance use have not been studied in humans. We used the Child Health and Development Studies (CHDS), a prospective birth cohort study in the Oakland and East Bay areas of California, to investigate associations between prenatal exposure to PCB congeners (66, 74, 99, 118, 138, 153, 170, 180, 187, and 203) and later disinhibitory behaviors in adolescents, specifically alcohol consumption and smoking, in a randomly selected sample (n = 554). Total prenatal PCB exposure was not associated with disinhibitory behaviors, among adolescents. However, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for being a current smoker, was higher in subjects within the third quartile of maternal PCB 66 exposure compared to those below the median (aOR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.05, 3.55). The aOR for drinking > 2 alcoholic beverages per week, were also higher for adolescents within the third (aOR = 1.46; 95% CI 0.86, 2.47) and fourth quartile of PCB 66 exposure (aOR = 1.39; 95% CI 0.83, 2.35), but the differences did not reach statistical significance. These results suggest that this specific PCB congener may play a role inducing neurodevelopmental alterations that could potentially increase the risk of becoming a long-term user of tobacco and possibly alcohol. There were no notable differences between magnitude or direction of effect between boys and girls. Future replicate analyses with larger longitudinal samples and animal experimental studies of potential underlying mechanisms are warranted.

  • 24. Dietz, R.
    et al.
    Sonne, C.
    Jenssen, B. M.
    Das, K.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Harding, K. C.
    Siebert, U.
    Olsen, M. T.
    The Baltic Sea: An ecosystem with multiple stressors2021In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 147, article id 106324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introductory chapter to our Environment International VSI does not need an abstract and therefore we just include our recommendations below in order to proceed with the resubmission. Future work should examine waterbirds as food web sentinels of multiple stressors as well as Baltic Sea food web dynamics of hazardous substances and how climate change may modify it. Also, future work should aim at further extending the new frameworks developed within BALTHEALTH for energy and contaminant transfer at the population level (Des forges et al., 2018, Cervin et al., 2020/this issue Silva et al., 2020/this issue) and their long term effects on Baltic Sea top predators, such as harbour porpoises, grey seals ringed seals, and white-tailed eagles. Likewise, the risk evaluation conducted for PCB in connection with mercury on Arctic wildlife (Dietz et al., 2019, not a BONUS BALTHEALTH product) could be planned for Baltic Sea molluscs, fish, bird and marine mammals in the future. Finally, future efforts could include stressors not covered by the BONUS BALTHEALTH project, such as food web fluxes, overexploitation, bycatches, eutrophication and underwater noise.

  • 25. Du, Xinyu
    et al.
    Yuan, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway .
    Li, Jun
    Yin, Ge
    Qiu, Yanling
    Zhao, Jianfu
    Duan, Xuchuan
    Wu, Yan
    Lin, Tian
    Zhou, Yihui
    Distribution, behavior, and risk assessment of chlorinated paraffins in paddy plants throughout whole growth cycle2022In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 167, article id 107404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paddy plants provide staple food for 3 billion people worldwide. This study explores the environmental fate and behavior of a high-volume production emerging contaminants chlorinated paraffins (CPs) in the paddy ecosystem. Very-short-, short-, medium-, and long-chain CPs (vSCCPs, SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs, respectively) were analyzed in specific tissue of paddy plants at four main growth stages and soils from the Yangtze River Delta, China throughout a full rice growing season. The total CP concentrations in the paddy roots, stalks, leaves, panicles, hulls, rice, and soils ranged from 181 to 1.74 × 103, 21.7–383, 19.6–585, 108–332, 245–470, 59.6–130, and 99.6–400 ng/g dry weight, respectively. The distribution profile indicated the translocation of SCCPs and MCCPs from soils to paddy tissue, highlighting their elevated bioaccumulative potential. The evolution of CP level/mass/pattern during the whole growth cycle suggested atmospheric CPs deposition on leaves and hulls, as well as stalk-rice transfer. CSOIL plant uptake model well predicted the level, distribution pattern, and bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of SCCPs and MCCPs in paddy shoot and recognized the soil-air-shoot pathway as the major contributor. Moreover, risk evaluation indicated that MCCPs intake and subsequent risks dominated the total exposure to CPs via rice ingestion. This is the first report on the occurrence, fate and risk assessment of all CPs classes in paddy ecosystems, and the results underline the potential health effects caused by the in-use MCCPs via rice ingestion.

  • 26. Duerig, Wiebke
    et al.
    Lindblad, Sofia
    Golovko, Oksana
    Gkotsis, Georgios
    Aalizadeh, Reza
    Nika, Maria-Christina
    Thomaidis, Nikolaos
    Alygizakis, Nikiforos A.
    Plassmann, Merle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Haglund, Peter
    Fu, Qiuguo
    Hollender, Juliane
    Chaker, Jade
    David, Arthur
    Kunkel, Uwe
    Macherius, Andre
    Belova, Lidia
    Poma, Giulia
    Preud'Homme, Hugues
    Munschy, Catherine
    Aminot, Yann
    Jaeger, Carsten
    Lisec, Jan
    Hansen, Martin
    Vorkamp, Katrin
    Zhu, Linyan
    Cappelli, Francesca
    Roscioli, Claudio
    Valsecchi, Sara
    Bagnati, Renzo
    Gonzalez, Belen
    Prieto, Ailette
    Zuloaga, Olatz
    Gil-Solsona, Ruben
    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo
    Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara
    Budzinski, Helene
    Devier, Marie-Helene
    Dierkes, Georg
    Boulard, Lise
    Jacobs, Griet
    Voorspoels, Stefan
    Ruedel, Heinz
    Ahrens, Lutz
    What is in the fish? Collaborative trial in suspect and non-target screening of organic micropollutants using LC- and GC-HRMS2023In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 181, article id 108288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A collaborative trial involving 16 participants from nine European countries was conducted within the NORMAN network in efforts to harmonise suspect and non-target screening of environmental contaminants in whole fish samples of bream (Abramis brama). Participants were provided with freeze-dried, homogenised fish samples from a contaminated and a reference site, extracts (spiked and non-spiked) and reference sample preparation protocols for liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Participants extracted fish samples using their in-house sample preparation method and/or the protocol provided. Participants correctly identified 9–69 % of spiked compounds using LC-HRMS and 20–60 % of spiked compounds using GC-HRMS. From the contaminated site, suspect screening with participants’ own suspect lists led to putative identification of on average ∼145 and ∼20 unique features per participant using LC-HRMS and GC-HRMS, respectively, while non-target screening identified on average ∼42 and ∼56 unique features per participant using LC-HRMS and GC-HRMS, respectively. Within the same sub-group of sample preparation method, only a few features were identified by at least two participants in suspect screening (16 features using LC-HRMS, 0 features using GC-HRMS) and non-target screening (0 features using LC-HRMS, 2 features using GC-HRMS). The compounds identified had log octanol/water partition coefficient (KOW) values from −9.9 to 16 and mass-to-charge ratios (m/z) of 68 to 761 (LC-HRMS and GC-HRMS). A significant linear trend was found between log KOW and m/z for the GC-HRMS data. Overall, these findings indicate that differences in screening results are mainly due to the data analysis workflows used by different participants. Further work is needed to harmonise the results obtained when applying suspect and non-target screening approaches to environmental biota samples.

