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  • 1. Agerstrand, M
    et al.
    Wester, M
    Rudén, C
    The Swedish Environmental Classification and Information System for Pharmaceuticals--an empirical investigation of the motivations, intentions and expectations underlying its development and implementation.2009In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 778-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2005 the Swedish Association of the Pharmaceutical Industry (LIF) initiated a national environmental classification and information system for pharmaceuticals. This investigation reports the results from a survey, conducted among the persons involved in the start-up process. The aim of this study is to generate knowledge contributing to the clarification of the motivations, expectations, and intentions underlying the development and implementation of the system. The decision to implement a classification and information system for pharmaceuticals was the result of a combination of several driving forces, mainly political pressure and a possibility to increase the industries' goodwill, while at the same time keeping the process under the industries' control. The expected possible effects of the system, other than increased goodwill, are according to this survey assumed to be low. The system offers little guidance for end-users in the substitution of one pharmaceutical for another. One possible reason for this could be that LIF needs to observe the interests of all its members' and should not affect competition. The affiliation of the involved actors correlates to how these actors view and value the system, but this has not hampered the collaborative process to develop and implement it.

  • 2. Balducci, Catia
    et al.
    Green, David C.
    Romagnoli, Paola
    Perilli, Mattia
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. City of Stockholm, Sweden.
    Panteliadis, Pavlos
    Cecinato, Angelo
    Cocaine and cannabinoids in the atmosphere of Northern Europe cities, comparison with Southern Europe and wastewater analysis2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 97, p. 187-194Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports the first investigation of atmospheric illicit drug concentrations in Northern Europe usingmeasurements of cocaine and cannabinoids in Amsterdam, London and Stockholm. Further, these measurements were compared to those made in Rome to explore the geographical and inter-city variability. Co-located measurements of atmospheric particulate mass and PAHs were used to help describe and interpret the illicit drug measurements with respect to atmospheric dispersion. Cocaine concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 0.14 ng/m(3) in Amsterdam, from 0.02 to 0.33 ng/m(3) in London and were below quantification limit (3pg/m(3)) in Stockholm. Cannabinol was the only cannabinoidmolecule detected in the three cities. During this campaign, London reported the highest concentrations of cocaine and meaningful differences were detected between the urban background and city centre London sites. Mean cocaine concentrations measured in Amsterdam during March 2011 were also compared with those measured simultaneously in eight Italian cities. The cocaine concentration inAmsterdamwas comparable to that measured at an urban background inMilan and at a densely populated site in Florence. Although correlating atmospheric concentrations directlywith drug prevalence is not possible using current data, links between concentrations of cocaine and estimates of abuse prevalence assessed by the more routinely usedwastewater analysiswere also examined. A statistically significant correlationwas found between the two sets of data (R-2= 0.66; p= 0.00131). Results confirmed that meteorology, population rate and habits of consumption influence the atmospheric concentrations of drugs. If these confounding factors were better controlled for, the techniques described here could became an easy and cost effective tool to index the impact of cocaine abuse in the area; especially where local hot spots need to be identified.

  • 3.
    Bergman, Åke
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Rydén, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Law, Robin J.
    de Boer, Jacob
    Covaci, Adrian
    Alaee, Mehran
    Birnbaum, Linda
    Petreas, Myrto
    Rose, Martin
    Sakai, Shinichi
    Van den Eede, Nele
    van der Veen, Ike
    A novel abbreviation standard for organobromine, organochlorine and organophosphorus flame retardants and some characteristics of the chemicals2012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 49, p. 57-82Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since the interest in organic environmental contaminants first emerged 50 years ago, there has been a need to present discussion of such chemicals and their transformation products using simple abbreviations so as to avoid the repetitive use of long chemical names. As the number of chemicals of concern has increased, the number of abbreviations has also increased dramatically, sometimes resulting in the use of different abbreviations for the same chemical. In this article, we propose abbreviations for flame retardants (FRs) substituted with bromine or chlorine atoms or including a functional group containing phosphorus, i.e. BFRs, CFRs and PFRs, respectively. Due to the large number of halogenated and organophosphorus FRs, it has become increasingly important to develop a strategy for abbreviating the chemical names of FRs. In this paper, a two step procedure is proposed for deriving practical abbreviations (PRABs) for the chemicals discussed. In the first step, structural abbreviations (STABs) are developed using specific STAB criteria based on the FR structure. However, since several of the derived STABs are complicated and long, we propose instead the use of PRABs. These are, commonly, an extract of the most essential part of the STAB, while also considering abbreviations previously used in the literature. We indicate how these can be used to develop an abbreviation that can be generally accepted by scientists and other professionals involved in FR related work. Tables with PRABs and STABs for BFRs, CFRs and PERs are presented, including CAS (Chemical Abstract Service) numbers, notes of abbreviations that have been used previously, CA (Chemical Abstract) name, common names and trade names, as well as some fundamental physicochemical constants.

  • 4. Breivik, Knut
    et al.
    Czub, Gertje
    McLachlan, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wanja, Frank
    Towards an understanding of the link between environmental emissions and human body burdens of PCBs using CoZMoMAN2010In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 85-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different factors affect how organic contaminants released into the environment over time distribute and accumulate, enter various food-chains, and potentially cause toxic effects in wildlife and humans. A sound chemical risk assessment thus requires the determination of the quantitative relationship between emissions and human exposure. This study aimed to assess the extent of the quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the link between environmental emissions and human body burdens for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the western part of the Baltic Sea drainage basin and to identify any remaining knowledge gaps. An integrated, non-steady state model calculating human body burden from environmental emissions (CoZMoMAN) was created by linking the multi-compartment environmental fate model CoZMo-POP 2 with the human food chain bioaccumulation model ACC-HUMAN. CoZMoMAN predicted concentrations of seven PCB congeners in 11 key model compartments to typically within a factor of 2 to 4 of measured values, although larger discrepancies are noted for soils and humans. We conclude that whereas the most important processes which link emissions of PCBs to human body burdens are quite well understood in this region, some critical knowledge gaps related to the time trend of historical emissions remain to be addressed.

  • 5. Bu, Qingwei
    et al.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wong, Fiona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Toms, Leisa-Maree L.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    Yu, Gang
    Historical intake and elimination of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides by the Australian population reconstructed from biomonitoring data2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 74, p. 82-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantifying the competing rates of intake and elimination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the human body is necessary to understand the levels and trends of POPs at a population level. In this paper we reconstruct the historical intake and elimination of ten polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and five organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from Australian biomonitoring data by fitting a population-level pharmacokinetic (PK) model. Our analysis exploits two sets of cross-sectional biomonitoring data for PCBs and OCPs in pooled blood serum samples from the Australian population that were collected in 2003 and 2009. The modeled adult reference intakes in 1975 for PCB congeners ranged from 0.89 to 24.5 ng/kg bw/day, lower than the daily intakes of OCPs ranging from 73 to 970 ng/kg bw/day. Modeled intake rates are declining with half-times from 1.1 to 1.3 years for PCB congeners and 0.83 to 0.97 years for OCPs. The shortest modeled intrinsic human elimination half-life among the compounds studied here is 6.4 years for hexachlorobenzene, and the longest is 30 years for PCB-74. Our results indicate that it is feasible to reconstruct intakes and to estimate intrinsic human elimination half-lives using the population-level PK model and biomonitoring data only. Our modeled intrinsic human elimination half-lives are in good agreement with values from a similar study carried out for the population of the United Kingdom, and are generally longer than reported values from other industrialized countries in the Northern Hemisphere.