  • 27. Eales, J.
    et al.
    Bethel, A.
    Galloway, T.
    Hopkinson, P.
    Morrissey, K.
    Short, Rebecca E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Garside, R.
    Human health impacts of exposure to phthalate plasticizers: An overview of reviews2022In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 158, article id 106903Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this review of reviews, we overview the current global body of available evidence from structured reviews of epidemiological studies that explore human health outcomes associated with exposure to phthalates (chemical plasticisers commonly found in plastics). We found robust evidence for an association with lower semen quality, neurodevelopment and risk of childhood asthma, and moderate to robust evidence for impact on anogenital distance in boys. We identified moderate evidence for an association between phthalates/metabolites and low birthweight, endometriosis, decreased testosterone, ADHD, Type 2 diabetes and breast/uterine cancer. There was some evidence for other outcomes including anofourchette distance, fetal sex hormones, pre-term birth, lower antral follicle count, reduced oestrodiol, autism, obesity, thyroid function and hearing disorders. We found no reviews of epidemiological human studies on the impact of phthalates from recycled plastics on human health. We recommend that future research should use urine samples as exposure measures, consider confounders in analyses and measure impacts on female reproductive systems. Our findings align with emerging research indicating that health risks can occur at exposure levels below the safe dose levels set out by regulators, and are of particular concern given potential additive or synergistic cocktail effects of chemicals. This raises important policy and regulatory issues for identifying and controlling plastics and health related impacts and highlights a need for more research into substances of concern entering plastics waste streams via recycling.

  • 28. England-Mason, Gillian
    et al.
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. University of Alberta, Canada.
    MacDonald, Amy
    Kinniburgh, David
    Giesbrecht, Gerald F.
    Letourneau, Nicole
    Dewey, Deborah
    Similar names, different results: Consistency of the associations between prenatal exposure to phthalates and parent-ratings of behavior problems in preschool children2020In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 142, article id 105892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Environmental health research has reported mixed findings on the associations between prenatal exposure to phthalates and parent-ratings of child behavioral problems.

    Objective: We examined the consistency of the associations between prenatal urinary phthalate concentrations and child behavior scores across two standardized instruments - the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition (BASC-2) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) - using two analytical approaches used to correct for urine dilution.

    Method: A sample of 351 mother-child pairs were selected from a prospective birth cohort of pregnant women enrolled between 2009 and 2012. Women provided spot urine samples during the second trimester of pregnancy, which were analyzed for levels of nine urinary phthalate metabolites. When their typically developing children were 3-4 years of age, mothers completed the BASC-2 and CBCL on the same day. Adjusted regression analyses examined the associations between maternal prenatal phthalate concentrations and child behavior scores on the BASC-2 and CBCL. To correct for urine dilution, primary regression analyses included urinary creatinine concentration as a separate independent variable (i.e., covariate). In the secondary regression analyses, creatinine-adjusted phthalate concentrations were used.

    Results: Primary logistic regression analyses that included urinary creatinine as a covariate showed that higher prenatal phthalate concentrations were related to increased odds of scores falling into the borderline or clinical range on the Hyperactivity, Aggression, Anxiety, Depression, Withdrawal, Externalizing Problems, Internalizing Problems, and Behavioral Symptoms Index scales on the BASC-2 (ORs from 1.39 to 2.07), but only the Anxious/ Depressed and Externalizing Problems scales on the CBCL (ORs from 1.80 to 3.28). Primary linear regression analyses showed that higher prenatal phthalate concentrations were related to higher scores on the Externalizing Problems (beta's = 0.16), Internalizing Problems (beta's from 0.16 to 0.20), and Behavioral Symptoms Index (beta's from 0.18 to 0.21) scales on the BASC-2, but not related to any CBCL scales. Sex-stratified analyses found that many associations were only significant for male children. Secondary analyses using creatinine-adjusted phthalate concentrations revealed that some of the associations from the primary analyses remained significant; however, a number of unique associations were observed.

    Conclusion: Prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with preschool behavioral development; however, findings were not consistent for the BASC-2 and CBCL, especially related to the clinical/syndrome scales and Internalizing Problems scale. Further, many findings differed based on the analytical approach used to correct for urine dilution. Future work is needed to delineate the similarities and differences between similarly named child behavior constructs assessed by different neurodevelopmental assessments. Also, research is needed to better understand why and how different analytical approaches influence the reported associations between maternal prenatal phthalate concentrations and children's behavior problems.

  • 29. England-Mason, Gillian
    et al.
    Merrill, Sarah M.
    Gladish, Nicole
    Moore, Sarah R.
    Giesbrecht, Gerald F.
    Letourneau, Nicole
    MacIsaac, Julia L.
    MacDonald, Amy M.
    Kinniburgh, David W.
    Ponsonby, Anne-Louise
    Saffery, Richard
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Kobor, Michael S.
    Dewey, Deborah
    Prenatal exposure to phthalates and peripheral blood and buccal epithelial DNA methylation in infants: An epigenome-wide association study2022In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 163, article id 107183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Prenatal exposure to phthalates has been associated with adverse health and neurodevelopmental outcomes. DNA methylation (DNAm) alterations may be a mechanism underlying these effects, but prior investigations of prenatal exposure to phthalates and neonatal DNAm profiles are limited to placental tissue and umbilical cord blood.

    Objective: Conduct an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of the associations between prenatal exposure to phthalates and DNAm in two accessible infant tissues, venous buffy coat blood and buccal epithelial cells (BECs).

    Methods: Participants included 152 maternal-infant pairs from the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study. Maternal second trimester urine samples were analyzed for nine phthalate metabolites. Blood (n = 74) or BECs (n = 78) were collected from 3-month-old infants and profiled for DNAm using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 (450K) BeadChip. Robust linear regressions were used to investigate the associations between high (HMWPs) and low molecular weight phthalates (LMWPs) and change in methylation levels at variable Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine (CpG) sites in infant tissues, as well as the sensitivity of associations to potential confounders.

    Results: One candidate CpG in gene RNF39 reported by a previous study examining prenatal exposure to phthalates and cord blood DNAm was replicated. The EWAS identified 12 high-confidence CpGs in blood and another 12 in BECs associated with HMWPs and/or LMWPs. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) associated with two of the CpGs associated with HMWPs in BECs.

    Discussion: Prenatal exposure to phthalates was associated with DNAm variation at CpGs annotated to genes associated with endocrine hormone activity (i.e., SLCO4A1, TPO), immune pathways and DNA damage (i.e., RASGEF1B, KAZN, HLA-A, MYO18A, DIP2C, C1or109), and neurodevelopment (i.e., AMPH, NOTCH3, DNAJC5). Future studies that characterize the stability of these associations in larger samples, multiple cohorts, across tissues, and investigate the potential associations between these biomarkers and relevant health and neurodevelopmental outcomes are needed.

  • 30. Felipe de Oliveira Galvão, Marcos
    et al.
    Sadiktsis, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Marques Pedro, Tiago
    Dreij, Kristian
    Determination of whole mixture-based potency factors for cancer risk assessment of complex environmental mixtures by in vitro testing of standard reference materials2022In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 166, article id 107345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whole mixture-based testing using in vitro new approach methodologies (NAMs) has been suggested to facilitate the hazard and risk assessment of complex environmental mixtures. Previous studies have shown that phosphorylation of DNA damage signaling proteins checkpoint kinase 1 (pChk1) and histone 2AX (γH2AX) are sensitive markers that can be used for estimating carcinogenicity potencies in vitro. Here, and with the aim to better validate the applicability, in vitro-based Mixture Potency Factors (MPFs) of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) from environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-containing mixtures were determined and compared to published mutagenicity and tumorigenicity data. Also, genotoxicity was assessed by a flow cytometry-based micronucleus (MN) assay which showed that only benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and coal tar SRM (SRM1597a) caused dose-dependent increases of MN formation, while extracts of diesel particulate matter (SRM1650b), diesel particulate extract (SRM1975), and urban dust (SRM1649b) did not. However, a dose-dependent activation of DNA damage signaling was observed for all PAHs and SRMs. The results demonstrated that all SRMs were more potent than B[a]P, at B[a]P-equivalent concentrations, to induce pChk1 and γH2AX, and that western blot was more sensitive than the In-Cell Western assay in detecting their activation in response to these complex mixtures. Relative MPFs, based on dose–response modelling of pChk1 and γH2AX, ranged 113 – 5270 for the SRMs, indicating several orders of magnitude higher genotoxic potential than B[a]P. Moreover, these MPFs were in good agreement with potency values based on published data from Salmonella mutagenicity and in vivo carcinogenicity studies. In conclusion, these comparisons further validate the feasibility of applying in vitro NAMs, such as whole-mixture based MPFs, in cancer risk assessment of complex mixtures.

  • 31.
    Fridén, Ulrika E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Chlorinated paraffins in indoor air and dust: Concentrations, congener patterns, and human exposure2011In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 37, no 7, p. 1169-1174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are large production volume chemicals used in a wide variety of commercial applications. They are ubiquitous in the environment and humans. Human exposure via the indoor environment has, however, been barely investigated. In the present study 44 indoor air and six dust samples from apartments in Stockholm, Sweden, were analyzed for CPs. and indoor air concentrations are reported for the first time. The sumCP concentration (short chain CPs (SCCPs) and medium chain CPs (MCCPs)) in air ranged from <5-210 ng m(-3) as quantified by gas chromatography coupled to electron ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS/MS). Congener group patterns were studied using GC with electron capture negative ionization MS (GC/ECNI-MS). The air samples were dominated by the more volatile SCCPs compared to MCCPs. SumCPs were quantified by GC/EI-MS/MS in the dust samples at low mu g g(-1) levels, with a chromatographic pattern suggesting the prevalence of longer chain CPs compared to air. The median exposure to sumCPs via the indoor environment was estimated to be similar to 1 mu g day(-1) for both adults and toddlers. Adult exposure was dominated by inhalation, while dust ingestion was suggested to be more important for toddlers. Comparing these results to literature data on dietary intake indicates that human exposure to CPs from the indoor environment is not negligible.

  • 32.
    Fång, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Nyberg, Elisabeth
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Bignert, Anders
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in mothers' milk from Sweden, 1972-20112013In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 60, p. 224-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in mothers' milk are still quite rare. Data are particularly scarce when it comes to concentrations from the last decade, 2000 and onwards. The aims of the present study were to assess temporal trends of PCDD, PCDF and DL-PCB in mothers' milk from Stockholm, 1972-2011 and to compare the results with previous analysis of some of the older samples. The samples were analyzed by high resolution GC/MS and results were statistically evaluated for the periods, 1972-2011 and 2002-2011. The rate of which Sigma PCDDs, Sigma DL-PCBs and the Sigma TEQ are decreasing (on pg/g fat WHO-TEQ2005) is higher in the last decade compared to the 40 year period, 1972-2011. A similar trend is indicated, but not confirmed, for Sigma TEQ of PCDFs, probably due to too many PCDF congeners below LOQ in the period 2002-2011. Concentrations of Sigma PCDDs, PCDFs, Sigma DLPCBs and Sigma TEQ all expressed as pg/g fat on TEQ-WH02005-basis, show a statistically significant decline over time, 5.8-6.8% per year, 1972-2011. The last ten years the annual declines for Sigma PCDDs, Sigma DL-PCBs and Sigma TEQ are 92-11% and for Sigma PCDF, 5.4%. Congener specific trend analysis, 2002-2001, of PCDDs and DL-PCBs showed the same pattern, while the PCDF congeners showed no such general trend. The results from the re-analysis showed good agreement with slightly lower Sigma TEQ1998 pg/g fat concentrations in six out of seven samples and mean difference of 13% in Sigma TEQ1998. The study shows that time series can be elongated from previous studies, as long as the sample population remains the same.