  • 6.
    Bui, Thuy T.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Alves, Andreia
    Palm-Cousins, Anna
    Voorspoels, Stefan
    Covaci, Adrian
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Estimating uptake of phthalate ester metabolites into the human nail plate using pharmacokinetic modelling2017In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 100, p. 148-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding uptake of phthalate esters (PEs) and other chemicals into the human nail plate and thus, clarity concerning the suitability of human nails as a valid alternative matrix for monitoring longterm exposure. In particular, the relative importance of internal uptake of phthalate metabolites (from e.g. blood) compared to external uptake pathways is unknown. This study provides first insights into the partitioning of phthalate-metabolites between blood and nail using pharmacokinetic (PK) modelling and biomonitoring data from a Norwegian cohort. A previously published PK model (Lorber PK model) was used in combination with measured urine data to predict serum concentrations of DEHP and DnBP/DiBP metabolites at steady state. Then, partitioning between blood and nail was assessed assuming equilibrium conditions and treating the nail plate as a tissue, assuming a fixed lipid and water content. Although calculated as a worst-case scenario at equilibrium, the predicted nail concentrations of metabolites were lower than the biomonitoring data by factors of 44 to 1300 depending on the metabolite. It is therefore concluded that internal uptake of phthalate metabolites from blood into nail is a negligible pathway and does not explain the observed nail concentrations. Ingtead, external uptake pathways are more likely to dominate, possibly through deposition of phthalates onto the skin/nail and subsequent metabolism. Modelling gaseous diffusive uptake of PEs from air to nail revealed that this pathway is unlikely to be important. Experimental quantification of internal and external uptake pathways of phthalates and their metabolites into the human nail plate is needed to verify these modelling results. However, based on this model, human nails are not a good indicator of internal human exposure for the phthalate esters studied.

  • 7. Chen, Yiqin
    et al.
    Sjodin, Andreas
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    English, Karin
    Aylward, Lesa L.
    Toms, Leisa-Maree L.
    Varghese, Julie
    Sly, Peter D.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    Persistent organic pollutants in infants and toddlers: Relationship between concentrations in matched plasma and faecal samples2017In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 107, p. 82-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early-childhood biomonitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is challenging due to the logistic and ethical limitations associated with blood sampling. We investigated using faeces as a non-invasive matrix to estimate internal exposure to POPs. The concentrations of selected POPs were measured in matched plasma and faecal samples collected from 20 infants/toddlers (aged 13 +/- 4.8 months), including a repeat sample time point for 13 infants (similar to 5 months apart). We observed higher rates of POP quantification in faeces (2 g dry weight) than in plasma (0.5 mL). Among the five chemicals that had quantification frequencies over 50% in both matrices, except for HCB, log concentration in faeces (C-f) and blood (C-b) were correlated (r > 0.74, P < 0.05) for p.p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), 2,3', 4,4', 5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB118), 2,2', 3,4,4', 5'-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB138) and 2,2', 4,4', 5,5'-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB153). We determined faeces: plasma concentration ratios (K-fb), which can be used to estimate C-b from measurements of C-f for infants/toddlers. For a given chemical, the variation in K-fb across individuals was considerable (CV from 0.46 to 0.70). Between 5% and 50% of this variation was attributed to short-term intra-individual variability between successive faecal samples. This variability could be reduced by pooling faeces samples over several days. Some of the remaining variability was attributed to longer-term intra-individual variability, which was consistent with previously reported observations of a decrease in K-fb over the first year of life. The strong correlations between C-f and C-b demonstrate the promise of using faeces for biomonitoring of these compounds. Future research on the sources of variability in K-fb could improve the precision and utility of this technique.

  • 8. Cooper, Glinda S.
    et al.
    Lunn, Ruth M.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Glenn, Barbara S.
    Kraft, Andrew D.
    Luke, April M.
    Ratcliffe, Jennifer M.
    Study sensitivity: Evaluating the ability to detect effects in systematic reviews of chemical exposures2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 92-93, p. 605-610Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A critical step in systematic reviews of potential health hazards is the structured evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the included studies; risk of bias is a term often used to represent this process, specifically with respect to the evaluation of systematic errors that can lead to inaccurate (biased) results (i.e. focusing on internal validity). Systematic review methods developed in the clinical medicine arena have been adapted for use in evaluating environmental health hazards; this expansion raises questions about the scope of risk of bias tools and the extent to which they capture the elements that can affect the interpretation of results from environmental and occupational epidemiology studies and in vivo animal toxicology studies, (the studies typically available for assessment of risk of chemicals). One such element, described here as sensitivity, is a measure of the ability of a study to detect a true effect or hazard. This concept is similar to the concept of the sensitivity of an assay; an insensitive study may fail to show a difference that truly exists, leading to a false conclusion of no effect Factors relating to study sensitivity should be evaluated in a systematic manner with the same rigor as the evaluation of other elements within a risk of bias framework. We discuss the importance of this component for the interpretation of individual studies, examine approaches proposed or in use to address it, and describe how it relates to other evaluation components. The evaluation domains contained within a risk of bias tool can include, or can be modified to include, some features relating to study sensitivity; the explicit inclusion of these sensitivity criteria with the same rigor and at the same stage of study evaluation as other bias-related criteria can improve the evaluation process. In some cases, these and other features may be better addressed through a separate sensitivity domain. The combined evaluation of risk of bias and sensitivity can be used to identify the most informative studies, to evaluate the confidence of the findings from individual studies and to identify those study elements that may help to explain heterogeneity across the body of literature.

  • 9.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Vestergren, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Wang, Zhanyun
    Scheringer, Martin
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    The precautionary principle and chemicals management: The example of perfluoroalkyl acids in groundwater2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 94, p. 331-340Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Already in the late 1990s microgram-per-liter levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were measured in water samples from areas where fire-fighting foams were used or spilled. Despite these early warnings, the problems of groundwater, and thus drinking water, contaminated with perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) including PFOS are only beginning to be addressed. It is clear that this PFAS contamination is poorly reversible and that the societal costs of clean-up will be high. This inability to reverse exposure in a reasonable timeframe is a major motivation for application of the precautionary principle in chemicals management. We conclude that exposure can be poorly reversible; 1) due to slow elimination kinetics in organisms, or 2) due to poorly reversible environmental contamination that leads to continuous exposure. In the second case, which is relevant for contaminated groundwater, the reversibility of exposure is not related to the magnitude of a chemical's bioaccumulation potential. We argue therefore that all PFASs entering groundwater, irrespective of their perfluoroalkyl chain length and bioaccumulation potential, will result in poorly reversible exposures and risks as well as further clean-up costs for society. To protect groundwater resources for future generations, society should consider a precautionary approach to chemicals management and prevent the use and release of highly persistent and mobile chemicals such as PFASs. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 10. Covaci, Adrian
    et al.
    Harrad, Stuart
    Abdallah, Mohamed A. -E.
    Ali, Nadeem
    Law, Robin J.
    Herzke, Dorte
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Novel brominated flame retardants: A review of their analysis, environmental fate and behaviour2011In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 532-556Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review summarises current knowledge about production volumes, physico-chemical properties, analysis, environmental occurrence, fate and behaviour and human exposure to the novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs). We define the term NBFRs as relating to BFRs which are new to the market or newly/recently observed in the environment. Restrictions and bans on the use of some polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) formulations, in many jurisdictions, have created a market for the use of NBFRs. To date, most data on NBFRs have arisen as additional information generated by research designed principally to study more traditional BFRs, such as PBDEs. This has led to a wide variety of analytical approaches for sample extraction, extract purification and instrumental analysis of NBFRs. An overview of environmental occurrence in abiotic matrices, aquatic biota, terrestrial biota and birds is presented. Evidence concerning the metabolism and absorption of different NBFRs is reviewed. Human exposure to NBFRs via different exposure pathways is discussed, and research gaps related to analysis, environmental sources, fate, and behaviour and human exposure are identified.