  • 33. Gari, Merce
    et al.
    Bosch, Carme
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Grimalt, Joan O.
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Impacts of atmospheric chlor-alkali factory emissions in surrounding populations2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 65, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental exposures need to be assessed for the understanding of the health risks of general population. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) from chlor-alkali plants (CAPs) are significant for the exposomes of individuals living in locations receiving their emissions and have to be determined. The aims of the study are to identify the area of influence of past and present OC emissions from CAPs and to set quantitative body burden estimates. A CAP situated in a rural area was selected for study. The geographic distribution of the atmospheric emissions was monitored using olive tree leaves. Human biomonitoring was assessed by serum analysis from general population (n = 1340). DC concentrations followed exponential decay functions with maxima in the immediate vicinity of the factory. The individuals living within 1 km exhibited hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and DDT-DDE (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) concentrations that were 12, 1.3-1.9 and 3.9 times higher than in sites not influenced by the emissions from this factory. Individuals from municipalities situated 15-25 km away from the CAP showed 1.5, 12-1.4 and 1.3 times higher serum HCB. PCB and DDT concentrations than in distant sites. The high serum concentrations of DDT and PCBs were observed even 23-31 years and 9-17 years after manufacture completion of these compounds, respectively. Our methodology provides a way for assessment of the influence of past and present atmospheric OCs emissions from CAPs into the exposome of individuals living in nearby areas.

  • 34.
    Gebbink, Wouter A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Estimating human exposure to PFOS isomers and PFCA homologues: The relative importance of direct and indirect (precursor) exposure2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 74, p. 160-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contributions of direct and indirect (via precursors) pathways of human exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) isomers and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) are estimated using a Scenario-Based Risk Assessment (SceBRA) modelling approach. Monitoring data published since 2008 (including samples from 2007) are used. The estimated daily exposures (resulting from both direct and precursor intake) for the general adult population are highest for PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), followed by perfluorohexanoic add (PFHxA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), while lower daily exposures are estimated for perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA). The precursor contributions to the individual perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) daily exposures are estimated to be 11-33% for PFOS, 0.1-2.5% for PFBA, 3.7-34% for PFHxA, 13-64% for PFOA, 5.2-66% for PFDA, and 0.7-25% for PFDoDA (ranges represent estimated precursor contributions in a low- and high-exposure scenario). For PFOS, direct intake via diet is the major exposure pathway regardless of exposure scenario. For PFCAs, the dominant exposure pathway is dependent on perfluoroalkyl chain length and exposure scenario. Modelled PFOS and PFOA concentrations in human serum using the estimated intakes from an intermediate-exposure scenario are in agreement with measured concentrations in different populations. The isomer pattern of PFOS resulting from total intakes (direct and via precursors) is estimated to be enriched with linear PFOS (84%) relative to technical PFOS (70% linear). This finding appears to be contradictory to the observed enrichment of branched PFOS isomers in recent human serum monitoring studies and suggests that either external exposure is not fully understood (e.g. there are unknown precursors, missing or poorly quantified exposure pathways) and/or that there is an incomplete understanding of the isomer-specific human pharmacokinetic processes of PFOS, its precursors and intermediates.

  • 35. Gennings, Chris
    et al.
    Shu, Huan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Rudén, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Öberg, Mattias
    Lindh, Christian
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Incorporating regulatory guideline values in analysis of epidemiology data2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 120, p. 535-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fundamental to regulatory guidelines is to identify chemicals that are implicated with adverse human health effects and inform public health risk assessors about acceptable ranges of such environmental exposures (e.g., from consumer products and pesticides). The process is made more difficult when accounting for complex human exposures to multiple environmental chemicals. Herein we propose a new class of nonlinear statistical models for human data that incorporate and evaluate regulatory guideline values into analyses of health effects of exposure to chemical mixtures using so-called 'desirability functions' (DFs). The DFs are incorporated into nonlinear regression models to allow for the simultaneous estimation of points of departure for risk assessment of combinations of individual substances that are parts of chemical mixtures detected in humans. These are, in contrast to published so-called biomonitoring equivalent (BE) values and human biomonitoring (HBM) values that link regulatory guideline values from in vivo studies of single chemicals to internal concentrations monitored in humans. We illustrate the strategy through the analysis of prenatal concentrations of mixtures of 11 chemicals with suspected endocrine disrupting properties and two health effects: birth weight and language delay at 2.5 years. The strategy allows for the creation of a Mixture Desirability Function i.e., MDF, which is a uni-dimensional construct of the set of single chemical DFs; thus, it focuses the resulting inference to a single dimension for a more powerful one degree-of-freedom test of significance. Based on the application of this new method we conclude that the guideline values need to be lower than those for single chemicals when the chemicals are observed in combination to achieve a similar level of protection as was aimed for the individual chemicals. The proposed modeling may thus suggest data-driven uncertainty factors for single chemical risk assessment that takes environmental mixtures into account.

  • 36.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Bui, Thuy
    Stockholm University.
    Xu, Fuchao
    Papadopoulou, Eleni
    Padilla-Sanchez, Juan A.
    Covaci, Adrian
    Haug, Line S.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    Magnér, Jörgen
    Cousins, Ian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Corrigendum to “Multi-pathway human exposure assessment of phthalate esters and DINCH” [Environ. Int. 112 (2018) 115–126]2020In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 143, p. 106071-106071, article id 106071Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Xu, Fuchao
    Papadopoulou, Eleni
    Padilla-Sanchez, Juan A.
    Covaci, Adrian
    Haug, Line S.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    Magnér, Jörgen
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Multi-pathway human exposure assessment of phthalate esters and DINCH2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 112, p. 115-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phthalate esters are substances mainly used as plasticizers in various applications. Some have been restricted and phased out due to their adverse health effects and ubiquitous presence, leading to the introduction of alternative plasticizers, such as DINCH. Using a comprehensive dataset from a Norwegian study population, human exposure to DMP, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, BBzP, DEHP, DINP, DIDP, DPHP and DINCH was assessed by measuring their presence in external exposure media, allowing an estimation of the total intake, as well as the relative importance of different uptake pathways. Intake via different uptake routes, in particular inhalation, dermal absorption, and oral uptake was estimated and total intake based on all uptake pathways was compared to the calculated intake from biomonitoring data. Hand wipe results were used to determine dermal uptake and compared to other exposure sources such as air, dust and personal care products. Results showed that the calculated total intakes were similar, but slightly higher than those based on biomonitoring methods by 1.1 to 3 times (median), indicating a good understanding of important uptake pathways. The relative importance of different uptake pathways was comparable to other studies, where inhalation was important for lower molecular weight phthalates, and negligible for the higher molecular weight phthalates and DINCH. Dietary intake was the predominant exposure route for all analyzed substances. Dermal uptake based on hand wipes was much lower (median up to 2000 times) than the total dermal uptake via air, dust and personal care products. Still, dermal uptake is not a well-studied exposure pathway and several research gaps (e.g. absorption fractions) remain. Based on calculated intakes, the exposure for the Norwegian participants to the phthalates and DINCH was lower than health based limit values. Nevertheless, exposure to alternative plasticizers, such as DPHP and DINCH, is expected to increase in the future and continuous monitoring is required.

  • 38.
    Gomis Ferreira, Melissa Ines
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Vestergren, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Borg, Daniel
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Comparing the toxic potency in vivo of long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids and fluorinated alternatives2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 113, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2000, long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their respective precursors have been replaced by numerous fluorinated alternatives. The main rationale for this industrial transition was that these alternatives were considered less bioaccumulative and toxic than their predecessors. In this study, we evaluated to what extent differences in toxicological effect thresholds for PFAAs and fluorinated alternatives, expressed as administered dose, were confounded by differences in their distribution and elimination kinetics. A dynamic one-compartment toxicokinetic (TK) model for male rats was constructed and evaluated using test data from toxicity studies for perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoroctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and ammonium 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-(heptafluoropropoxy)-propanoate (GenX). Dose-response curves of liver enlargement from sub-chronic oral toxicity studies in male rats were converted to internal dose in serum and in liver to examine the toxicity ranking of PFAAs and fluorinated alternatives. Converting administered doses into equivalent serum and liver concentrations reduced the variability in the dose-response curves for PFBA, PFHxA, PFOA and GenX. The toxicity ranking using modeled serum (GenX>PFOA>PFHxA>PFBA) and liver (GenX>PFOA≈PFHxA≈PFBA) concentrations indicated that some fluorinated alternatives have similar or higher toxic potency than their predecessors when correcting for differences in toxicokinetics. For PFOS and perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) the conversion from administered dose to serum concentration equivalents did not change the toxicity ranking. In conclusion, hazard assessment based on internal exposure allows evaluation of toxic potency and bioaccumulation potential independent of kinetics and should be considered when comparing fluorinated alternatives with their predecessors.

  • 39.
    Gomis, Melissa I.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Vestergren, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Historical human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids in the United States and Australia reconstructed from biomonitoring data using population-based pharmacokinetic modelling2017In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 108, p. 92-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) are found in the blood of humans and wildlife worldwide. Since the beginning of the 21st century, a downward trend in the human body burden, especially for PFOS and PFOA, has been observed while there is no clear temporal trend in wildlife. The inconsistency between the concentration decline in human serum and in wildlife could be indicative of a historical exposure pathway for humans linked to consumer products that has been reduced or eliminated. In this study, we reconstruct the past human exposure trends in two different regions, USA and Australia, by inferring the historical intake from cross-sectional biomonitoring data of PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS using a population-based pharmacokinetic model. For PFOS in the USA, the reconstructed daily intake peaked at 4.5 ng/kg-bw/day between 1988 and 1999 while in Australia it peaked at 4.0 ng/kg-bw/day between 1984 and 1996. For PFOA in the USA and Australia, the peak reconstructed daily intake was 1.1 ng/kg-bw/day in 1995 and 3.6 ng/kg-bw/day in 1992, respectively, and started to decline in 2000 and 1995, respectively. The model could not be satisfactorily fitted to the biomonitoring data for PFHxS within reasonable boundaries for its intrinsic elimination half-life, and thus reconstructing intakes of PFHxS was not possible. Our results indicate that humans experienced similar exposure levels and trends to PFOS and PFOA in the USA and Australia. Our findings support the hypothesis that near-field consumer product exposure pathways were likely dominant prior to the phase-out in industrialized countries. The intrinsic elimination half-life, which represents elimination processes that are common for all humans, and elimination processes unique to women (i.e., menstruation, cord-blood transfer and breastfeeding) were also investigated. The intrinsic elimination half-lives for PFOS and PFOA derived from model fitting for men were 3.8 and 2.4 years, respectively, for the USA, and 4.9 and 2 years respectively for Australia. Our results show that menstruation is a depuration pathway for PFOA for women, similarly but to a lesser extent compared to previous reports for PFOS. However menstruation, cord-blood transfer and breastfeeding together do not fully explain the apparently more rapid elimination of PFOA and PFOS by women compared to men; the intrinsic elimination half-lives in women were up to 13% lower for PFOS and up to 12% lower for PFOA compared to the corresponding half-lives in men.

  • 40. Gyllenhammar, Irina
    et al.
    Diderholm, Barbro
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Germany.
    Ridefelt, Peter
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Lignell, Sanna
    Lampa, Erik
    Glynn, Anders
    Perfluoroalkyl acid levels in first-time mothers in relation to offspring weight gain and growth2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 111, p. 191-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated if maternal body burdens of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) at the time of delivery are associated with birth outcome and if early life exposure (in utero/nursing) is associated with early childhood growth and weight gain. Maternal PFAA body burdens were estimated by analysis of serum samples from mothers living in Uppsala County, Sweden (POPUP), sampled three weeks after delivery between 1996 and 2011. Data on child length and weight were collected from medical records and converted into standard deviation scores (SDS). Multiple linear regression models with appropriate covariates were used to analyze associations between maternal PFAA levels and birth outcomes (n = 381). After birth Generalized Least Squares models were used to analyze associations between maternal PFAA and child growth (n = 200). Inverse associations were found between maternal levels of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), and birth weight SDS with a change of - 0.10 to - 0.18 weight SDS for an inter-quartile range (IQR) increase in ng/g PFAA. After birth, weight and length SDS were not significantly associated with maternal PFAA. However, BMI SDS was significantly associated with PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS at 3 and 4 years of age, and with PFOS at 4 and 5 years of age. If causal, these associations suggest that PFAA affects fetal and childhood body development in different directions.