  • 11. de Hoogh, Kees
    et al.
    Korek, Michal
    Vienneau, Danielle
    Keuken, Menno
    Kukkonen, Jaakko
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.
    Badaloni, Chiara
    Beelen, Rob
    Bolignano, Andrea
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Pradas, Marta Cirach
    Cyrys, Josef
    Douros, John
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Forastiere, Francesco
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Fuks, Kateryna
    Gehring, Ulrike
    Gryparis, Alexandros
    Gulliver, John
    Hansell, Anna L.
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Jonkers, Sander
    Kangas, Leena
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Kuenzli, Nino
    Lanki, Timo
    Memmesheimer, Michael
    Moussiopoulos, Nicolas
    Modig, Lars
    Pershagen, Goran
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Schindler, Christian
    Schikowski, Tamara
    Sugiri, Dorothee
    Teixido, Oriol
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Yli-Tuomi, Tarja
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Hoek, Gerard
    Bellander, Tom
    Comparing land use regression and dispersion modelling to assess residential exposure to ambient air pollution for epidemiological studies2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 73, p. 382-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Land-use regression (LUR) and dispersion models (DM) are commonly used for estimating individual air pollution exposure in population studies. Few comparisons have however been made of the performance of these methods. Objectives: Within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) we explored the differences between LUR and DM estimates for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5. Methods: The ESCAPE study developed LUR models for outdoor air pollution levels based on a harmonised monitoring campaign. In thirteen ESCAPE study areas we further applied dispersion models. We compared LUR and DM estimates at the residential addresses of participants in 13 cohorts for NO2; 7 for PM10 and 4 for PM2.5. Additionally, we compared the DM estimates with measured concentrations at the 20-40 ESCAPE monitoring sites in each area. Results: The median Pearson R (range) correlation coefficients between LUR and DM estimates for the annual average concentrations of NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 were 0.75 (0.19-0.89), 0.39 (0.23-0.66) and 0.29 (0.22-0.81) for 112,971 (13 study areas), 69,591 (7) and 28,519(4) addresses respectively. The median Pearson R correlation coefficients (range) between DM estimates and ESCAPE measurements were of 0.74(0.09-0.86) for NO2; 0.58 (0.36-0.88) for PM10 and 0.58 (0.39-0.66) for PM2.5. Conclusions: LUR and dispersion model estimates correlated on average well for NO2 but only moderately for PM10 and PM2.5, with large variability across areas. DM predicted a moderate to large proportion of the measured variation for NO2 but less for PM10 and PM2.5.

  • 12.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Björklund, Justina Awasum
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Thuresson, Kaj
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Tri-decabrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in indoor air and dust from Stockholm microenvironments 2: Indoor sources and human exposure2012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 141-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data on polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) concentrations from Stockholm, Sweden, indoor microenvironments were combined with information from detailed questionnaires regarding the sampling location characteristics, including furnishing and equipment present. These were used to elucidate relationships between possible flame-retarded sources and the contaminant concentrations found in air and dust. Median concentration ranges of Sigma Penta-, Sigma Octa-, Sigma DecaBDE and HBCD from all microenvironments were 19-570, 1.7-280, 29-3200 and <1.6-2 pg/m(3) in air and 22-240, 6.1-80, 330-1400 and 45-340 ng/g in dust, respectively. Significant correlations were found between concentrations of some PBDEs and HBCD in air and/or dust and the presence of electronic/electrical devices, foam furniture, PUF mattresses and synthetic bed pillows in, as well as floor area and construction year of the microenvironment. Car interiors were a source to indoor air in dealership halls. Using median and maximum concentrations of Sigma Penta-, Sigma Octa-, Sigma DecaBDE and HBCD in air and dust, adult and toddler (12-24 months) intakes from inhalation and dust ingestion were estimated. Toddlers had higher estimated intakes of Sigma Penta-, Sigma DecaBDE and HBCD (7.8, 43, 7.6 ng/d, respectively) from dust ingestion than adults (5.8, 38, 6.0 ng/d, respectively). Air inhalation in offices was also an important exposure pathway for Sigma Penta-, Sigma Octa- and Sigma DecaBDE in adults. For Sigma PentaBDE and HBCD, air inhalation and dust ingestion play minor roles when compared to previously published Swedish dietary intakes (median exposures). However, in worst case scenarios using maximum concentrations, dust ingestion may represent 77 and 95% of toddler intake for Sigma PentaBDE and HBCD, respectively.

  • 13.
    de Wit, Cynthia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Björklund, Justina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Thuresson, Kaj
    Tri- to decabrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in indoor air and dust from Stockholm microenvironments 2: Indoor sources and human exposureIn: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14. Diamond, Miriam L.
    et al.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Molander, Sverker
    Scheringer, Martin
    Backhaus, Thomas
    Lohmann, Rainer
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    Bergman, Åke
    Hauschild, Michael
    Holoubek, Ivan
    Persson, Linn
    Suzuki, Noriyuki
    Vighi, Marco
    Zetzsch, Cornelius
    Exploring the planetary boundary for chemical pollution2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 78, p. 8-15Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rockstrom et al. (2009a, 2009b) have warned that humanity must reduce anthropogenic impacts defined by nine planetary boundaries if unacceptable global change is to be avoided. Chemical pollution was identified as one of those boundaries for which continued impacts could erode the resilience of ecosystems and humanity. The central concept of the planetary boundary (or boundaries) for chemical pollution (PBCP or PBCPs) is that the Earth has a finite assimilative capacity for chemical pollution, which includes persistent as well as readily degradable chemicals released at local to regional scales, which in aggregate threaten ecosystem and human viability. The PBCP allows humanity to explicitly address the increasingly global aspects of chemical pollution throughout a chemical's life cycle and the need for a global response of internationally coordinated control measures. We submit that sufficient evidence shows stresses on ecosystem and human health at local to global scales, suggesting that conditions are transgressing the safe operating space delimited by a PBCP. As such, current local to global pollution control measures are insufficient. However, while the PBCP is an important conceptual step forward, at this point single or multiple PBCPs are challenging to operationalize due to the extremely large number of commercial chemicals or mixtures of chemicals that cause myriad adverse effects to innumerable species and ecosystems, and the complex linkages between emissions, environmental concentrations, exposures and adverse effects. As well, the normative nature of a PBCP presents challenges of negotiating pollution limits amongst societal groups with differing viewpoints. Thus, a combination of approaches is recommended as follows: develop indicators of chemical pollution, for both control and response variables, that will aid in quantifying a PBCP(s) and gauging progress towards reducing chemical pollution; develop new technologies and technical and social approaches to mitigate global chemical pollution that emphasize a preventative approach; coordinate pollution control and sustainability efforts; and facilitate implementation of multiple (and potentially decentralized) control efforts involving scientists, civil society, government, non-governmental organizations and international bodies.

  • 15.
    Fridén, Ulrika E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Chlorinated paraffins in indoor air and dust: Concentrations, congener patterns, and human exposure2011In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 37, no 7, p. 1169-1174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are large production volume chemicals used in a wide variety of commercial applications. They are ubiquitous in the environment and humans. Human exposure via the indoor environment has, however, been barely investigated. In the present study 44 indoor air and six dust samples from apartments in Stockholm, Sweden, were analyzed for CPs. and indoor air concentrations are reported for the first time. The sumCP concentration (short chain CPs (SCCPs) and medium chain CPs (MCCPs)) in air ranged from <5-210 ng m(-3) as quantified by gas chromatography coupled to electron ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS/MS). Congener group patterns were studied using GC with electron capture negative ionization MS (GC/ECNI-MS). The air samples were dominated by the more volatile SCCPs compared to MCCPs. SumCPs were quantified by GC/EI-MS/MS in the dust samples at low mu g g(-1) levels, with a chromatographic pattern suggesting the prevalence of longer chain CPs compared to air. The median exposure to sumCPs via the indoor environment was estimated to be similar to 1 mu g day(-1) for both adults and toddlers. Adult exposure was dominated by inhalation, while dust ingestion was suggested to be more important for toddlers. Comparing these results to literature data on dietary intake indicates that human exposure to CPs from the indoor environment is not negligible.

  • 16.
    Fång, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Nyberg, Elisabeth
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Bignert, Anders
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in mothers' milk from Sweden, 1972-20112013In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 60, p. 224-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in mothers' milk are still quite rare. Data are particularly scarce when it comes to concentrations from the last decade, 2000 and onwards. The aims of the present study were to assess temporal trends of PCDD, PCDF and DL-PCB in mothers' milk from Stockholm, 1972-2011 and to compare the results with previous analysis of some of the older samples. The samples were analyzed by high resolution GC/MS and results were statistically evaluated for the periods, 1972-2011 and 2002-2011. The rate of which Sigma PCDDs, Sigma DL-PCBs and the Sigma TEQ are decreasing (on pg/g fat WHO-TEQ2005) is higher in the last decade compared to the 40 year period, 1972-2011. A similar trend is indicated, but not confirmed, for Sigma TEQ of PCDFs, probably due to too many PCDF congeners below LOQ in the period 2002-2011. Concentrations of Sigma PCDDs, PCDFs, Sigma DLPCBs and Sigma TEQ all expressed as pg/g fat on TEQ-WH02005-basis, show a statistically significant decline over time, 5.8-6.8% per year, 1972-2011. The last ten years the annual declines for Sigma PCDDs, Sigma DL-PCBs and Sigma TEQ are 92-11% and for Sigma PCDF, 5.4%. Congener specific trend analysis, 2002-2001, of PCDDs and DL-PCBs showed the same pattern, while the PCDF congeners showed no such general trend. The results from the re-analysis showed good agreement with slightly lower Sigma TEQ1998 pg/g fat concentrations in six out of seven samples and mean difference of 13% in Sigma TEQ1998. The study shows that time series can be elongated from previous studies, as long as the sample population remains the same.

  • 17. Gari, Merce
    et al.
    Bosch, Carme
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Grimalt, Joan O.
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Impacts of atmospheric chlor-alkali factory emissions in surrounding populations2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 65, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental exposures need to be assessed for the understanding of the health risks of general population. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) from chlor-alkali plants (CAPs) are significant for the exposomes of individuals living in locations receiving their emissions and have to be determined. The aims of the study are to identify the area of influence of past and present OC emissions from CAPs and to set quantitative body burden estimates. A CAP situated in a rural area was selected for study. The geographic distribution of the atmospheric emissions was monitored using olive tree leaves. Human biomonitoring was assessed by serum analysis from general population (n = 1340). DC concentrations followed exponential decay functions with maxima in the immediate vicinity of the factory. The individuals living within 1 km exhibited hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and DDT-DDE (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) concentrations that were 12, 1.3-1.9 and 3.9 times higher than in sites not influenced by the emissions from this factory. Individuals from municipalities situated 15-25 km away from the CAP showed 1.5, 12-1.4 and 1.3 times higher serum HCB. PCB and DDT concentrations than in distant sites. The high serum concentrations of DDT and PCBs were observed even 23-31 years and 9-17 years after manufacture completion of these compounds, respectively. Our methodology provides a way for assessment of the influence of past and present atmospheric OCs emissions from CAPs into the exposome of individuals living in nearby areas.

  • 18.
    Gebbink, Wouter A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Estimating human exposure to PFOS isomers and PFCA homologues: The relative importance of direct and indirect (precursor) exposure2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 74, p. 160-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contributions of direct and indirect (via precursors) pathways of human exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) isomers and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) are estimated using a Scenario-Based Risk Assessment (SceBRA) modelling approach. Monitoring data published since 2008 (including samples from 2007) are used. The estimated daily exposures (resulting from both direct and precursor intake) for the general adult population are highest for PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), followed by perfluorohexanoic add (PFHxA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), while lower daily exposures are estimated for perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA). The precursor contributions to the individual perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) daily exposures are estimated to be 11-33% for PFOS, 0.1-2.5% for PFBA, 3.7-34% for PFHxA, 13-64% for PFOA, 5.2-66% for PFDA, and 0.7-25% for PFDoDA (ranges represent estimated precursor contributions in a low- and high-exposure scenario). For PFOS, direct intake via diet is the major exposure pathway regardless of exposure scenario. For PFCAs, the dominant exposure pathway is dependent on perfluoroalkyl chain length and exposure scenario. Modelled PFOS and PFOA concentrations in human serum using the estimated intakes from an intermediate-exposure scenario are in agreement with measured concentrations in different populations. The isomer pattern of PFOS resulting from total intakes (direct and via precursors) is estimated to be enriched with linear PFOS (84%) relative to technical PFOS (70% linear). This finding appears to be contradictory to the observed enrichment of branched PFOS isomers in recent human serum monitoring studies and suggests that either external exposure is not fully understood (e.g. there are unknown precursors, missing or poorly quantified exposure pathways) and/or that there is an incomplete understanding of the isomer-specific human pharmacokinetic processes of PFOS, its precursors and intermediates.

  • 19.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Xu, Fuchao
    Papadopoulou, Eleni
    Padilla-Sanchez, Juan A.
    Covaci, Adrian
    Haug, Line S.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    Magnér, Jörgen
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Multi-pathway human exposure assessment of phthalate esters and DINCH2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 112, p. 115-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phthalate esters are substances mainly used as plasticizers in various applications. Some have been restricted and phased out due to their adverse health effects and ubiquitous presence, leading to the introduction of alternative plasticizers, such as DINCH. Using a comprehensive dataset from a Norwegian study population, human exposure to DMP, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, BBzP, DEHP, DINP, DIDP, DPHP and DINCH was assessed by measuring their presence in external exposure media, allowing an estimation of the total intake, as well as the relative importance of different uptake pathways. Intake via different uptake routes, in particular inhalation, dermal absorption, and oral uptake was estimated and total intake based on all uptake pathways was compared to the calculated intake from biomonitoring data. Hand wipe results were used to determine dermal uptake and compared to other exposure sources such as air, dust and personal care products. Results showed that the calculated total intakes were similar, but slightly higher than those based on biomonitoring methods by 1.1 to 3 times (median), indicating a good understanding of important uptake pathways. The relative importance of different uptake pathways was comparable to other studies, where inhalation was important for lower molecular weight phthalates, and negligible for the higher molecular weight phthalates and DINCH. Dietary intake was the predominant exposure route for all analyzed substances. Dermal uptake based on hand wipes was much lower (median up to 2000 times) than the total dermal uptake via air, dust and personal care products. Still, dermal uptake is not a well-studied exposure pathway and several research gaps (e.g. absorption fractions) remain. Based on calculated intakes, the exposure for the Norwegian participants to the phthalates and DINCH was lower than health based limit values. Nevertheless, exposure to alternative plasticizers, such as DPHP and DINCH, is expected to increase in the future and continuous monitoring is required.

  • 20.
    Gomis Ferreira, Melissa Ines
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Vestergren, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Borg, Daniel
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Comparing the toxic potency in vivo of long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids and fluorinated alternatives2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 113, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2000, long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their respective precursors have been replaced by numerous fluorinated alternatives. The main rationale for this industrial transition was that these alternatives were considered less bioaccumulative and toxic than their predecessors. In this study, we evaluated to what extent differences in toxicological effect thresholds for PFAAs and fluorinated alternatives, expressed as administered dose, were confounded by differences in their distribution and elimination kinetics. A dynamic one-compartment toxicokinetic (TK) model for male rats was constructed and evaluated using test data from toxicity studies for perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoroctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and ammonium 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-(heptafluoropropoxy)-propanoate (GenX). Dose-response curves of liver enlargement from sub-chronic oral toxicity studies in male rats were converted to internal dose in serum and in liver to examine the toxicity ranking of PFAAs and fluorinated alternatives. Converting administered doses into equivalent serum and liver concentrations reduced the variability in the dose-response curves for PFBA, PFHxA, PFOA and GenX. The toxicity ranking using modeled serum (GenX>PFOA>PFHxA>PFBA) and liver (GenX>PFOA≈PFHxA≈PFBA) concentrations indicated that some fluorinated alternatives have similar or higher toxic potency than their predecessors when correcting for differences in toxicokinetics. For PFOS and perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) the conversion from administered dose to serum concentration equivalents did not change the toxicity ranking. In conclusion, hazard assessment based on internal exposure allows evaluation of toxic potency and bioaccumulation potential independent of kinetics and should be considered when comparing fluorinated alternatives with their predecessors.