  • 41. Hansen, Solrunn
    et al.
    Vestergren, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. NILU Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway.
    Herzke, Dorte
    Melhus, Marita
    Evenset, Anita
    Hanssen, Linda
    Brustad, Magritt
    Sandanger, Torkjel M.
    Exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances through the consumption of fish from lakes affected by aqueous film-forming foam emissions - A combined epidemiological and exposure modeling approach. The SAMINOR 2 Clinical Study2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 94, p. 272-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Releases of aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) from airport firefighting activities have been identified as important local point sources of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in nearby waterways. PFASs can be taken up by fish, and in turn by the humans that consume them. Despite the global extent of AFFF emissions, few studies exist on related impacts on humans. We aimed to investigate the associations between the consumption of fish from AFFF-affected waters and serum PFAS concentrations in humans using a combination of statistical tools, empirical data, and toxicokinetic modeling. Participants of the SAMINOR 2 Clinical Study were the basis far this study sample, which comprised 74 persons. Fifty-nine participants who reported consuming fish from AFFF-affected waters and 15 nonconsumers completed a questionnaire and gave serum samples. Participants were classified based on their consumption of trout and char: high (n = 16), moderate (n = 16), low (n = 27), and nonconsumers (n = 15); and serum samples were tested for the presence of 15 PFASs. Perfluorooctane sulfonic add (PFOS) was found in all participants, with the highest concentrations detected in the high consumption group (geometric means, 28 ng/mL) compared to the low consumption group and nonconsumers (10 and 11 ng/mL, respectively). In an analysis of variance contrast model, a significant, positive increasing trend was seen for fish consumption and PFOS, perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA). Toxicokinetic modeling allowed us to predict the median increases in serum concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFNA among high consumers within a factor of 2.2. The combination of statistical evaluation and toxicokinetic modeling clearly demonstrated a positive relationship between consumption of fish from AFFF-affected waters and serum PFAS concentrations. Further studies on dietary exposure to other PFASs present in AFFF and its consequences on human health are warranted.

  • 42. Haugdahl Nost, Therese
    et al.
    Vestergren, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). NILU Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway.
    Berg, Vivian
    Nieboer, Evert
    Odland, Jon Øyvind
    Sandanger, Torkjel Manning
    Repeated measurements of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from 1979 to 2007 in males from Northern Norway: Assessing time trends, compound correlations and relations to age/birth cohort2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 67, p. 43-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Longitudinal biomonitoring studies can provide unique information on how human concentrations change over time, but have so far not been conducted for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in a background exposed population. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine: i) serum PFAS time trends on an individual level; ii) relative compositions and correlations between different PFASs; and iii) assess selected PFAS concentrations with respect to periodic (calendar year), age and birth cohort (APC) effects. Methods: Serum was sampled from the same 53 men in 1979, 1986, 1994, 2001 and 2007 in Northern Norway and analysed for 10 PFASs. APC effects were assessed by graphical and mixed effect analyses. Results: The median concentrations of perfluorooctane sulphonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increased five-fold from 1979 to 2001 and decreased by 26% and 23%, respectively, from 2001 to 2007. The concentrations of PFOS and PFOA peaked during 1994-2001 and 2001, respectively, whereas perfluorohexane sulphonic acid (PFHxS) increased to 2001, but did not demonstrate a decrease between 2001 and 2007. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) displayed increasing trends throughout the entire study period (1979-2007). Although PFOS comprised dominating and stable proportions of PFAS burdens during these years, the contributions from PFOA and PFHxS were considerable. The evaluation of APC effects demonstrated that calendar year was the dominating influence on concentrations of PFOA, PFUnDA, and PFOS, although time-variant and weaker associations with age/birth cohort were indicated. Conclusions: The concentration changes of 10 PFASs in the repeated measurements from 1979 to 2007 demonstrated divergent time trends between the different PFASs. The temporal trends of PFASs in human serum during these 30 years reflect the overall trends in historic production and use, although global transport mechanisms and bioaccumulation potential of the different PFASs together with a varying extent of consumer exposure influenced the observed trends. Sampling year was the strongest descriptor of PFOA, PFUnDA and PFOS concentrations, and the calendar-year trends were apparent for all birth year quartiles. Discrepancies between the trends in this current longitudinal study and previous cross-sectional studies were observed and presumably reflect the different study designs and population characteristics.

  • 43. Holmquist, H.
    et al.
    Schellenberger, Steffen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    van der Veen, I.
    Peters, G. M.
    Leonards, P. E. G.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Properties, performance and associated hazards of state-of-the-art durable water repellent (DWR) chemistry for textile finishing2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 91, p. 251-264Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the phase-out of long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), the textile industry had to find alternatives for side-chain fluorinated polymer based durable water repellent (DWR) chemistries that incorporated long perfluoroalkyl side chains. This phase-out and subsequent substitution with alternatives has resulted in a market where both fluorinated and non-fluorinated DWRs are available. These DWR alternatives can be divided into four broad groups that reflect their basic chemistry: side-chain fluorinated polymers, silicones, hydrocarbons and other chemistries (including dendrimer and inorganic nanoparticle chemistries). In this critical review, the alternative DWRs are assessed with regard to their structural properties and connected performance, loss and degradation processes resulting in diffuse environmental emissions, and hazard profiles for selected emitted substances. Our review shows that there are large differences in performance between the alternative DWRs, most importantly the lack of oil repellency of non-fluorinated alternatives. It also shows that for all alternatives, impurities and / or degradation products of the DWR chemistries are diffusively emitted to the environment. Our hazard ranking suggests that hydrocarbon based DWR is the most environmentally benign, followed by silicone and side-chain fluorinated polymer-based DWR chemistries. Industrial commitments to reduce the levels of impurities in silicone based and side-chain fluorinated polymer based DWR formulations will lower the actual risks. There is a lack of information on the hazards associated with DWRs, in particular for the dendrimer and inorganic nanoparticle chemistries, and these data gaps must be filled. Until environmentally safe alternatives, which provide the required performance, are available our recommendation is to choose DWR chemistry on a case-by-case basis, always weighing the benefits connected to increased performance against the risks to the environment and human health.