  • 21.
    Gomis, Melissa I.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Vestergren, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Historical human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids in the United States and Australia reconstructed from biomonitoring data using population-based pharmacokinetic modelling2017In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 108, p. 92-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) are found in the blood of humans and wildlife worldwide. Since the beginning of the 21st century, a downward trend in the human body burden, especially for PFOS and PFOA, has been observed while there is no clear temporal trend in wildlife. The inconsistency between the concentration decline in human serum and in wildlife could be indicative of a historical exposure pathway for humans linked to consumer products that has been reduced or eliminated. In this study, we reconstruct the past human exposure trends in two different regions, USA and Australia, by inferring the historical intake from cross-sectional biomonitoring data of PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS using a population-based pharmacokinetic model. For PFOS in the USA, the reconstructed daily intake peaked at 4.5 ng/kg-bw/day between 1988 and 1999 while in Australia it peaked at 4.0 ng/kg-bw/day between 1984 and 1996. For PFOA in the USA and Australia, the peak reconstructed daily intake was 1.1 ng/kg-bw/day in 1995 and 3.6 ng/kg-bw/day in 1992, respectively, and started to decline in 2000 and 1995, respectively. The model could not be satisfactorily fitted to the biomonitoring data for PFHxS within reasonable boundaries for its intrinsic elimination half-life, and thus reconstructing intakes of PFHxS was not possible. Our results indicate that humans experienced similar exposure levels and trends to PFOS and PFOA in the USA and Australia. Our findings support the hypothesis that near-field consumer product exposure pathways were likely dominant prior to the phase-out in industrialized countries. The intrinsic elimination half-life, which represents elimination processes that are common for all humans, and elimination processes unique to women (i.e., menstruation, cord-blood transfer and breastfeeding) were also investigated. The intrinsic elimination half-lives for PFOS and PFOA derived from model fitting for men were 3.8 and 2.4 years, respectively, for the USA, and 4.9 and 2 years respectively for Australia. Our results show that menstruation is a depuration pathway for PFOA for women, similarly but to a lesser extent compared to previous reports for PFOS. However menstruation, cord-blood transfer and breastfeeding together do not fully explain the apparently more rapid elimination of PFOA and PFOS by women compared to men; the intrinsic elimination half-lives in women were up to 13% lower for PFOS and up to 12% lower for PFOA compared to the corresponding half-lives in men.

  • 22. Gyllenhammar, Irina
    et al.
    Diderholm, Barbro
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Germany.
    Ridefelt, Peter
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Lignell, Sanna
    Lampa, Erik
    Glynn, Anders
    Perfluoroalkyl acid levels in first-time mothers in relation to offspring weight gain and growth2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 111, p. 191-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated if maternal body burdens of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) at the time of delivery are associated with birth outcome and if early life exposure (in utero/nursing) is associated with early childhood growth and weight gain. Maternal PFAA body burdens were estimated by analysis of serum samples from mothers living in Uppsala County, Sweden (POPUP), sampled three weeks after delivery between 1996 and 2011. Data on child length and weight were collected from medical records and converted into standard deviation scores (SDS). Multiple linear regression models with appropriate covariates were used to analyze associations between maternal PFAA levels and birth outcomes (n = 381). After birth Generalized Least Squares models were used to analyze associations between maternal PFAA and child growth (n = 200). Inverse associations were found between maternal levels of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), and birth weight SDS with a change of - 0.10 to - 0.18 weight SDS for an inter-quartile range (IQR) increase in ng/g PFAA. After birth, weight and length SDS were not significantly associated with maternal PFAA. However, BMI SDS was significantly associated with PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS at 3 and 4 years of age, and with PFOS at 4 and 5 years of age. If causal, these associations suggest that PFAA affects fetal and childhood body development in different directions.

  • 23. Hansen, Solrunn
    et al.
    Vestergren, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. NILU Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway.
    Herzke, Dorte
    Melhus, Marita
    Evenset, Anita
    Hanssen, Linda
    Brustad, Magritt
    Sandanger, Torkjel M.
    Exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances through the consumption of fish from lakes affected by aqueous film-forming foam emissions - A combined epidemiological and exposure modeling approach. The SAMINOR 2 Clinical Study2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 94, p. 272-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Releases of aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) from airport firefighting activities have been identified as important local point sources of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in nearby waterways. PFASs can be taken up by fish, and in turn by the humans that consume them. Despite the global extent of AFFF emissions, few studies exist on related impacts on humans. We aimed to investigate the associations between the consumption of fish from AFFF-affected waters and serum PFAS concentrations in humans using a combination of statistical tools, empirical data, and toxicokinetic modeling. Participants of the SAMINOR 2 Clinical Study were the basis far this study sample, which comprised 74 persons. Fifty-nine participants who reported consuming fish from AFFF-affected waters and 15 nonconsumers completed a questionnaire and gave serum samples. Participants were classified based on their consumption of trout and char: high (n = 16), moderate (n = 16), low (n = 27), and nonconsumers (n = 15); and serum samples were tested for the presence of 15 PFASs. Perfluorooctane sulfonic add (PFOS) was found in all participants, with the highest concentrations detected in the high consumption group (geometric means, 28 ng/mL) compared to the low consumption group and nonconsumers (10 and 11 ng/mL, respectively). In an analysis of variance contrast model, a significant, positive increasing trend was seen for fish consumption and PFOS, perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA). Toxicokinetic modeling allowed us to predict the median increases in serum concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFNA among high consumers within a factor of 2.2. The combination of statistical evaluation and toxicokinetic modeling clearly demonstrated a positive relationship between consumption of fish from AFFF-affected waters and serum PFAS concentrations. Further studies on dietary exposure to other PFASs present in AFFF and its consequences on human health are warranted.

  • 24. Haugdahl Nost, Therese
    et al.
    Vestergren, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). NILU Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway.
    Berg, Vivian
    Nieboer, Evert
    Odland, Jon Øyvind
    Sandanger, Torkjel Manning
    Repeated measurements of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from 1979 to 2007 in males from Northern Norway: Assessing time trends, compound correlations and relations to age/birth cohort2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 67, p. 43-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Longitudinal biomonitoring studies can provide unique information on how human concentrations change over time, but have so far not been conducted for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in a background exposed population. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine: i) serum PFAS time trends on an individual level; ii) relative compositions and correlations between different PFASs; and iii) assess selected PFAS concentrations with respect to periodic (calendar year), age and birth cohort (APC) effects. Methods: Serum was sampled from the same 53 men in 1979, 1986, 1994, 2001 and 2007 in Northern Norway and analysed for 10 PFASs. APC effects were assessed by graphical and mixed effect analyses. Results: The median concentrations of perfluorooctane sulphonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increased five-fold from 1979 to 2001 and decreased by 26% and 23%, respectively, from 2001 to 2007. The concentrations of PFOS and PFOA peaked during 1994-2001 and 2001, respectively, whereas perfluorohexane sulphonic acid (PFHxS) increased to 2001, but did not demonstrate a decrease between 2001 and 2007. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) displayed increasing trends throughout the entire study period (1979-2007). Although PFOS comprised dominating and stable proportions of PFAS burdens during these years, the contributions from PFOA and PFHxS were considerable. The evaluation of APC effects demonstrated that calendar year was the dominating influence on concentrations of PFOA, PFUnDA, and PFOS, although time-variant and weaker associations with age/birth cohort were indicated. Conclusions: The concentration changes of 10 PFASs in the repeated measurements from 1979 to 2007 demonstrated divergent time trends between the different PFASs. The temporal trends of PFASs in human serum during these 30 years reflect the overall trends in historic production and use, although global transport mechanisms and bioaccumulation potential of the different PFASs together with a varying extent of consumer exposure influenced the observed trends. Sampling year was the strongest descriptor of PFOA, PFUnDA and PFOS concentrations, and the calendar-year trends were apparent for all birth year quartiles. Discrepancies between the trends in this current longitudinal study and previous cross-sectional studies were observed and presumably reflect the different study designs and population characteristics.