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  • 44. Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur
    et al.
    Severi, Gianluca
    Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana
    Atkinson, Richard
    Bauwelinck, Mariska
    Bellander, Tom
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Brandt, Jørgen
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Chen, Jie
    Concin, Hans
    Forastiere, Francesco
    van Gils, Carla H.
    Gulliver, John
    Hertel, Ole
    Hoek, Gerard
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Janssen, Nicole
    Jöckel, Karl-Heinz
    Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Ketzel, Matthias
    Klompmaker, Jochem O.
    Krog, Norun Hjertager
    Lang, Alois
    Leander, Karin
    Liu, Shuo
    Ljungman, Petter L. S.
    Magnusson, Patrik K. E.
    Mehta, Amar Jayant
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Oftedal, Bente
    Pershagen, Göran
    Peter, Raphael Simon
    Peters, Annette
    Renzi, Matteo
    Rizzuto, Debora
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Sweden.
    Rodopoulou, Sophia
    Samoli, Evangelia
    Schwarze, Per Everhard
    Sigsgaard, Torben
    Simonsen, Mette Kildevæld
    Stafoggia, Massimo
    Strak, Maciek
    Vienneau, Danielle
    Weinmayr, Gudrun
    Wolf, Kathrin
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Fecht, Daniela
    Long-term low-level ambient air pollution exposure and risk of lung cancer - A pooled analysis of 7 European cohorts2021In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 146, article id 106249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/aim: Ambient air pollution has been associated with lung cancer, but the shape of the exposure-response function - especially at low exposure levels - is not well described. The aim of this study was to address the relationship between long-term low-level air pollution exposure and lung cancer incidence.

    Methods: The Effects of Low-level Air Pollution: a Study in Europe (ELAPSE) collaboration pools seven cohorts from across Europe. We developed hybrid models combining air pollution monitoring, land use data, satellite observations, and dispersion model estimates for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), and ozone (O-3) to assign exposure to cohort participants' residential addresses in 100 m by 100 m grids. We applied stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, calendar year, marital status, smoking, body mass index, employment status, and neighborhood-level socioeconomic status). We fitted linear models, linear models in subsets, Shape-Constrained Health Impact Functions (SCHIF), and natural cubic spline models to assess the shape of the association between air pollution and lung cancer at concentrations below existing standards and guidelines.

    Results: The analyses included 307,550 cohort participants. During a mean follow-up of 18.1 years, 3956 incident lung cancer cases occurred. Median (Q1, Q3) annual (2010) exposure levels of NO2, PM2.5, BC and O-3 (warm season) were 24.2 mu g/m(3) (19.5, 29.7), 15.4 mu g/m(3) (12.8, 17.3), 1.6 10(-5)m(-1) (1.3, 1.8), and 86.6 mu g/m(3) (78.5, 92.9), respectively. We observed a higher risk for lung cancer with higher exposure to PM2.5 (HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.23 per 5 mu g/m(3)). This association was robust to adjustment for other pollutants. The SCHIF, spline and subset analyses suggested a linear or supra-linear association with no evidence of a threshold. In subset analyses, risk estimates were clearly elevated for the subset of subjects with exposure below the EU limit value of 25 mu g/m(3). We did not observe associations between NO2, BC or O-3 and lung cancer incidence.

    Conclusions: Long-term ambient PM2.5 exposure is associated with lung cancer incidence even at concentrations below current EU limit values and possibly WHO Air Quality Guidelines.

  • 45. Jakobsson, K.
    et al.
    Fång, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Rignell-Hydbom, A.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in maternal serum, umbilical cord serum, colostrum and mature breast milk: Insights from a pilot study and the literature2012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 47, p. 121-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human serum and mother's milk are frequently used to assess exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), including transplacental transfer to the foetus. However, little is known about the kinetics of PBDEs, especially the highly brominated BDE congeners.

    In this pilot study, maternal serum samples were collected from 10 women at delivery and five to six weeks post partum. Umbilical serum was also obtained. Milk was donated two to five days, and five to six weeks after delivery. The amount of PBDEs in these samples was determined using liquid–liquid extraction and GC/MS.

    Low, moderately and highly brominated diphenyl ethers were present in umbilical cord serum, indicating placental transfer. The lipid-adjusted levels of BDE-47, BDE-207 and BDE-209 were similar in maternal and umbilical cord serum, whereas the cord serum levels for the penta- to octa-BDEs quantified were lower than in maternal serum.

    Marked changes were seen in the congener pattern in breast milk during the first month of lactation, whereas maternal serum levels did not change significantly. The general pattern was an enrichment of low to moderately brominated congeners (i.e. from BDE-17 to BDE-154, with the exception of BDE-28) in colostrum compared with maternal serum. In contrast, more highly brominated congeners were found at similar, or lower levels in colostrum than in maternal serum. After the transition from colostrum to mature milk, the levels of BDE-153 and BDE-209 were substantially reduced, and BDE‐209 was below the limit of detection in 6 out of 9 samples.

    A literature review on the design and reporting of studies on the transfer of PBDEs from mother to infant revealed a lack of transparency in many cases. The use of the recently published STROBE-ME guidelines is therefore recommended.

  • 46.
    Johansson, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sellström, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Lindberg, Peter
    Bignert, Anders
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Temporal trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in Swedish Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus peregrinus) eggs2011In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 678-686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A temporal trend study of brominated flame retardants in eggs from peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus peregrinus), a terrestrial bird of prey, is presented. Eggs collected between 1974 and 2007 were analyzed for the major constituents of the Penta-. Octa- and Decabromodiphenyl ether technical products (BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -183 and -209), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Concentrations of BDE-99, -100, -153, -183, -209 and HBCD increased from 1974 to 2000. After the early 2000s. BDE-99, -100, -153 and -183 concentrations decreased, whereas BDE-209 and HBCD concentrations continued to increase. No temporal trend was detected for BDE-47. Rates of increase also differed, with BDE-99 and -100 increasing 3-fold between the 1980s and mid-1990s, and BDE-153 and -183 increasing approximately 10-fold during the same period. The average yearly increase was 15% and 11% for BDE-209 and HBCD, respectively, based on log-linear regression trends. There is a change in BDE congener patterns over time, with a shift from the predominance of BDE-99 and -47 until the late 1980s. to BDE-153 becoming the predominant congener later on. BFR temporal trends in Swedish peregrine falcon eggs reflect European BFR usage patterns.