  • 25. Holmquist, H.
    et al.
    Schellenberger, Steffen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    van der Veen, I.
    Peters, G. M.
    Leonards, P. E. G.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Properties, performance and associated hazards of state-of-the-art durable water repellent (DWR) chemistry for textile finishing2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 91, p. 251-264Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the phase-out of long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), the textile industry had to find alternatives for side-chain fluorinated polymer based durable water repellent (DWR) chemistries that incorporated long perfluoroalkyl side chains. This phase-out and subsequent substitution with alternatives has resulted in a market where both fluorinated and non-fluorinated DWRs are available. These DWR alternatives can be divided into four broad groups that reflect their basic chemistry: side-chain fluorinated polymers, silicones, hydrocarbons and other chemistries (includes dendrimer and inorganic nanoparticle chemistries). In this critical review, the alternative DWRs are assessed with regards to their structural properties and connected performance, loss and degradation processes resulting in diffuse environmental emissions, and hazard profiles for selected emitted substances. Our review shows that there are large differences in performance between the alternative DWRs, most importantly the lack of oil repellence of non-fluorinated alternatives. It also shows that for all alternatives, impurities and/or degradation products of the DWR chemistries are diffusively emitted to the environment. Our hazard ranking suggests that hydrocarbon based DWR is the most environmentally benign, followed by silicone and side-chain fluorinated polymer-based DWR chemistries. Industrial commitments to reduce the levels of impurities in silicone based and side-chain fluorinated polymer based DWR formulations will lower the actual risks. There is a lack of information on the hazards associated with DWRs, in particular for the dendrimer and inorganic nanoparticle chemistries, and these data gaps must be filled. Until environmentally safe alternatives, which provide the required performance, are available our recommendation is to choose DWR chemistry on a case-by-case basis, always weighing the benefits connected to increased performance against the risks to the environment and human health.

  • 26. Jakobsson, K.
    et al.
    Fång, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Rignell-Hydbom, A.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in maternal serum, umbilical cord serum, colostrum and mature breast milk: Insights from a pilot study and the literature2012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 47, p. 121-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human serum and mother's milk are frequently used to assess exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), including transplacental transfer to the foetus. However, little is known about the kinetics of PBDEs, especially the highly brominated BDE congeners.

    In this pilot study, maternal serum samples were collected from 10 women at delivery and five to six weeks post partum. Umbilical serum was also obtained. Milk was donated two to five days, and five to six weeks after delivery. The amount of PBDEs in these samples was determined using liquid–liquid extraction and GC/MS.

    Low, moderately and highly brominated diphenyl ethers were present in umbilical cord serum, indicating placental transfer. The lipid-adjusted levels of BDE-47, BDE-207 and BDE-209 were similar in maternal and umbilical cord serum, whereas the cord serum levels for the penta- to octa-BDEs quantified were lower than in maternal serum.

    Marked changes were seen in the congener pattern in breast milk during the first month of lactation, whereas maternal serum levels did not change significantly. The general pattern was an enrichment of low to moderately brominated congeners (i.e. from BDE-17 to BDE-154, with the exception of BDE-28) in colostrum compared with maternal serum. In contrast, more highly brominated congeners were found at similar, or lower levels in colostrum than in maternal serum. After the transition from colostrum to mature milk, the levels of BDE-153 and BDE-209 were substantially reduced, and BDE‐209 was below the limit of detection in 6 out of 9 samples.

    A literature review on the design and reporting of studies on the transfer of PBDEs from mother to infant revealed a lack of transparency in many cases. The use of the recently published STROBE-ME guidelines is therefore recommended.

  • 27.
    Johansson, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sellström, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Lindberg, Peter
    Bignert, Anders
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Temporal trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in Swedish Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus peregrinus) eggs2011In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 678-686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A temporal trend study of brominated flame retardants in eggs from peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus peregrinus), a terrestrial bird of prey, is presented. Eggs collected between 1974 and 2007 were analyzed for the major constituents of the Penta-. Octa- and Decabromodiphenyl ether technical products (BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -183 and -209), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Concentrations of BDE-99, -100, -153, -183, -209 and HBCD increased from 1974 to 2000. After the early 2000s. BDE-99, -100, -153 and -183 concentrations decreased, whereas BDE-209 and HBCD concentrations continued to increase. No temporal trend was detected for BDE-47. Rates of increase also differed, with BDE-99 and -100 increasing 3-fold between the 1980s and mid-1990s, and BDE-153 and -183 increasing approximately 10-fold during the same period. The average yearly increase was 15% and 11% for BDE-209 and HBCD, respectively, based on log-linear regression trends. There is a change in BDE congener patterns over time, with a shift from the predominance of BDE-99 and -47 until the late 1980s. to BDE-153 becoming the predominant congener later on. BFR temporal trends in Swedish peregrine falcon eggs reflect European BFR usage patterns.

  • 28. Julander, Anneli
    et al.
    Lundgren, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Skare, Lizbet
    Grander, Margaretha
    Palm, Brita
    Vahter, Marie
    Liden, Carola
    Formal recycling of e-waste leads to increased exposure to toxic metals: An occupational exposure study from Sweden2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 73, p. 243-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) contains multiple toxic metals. However, there is currently a lack of exposure data for metals on workers in formal recycling plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate workers' exposure to metals, using biomarkers of exposure in combination with monitoring of personal air exposure. We assessed exposure to 20 potentially toxic metals among 55 recycling workers and 10 office workers at three formal e-waste recycling plants in Sweden. Workers at two of the plants were followed-up after 6 months. We collected the inhalable fraction and OFC (37-mm) fraction of particles, using personal samplers, as well as spot samples of blood and urine. We measured metal concentrations in whole blood, plasma, urine, and air filters using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following acid digestion. The air sampling indicated greater airborne exposure, 10 to 30 times higher, to most metals among the recycling workers handling e-waste than among the office workers. The exposure biomarkers showed significantly higher concentrations of chromium, cobalt, indium, lead, and mercury in blood, urine, and/or plasma of the recycling workers, compared with the office workers. Concentrations of antimony, indium, lead, mercury, and vanadium showed close to linear associations between the inhalable particle fraction and blood, plasma, or urine. In conclusion, our study of formal waste recycling shows that workers performing recycling tasks are exposed to multiple toxic metals.

  • 29.
    Linderholm, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Biague, Antonio
    National Public Health Laboratory, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau.
    Månsson, Fredrik
    Infectious Diseases Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University.
    Norrgren, Hans
    Infectious Diseases Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Jakobsson, Kristina
    Lunds universitet.
    Human exposure to persistent organic pollutants in West Africa - A temporal trend study from Guinea-Bissau2010In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 675-682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Humans, independent on where they live, are exposed to complex and various mixtures of chemicals, including persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The variability of the exposure depends on sources of the chemicals and is influenced by e.g. geography, social and cultural heritage. While exposures to POPs are frequently studied in populations from developed industrial countries, very little is known on levels and trends of POPs in developing countries, especially in Africa.

    Objectives

    The aim of the present study was to investigate levels and temporal trends of POPs in adults from Guinea-Bissau.

    Methods

    Serum samples were obtained from an open cohort of police officers in Guinea-Bissau. Repeated samples from 33 individuals were obtained at five time points between 1990 and 2007, in all 147 samples. Pooled serum samples were extracted and cleaned-up prior to analysis by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The concentration of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (4,4′-DDT) and its metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were determined.

    Results

    The major POP found in all samples was 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene (4,4′-DDE) followed by 4,4′-DDT. 4,4′-DDE, 4,4′-DDT, PCBs and β- and γ-HCH were significantly decreasing over time. The PBDEs were found at low concentrations, with an increasing temporal trend for BDE-153.

    Conclusion

    National and international management may be behind the observed decreased organohalogen compound concentrations in humans from Guinea-Bissau from the early 1990's and onwards, similarly to the development of these compounds in humans from industrial countries. In contrast, PBDEs follow a trend of increasing concentrations even though at low levels

  • 30. Liu, Yanna
    et al.
    Pereira, Alberto S.
    Beesoon, Sanjay
    Vestergren, Robin
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Olsen, Geary W.
    Glynn, Anders
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    Temporal trends of perfluorooctanesulfonate isomer and enantiomer patterns in archived Swedish and American serum samples2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 75, p. 215-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) body burdens are attributable to both direct PFOS and indirect PFOS precursor (PreFOS) exposure. The relative importance of these two pathways has been estimated, but the relative temporal trajectory of exposure to PFOS and PreFOS has not been examined. Here, two hypothesized biomarkers of PreFOS exposure, PFOS isomer profiles (quantified as percent branched PFOS, %br-PFOS) and chiral 1m-PFOS enantiomer fractions (1m-PFOS EF) were analyzed in archived human serum samples of individual American adults (1974-2010) and pooled samples of Swedish primiparous women (1996-2010). After correcting for potential confounders, significant correlations between %br-PFOS and 1m-PFOS EFs were observed in American samples and in Swedish samples for the 1996-2000 period, supporting the hypothesis that both %br-PFOS and 1m-PFOS EF are biomarkers of PreFOS exposure. Significant trends of increasing %br-PFOS, from 2000 to 2010, and increasingly non-racemic 1m-PFOS EFs, from 1996 to 2000, were detected in Swedish samples. No statistically significant trend for %br-PFOS or 1m-PFOS EF was observed in American samples, but American males had significantly higher %br-PFOS and significantly lower 1m-PFOS EF (i.e. more non-racemic) than females, and a similar significant difference was shown in the older age group, relative to the younger age group. These temporal trends in %br-PFOS and 1m-PFOS EF are not easily explained and the results highlight uncertainties about how humans are exposed to PFOS.

  • 31. Martinez, Andres
    et al.
    Norström, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wang, Kai
    Hornbuckle, Keri C.
    Polychlorinated biphenyls in the surficial sediment of Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal, Lake Michigan2010In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 849-854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the results of the first intensive survey of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the surficial sediment of the Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC) in East Chicago, Indiana. a part of the Calumet River tributary of Lake Michigan that will be dredged to maintain depth for ship traffic. The tributary has previously been reported to be a large source of PCBs to Lake Michigan. PCB congeners were measured using tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode, a method that provides a high level selectivity and sensitivity for PCBs in complex environmental samples. The PCB concentrations (sum of 163 congeners or coeluting peaks) range from 53 to 35,000 ng g(-1) dry weight (d.w.) and are comparable to other PCB concentrations at contaminated tributaries in the United States, most of them (although not IHSC) established by law as Superfund sites. The PCB congener signal strongly resembles the original technical mixture Aroclor 1248 that has experienced a small amount of weathering - less than 2.5% by mass for the statistically different congeners consistent with desorption, volatilization, and microbial dechlorination. The origin of the PCBs in IHSC is not known but Aroclor 1248 was used in hydraulic fluids, vacuum pumps, plasticizers and adhesives. Possible uses of this mixture in East Chicago included the equipment and auxiliary services for the adjacent steel mill and gas refinery and/or lubrication for the drawbridges spanning the canal.

  • 32. Norström, Karin
    et al.
    Czub, Gertje
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hu, Dingfei
    Thorne, Peter S
    Hornbuckle, Keri C
    External exposure and bioaccumulation of PCBs in humans living in a contaminated urban environment.2010In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 855-861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans are exposed to different mixtures of PCBs depending on the route of exposure. In this study we investigated the potential contribution of inhalation to the overall human exposure to PCBs in an urban area. For this purpose, the mechanistically based, non-steady state bioaccumulation model ACC-HUMAN was applied to predict the PCB body burden in an adult living in the Midwestern United States who eats a typical North American diet and inhales air contaminated with PCBs. Dietary exposure was estimated using measured data for eighteen PCB congeners in different food groups (fish, meat and egg, dairy products). Two scenarios for inhalation exposure were evaluated: one using air concentrations measured in Chicago, and a second using air measurements in a remote area on Lake Michigan, Sleeping Bear Dunes. The model predicted that exposure via inhalation increases the accumulated mass of PCBs in the body by up to 30% for lower chlorinated congeners, while diet is by far the dominant source of exposure for those PCB congeners that accumulate most in humans.

  • 33. Raaschou-Nielsen, O.
    et al.
    Beelen, R.
    Wang, M.
    Hoek, G.
    Andersen, Z. J.
    Hoffmann, B.
    Stafoggia, M.
    Samoli, E.
    Weinmayr, G.
    Dimakopoulou, K.
    Nieuwenhuijsen, M.
    Xun, W. W.
    Fischer, P.
    Eriksen, K. T.
    Sorensen, M.
    Tjonneland, A.
    Ricceri, F.
    De Hoogh, K.
    Key, T.
    Eeftens, M.
    Peeters, P. H.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.
    Meliefste, K.
    Oftedal, B.
    Schwarze, P. E.
    Nafstad, P.
    Galassi, C.
    Migliore, E.
    Ranzi, A.
    Cesaroni, G.
    Badaloni, C.
    Forastiere, F.
    Penell, J.
    De Faire, U.
    Korek, M.
    Pedersen, N.
    Ostenson, C. -G.
    Pershagen, G.
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Concin, H.
    Nagel, G.
    Jaensch, A.
    Ineichen, A.
    Naccarati, A.
    Katsoulis, M.
    Trichpoulou, A.
    Keuken, M.
    Jedynska, A.
    Kooter, I. M.
    Kukkonen, J.
    Brunekreef, B.
    Sokhi, R. S.
    Katsouyanni, K.
    Vineis, P.
    Particulate matter air pollution components and risk for lung cancer2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 87, p. 66-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a human lung carcinogen; however, the components responsible have not been identified. We assessed the associations between PM components and lung cancer incidence. Methods: We used data from 14 cohort studies in eight European countries. We geocoded baseline addresses and assessed air pollution with land-use regression models for eight elements (Cu, Fe, K, Ni, S, Si, V and Zn) in size fractions of PM2.5 and PM10. We used Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random effect models for meta-analysis. Results: The 245,782 cohort members contributed 3,229,220 person-years at risk. During follow-up (mean, 13.1 years), 1878 incident cases of lung cancer were diagnosed. In the meta-analyses, elevated hazard ratios (HRs) for lung cancer were associated with all elements except V; none was statistically significant In analyses restricted to participants who did not change residence during follow-up, statistically significant associations were found for PM2.5 Cu (HR, 125; 95% Cl, 1.01-1.53 per 5 ng/m(3)), PM10 Zn (1.28; 1.02-1.59 per 20 ng/m3), PMio S (1.58; 1.03-2.44 per 200 ng/m(3)), PM10 Ni (1.59; 1.12-2.26 per 2 ng/m(3)) and PM10K (1.17; 1.02-1.33 per 100 ng/m(3)). In two-pollutant models, associations between PMio and PM2.5 and lung cancer were largely explained by PM2.5 S. Conclusions: This study indicates that the association between PM in air pollution and lung cancer can be attributed to various PM components and sources. PM containing S and Ni might be particularly important.