  • 47. Julander, Anneli
    et al.
    Lundgren, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Skare, Lizbet
    Grander, Margaretha
    Palm, Brita
    Vahter, Marie
    Liden, Carola
    Formal recycling of e-waste leads to increased exposure to toxic metals: An occupational exposure study from Sweden2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 73, p. 243-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) contains multiple toxic metals. However, there is currently a lack of exposure data for metals on workers in formal recycling plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate workers' exposure to metals, using biomarkers of exposure in combination with monitoring of personal air exposure. We assessed exposure to 20 potentially toxic metals among 55 recycling workers and 10 office workers at three formal e-waste recycling plants in Sweden. Workers at two of the plants were followed-up after 6 months. We collected the inhalable fraction and OFC (37-mm) fraction of particles, using personal samplers, as well as spot samples of blood and urine. We measured metal concentrations in whole blood, plasma, urine, and air filters using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following acid digestion. The air sampling indicated greater airborne exposure, 10 to 30 times higher, to most metals among the recycling workers handling e-waste than among the office workers. The exposure biomarkers showed significantly higher concentrations of chromium, cobalt, indium, lead, and mercury in blood, urine, and/or plasma of the recycling workers, compared with the office workers. Concentrations of antimony, indium, lead, mercury, and vanadium showed close to linear associations between the inhalable particle fraction and blood, plasma, or urine. In conclusion, our study of formal waste recycling shows that workers performing recycling tasks are exposed to multiple toxic metals.

  • 48. Koponen, Jani
    et al.
    Winkens, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Airaksinen, Riikka
    Berger, Urs
    Vestergren, Robin
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Karvonen, Anne M.
    Pekkanen, Juha
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Longitudinal trends of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in children's serum2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 121, p. 591-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies suggest negative health impacts from early life exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). However, information on longitudinal exposure to PFASs during childhood is scarce for background-exposed individuals. This study sought to fill this gap by investigating children's longitudinal exposure trends through measurement of PFAS serum concentrations and calculation of body burdens (mu g, total in body). Blood of 54 Finnish children was sampled 2005-2015 and analyzed for 20 PFASs at 1, 6 and 10.5 years of age. The body burden was calculated by multiplying the serum concentration by the volume of distribution and the bodyweight for each individual. Associations between serum concentrations or body burdens and parameters, such as sex, breastfeeding duration, body mass index as well as indoor dust and air PFAS concentrations, were evaluated. Serum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) decreased significantly (p < 0.001) with age. In contrast to serum concentrations, body burdens stayed unchanged or even increased significantly (p < 0.05), except for PFOA in female children. Breastfeeding duration was positively correlated (p < 0.001) with serum concentrations of PFHxS, PFOS, PFOA and PFNA at 1 year of age. Some associations were found at 10.5 years with sex and indoor PFAS concentrations. Observations of longitudinal decreasing trends of serum concentrations can be misleading for understanding exposure levels from external media during childhood, as the serum concentration is influenced by parallel temporal changes and growth dilution. Body burdens account for growth dilution and thus better reflect differences in early-life to adolescence exposure than serum concentrations.

  • 49.
    Kosnik, Marissa B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Enroth, Stefan
    Karlsson, Oskar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Distinct genetic regions are associated with differential population susceptibility to chemical exposures2021In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 152, article id 106488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactions between environmental factors and genetics underlie the majority of chronic human diseases. Chemical exposures are likely an underestimated contributor, yet gene-environment (GxE) interaction studies rarely assess their modifying effects. Here, we describe a novel method to profile the human genome and identify regions associated with differential population susceptibility to chemical exposures. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) implicated in enriched chemical-disease intersections were identified and validated for three chemical classes with expected GxE interaction potential (neuroactive, hepatoactive, and cardioactive compounds). The same approach was then used to characterize consumer product classes with unknown risk for GxE interactions (washing products, cosmetics, and adhesives). Additionally, high-risk variant sets that may confer differential population susceptibility were identified for these consumer product groups through frequent itemset mining and pathway analysis. A dataset of 2454 consumer product chemical-disease linkages, with risk values, SNPs, and pathways for each association was developed, describing the interplay between environmental factors and genetics in human disease progression. We found that genetic hotspots implicated in GxE interactions differ across chemical classes (e.g., washing products had high-risk SNPs implicated in nervous system disease) and illustrate how this approach can discover new associations (e.g., washing product n-butoxyethanol implicated SNPs in the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway for Alzheimer’s disease). Hence, our approach can predict high-risk genetic regions for differential population susceptibility to chemical exposures and characterize chemical modifying factors in specific diseases. These methods show promise for describing how chemical exposures can lead to varied health outcomes in a population and for incorporating inter-individual variability into chemical risk assessment.

  • 50.
    Linderholm, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Biague, Antonio
    National Public Health Laboratory, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau.
    Månsson, Fredrik
    Infectious Diseases Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University.
    Norrgren, Hans
    Infectious Diseases Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Jakobsson, Kristina
    Lunds universitet.
    Human exposure to persistent organic pollutants in West Africa - A temporal trend study from Guinea-Bissau2010In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 675-682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Humans, independent on where they live, are exposed to complex and various mixtures of chemicals, including persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The variability of the exposure depends on sources of the chemicals and is influenced by e.g. geography, social and cultural heritage. While exposures to POPs are frequently studied in populations from developed industrial countries, very little is known on levels and trends of POPs in developing countries, especially in Africa.

    Objectives

    The aim of the present study was to investigate levels and temporal trends of POPs in adults from Guinea-Bissau.

    Methods

    Serum samples were obtained from an open cohort of police officers in Guinea-Bissau. Repeated samples from 33 individuals were obtained at five time points between 1990 and 2007, in all 147 samples. Pooled serum samples were extracted and cleaned-up prior to analysis by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The concentration of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (4,4′-DDT) and its metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were determined.

    Results

    The major POP found in all samples was 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene (4,4′-DDE) followed by 4,4′-DDT. 4,4′-DDE, 4,4′-DDT, PCBs and β- and γ-HCH were significantly decreasing over time. The PBDEs were found at low concentrations, with an increasing temporal trend for BDE-153.

    Conclusion

    National and international management may be behind the observed decreased organohalogen compound concentrations in humans from Guinea-Bissau from the early 1990's and onwards, similarly to the development of these compounds in humans from industrial countries. In contrast, PBDEs follow a trend of increasing concentrations even though at low levels

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