  • 34.
    Sundström, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Ehresman, David
    3M Company, St. Paul, MN, USA.
    Bignert, Anders
    Enheten för miljögiftsforskning, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Butenhoff, John L.
    3M Company, St. Paul, MN, USA.
    Olsen, Geary
    3M Company, St. Paul, MN, USA.
    Chang, Shu-Ching
    3M Company, St. Paul, MN, USA.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    A temporal trend study (1972-2008) of perfluorooctanesulfonate, perfluorohexanesulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate in pooled human milk samples from Stockholm, Sweden2010In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 178-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread presence of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) in human general populations and their slow elimination profiles have led to renewed interest in understanding the potential human neonatal exposures of perfluoroalkyls (PFAs) from consumption of human milk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFOA in pooled human milk samples obtained in Sweden between 1972 and 2008 (a period representing the most significant period of PFA production) and to see whether the time trend of these analytes parallels that indicated in human serum. Chemical analysis of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFOA was performed on pooled Swedish human milk samples from 1972 to 2008 after methodological refinements. The 20 samples which formed the 2007 pool were also analyzed individually to evaluate sample variations. Analyses were performed by HPLC-MS/MS. Due to the complexities of the human milk matrix and the requirement to accurately quantitate low pg/mL concentrations, meticulous attention must be paid to background contamination if accurate results are to be obtained. PFOS was the predominant analyte present in the pools and all three analytes showed statistically significant increasing trends from 1972 to 2000, with concentrations reaching a plateau in the 1990s. PFOA and PFOS showed statistically significant decreasing trends during 2001-2008. At the end of the study, in 2008, the measured concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFOA in pooled human milk were 75 pg/mL, 14 pg/mL, and 74 pg/mL, respectively. The temporal concentration trends of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFOA observed in human milk are parallel to those reported in the general population serum concentrations.

     

  • 35.
    Tay, Joo Hui
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Sellström, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Papadopoulou, Eleni
    Padilla-Sánchez, Juan Antonio
    Haug, Line Småstuen
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Assessment of dermal exposure to halogenated flame retardants: Comparison using direct measurements from hand wipes with an indirect estimation from settled dust concentrations2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 115, p. 285-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are few studies estimating dermal exposure to halogenated flame retardants in adults. To fill this gap, sixty-one hand wipe samples were collected from a Norwegian adult cohort using gauze pads immersed in isopropanol. BDE-47, BDE-209, bis(2‑ethyl‑hexyl)‑3,4,5,6‑tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP) and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) were the most frequently detected chemicals. The highest median mass in hand wipes was that of sumEHFR (570 ng), followed by sumHBCDD (180 ng) and sumPBDE (2.9 ng). The high EHFR level was mainly driven by tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) which accounted for 77% of the total mass. Positive and significant correlations were observed between FR levels in hand wipes and settled dust (0.26 < r < 0.56, p < 0.05), as well as between FR levels in hand wipes and the number of electronic consumer products at home (0.27 < r < 0.40, p < 0.05). Significant bivariate associations with number of laptops/tablets and phones/mobiles were further confirmed by multivariate linear regression analyses. Dermal exposure was estimated using the levels measured in handwipes. The estimated median dermal exposure was 2600, 840 and 6.2 pg/kg bw/d for sumEHFR, sumHBCDD and sumPBDE, respectively. Further, we compared these results with the dermal exposure as estimated indirectly by utilizing previously reported FR levels in settled dust collected from the residences of the same studied cohort. With the indirect approach, higher dermal exposures to sumPBDE but lower exposures to sumEHFR and sumHBCDD were observed compared to the direct dermal exposure estimated via hand wipes. Comparable exposure estimates between hand wipes and the indirect method were obtained for α‑, β‑tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (DBE-DBCH), DBDPE, BDE-28, -35, -49, -99, -153, 154, and -183. For other individual HFRs, the exposure estimates obtained from the two approaches were significantly different (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.05). Both methods gave similar dermal exposure estimates for many individual FRs. However, it is important to be aware of the value and limitations of each method when using them to estimate human exposure.

  • 36.
    Tekle, Michael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Gromadzinska, Jolanta
    Joksic, Gordana
    Antic, Ruza
    Nilsson, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Dallner, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Undén, Anna-Lena
    Brismar, Kerstin
    Plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E in female populations from Poland, Serbia and Sweden2010In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 188-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to environmental contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), life style and nutritional status of a population are important factors that may influence normal serum levels of antioxidants and the insulin-like growth factor system. In this study we examined serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) and vitamin E in healthy female populations (n = 4 x 100) aged 19-59 years from Poland (PL), Sweden (SE), Serbia I (SR I) and Serbia II (SR II). The last group lived in an environmental emergency area affected by the bombings of 1999 in Serbia. The Polish and SR I cohorts exhibited low IGFSD-score levels, (-2 to +/-0), compared to females from SE with IGFSD-score 0. In the SIR II population, the IGFSD range was between -1 and 1. The IGFBP-1 levels of the Polish and SIR I groups were lower than in the Swedish population, while the SR II levels showed a broader distribution, 20-80 mu g/l. The CoQ values in the Swedish and Polish samples were around 1 nmol/ml. In contrast. the SIR I cohorts exhibited higher concentrations, 1.5-3.5 nmol/ml and the SIR II group had extremely low levels, <0.5 nmol/ml. The vitamin E concentrations were similar in the Polish and Swedish populations, 20-40 nmol/ml, while it was twice as high, 40-80 nmol/ml in the SR I and very low in the SIR II group, which is half of the Polish and Swedish cohorts. These results suggest that different lifestyles and environmental factors affect both the IGF system and the antioxidants CoQ10 and vitamin E in female populations in Europe. The females living in the polluted area had different patterns of both the IGF and antioxidant systems. These findings may explain differences in morbidity and mortality in these countries.

  • 37.
    Törnqvist, Rebecka
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Karimov, Bakhtiyor
    Health risks from large-scale water pollution: Trends in Central Asia2011In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 435-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Limited data on the pollution status of spatially extensive water systems constrain health-risk assessments at basin-scales. Using a recipient measurement approach in a terminal water body, we show that agricultural and industrial pollutants in groundwaters urface water systems of the Aral Sea Drainage Basin (covering the main part of Central Asia) yield cumulative health hazards above guideline values in downstream surface waters, due to high concentrations of copper, arsenic, nitrite, and to certain extent dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Considering these high-impact contaminants, we furthermore perform trend analyses of their upstream spatial–temporal distribution, investigating dominant large-scale spreading mechanisms. The ratio between parent DDT and its degradation products showed that discharges into or depositions onto surface waters are likely to be recent or ongoing. In river water, copper concentrations peak during the spring season, after thawing and snow melt. High spatial variability of arsenic concentrations in river water could reflect its local presence in the top soil of nearby agricultural fields. Overall, groundwaters were associated with much higher health risks than surface waters. Health risks can therefore increase considerably, if the downstream population must switch to groundwater-based drinking water supplies during surface water shortage. Arid regions are generally vulnerable to this problem due to ongoing irrigation expansion and climate changes.

  • 38.
    Ullah, Shahid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Huber, Sandra
    Bignert, Anders
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Temporal trends of perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids and their sulfonamide-based precursors in herring from the Swedish west coast 1991-2011 including isomer-specific considerations2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 65, p. 63-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method was developed for simultaneous analysis of perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and their sulfonamide-based precursors (perfluoroalkane sulfonamidoacetic acids (FASAAs), sulfonamides (FASAs), and sulfonamidoethanols (FASEs)) in fish muscle. Extraction was performed with acetonitrile followed by a cleanup and fractionation step and instrumental analysis by UPLC/MS/MS and GC/MS. Time trends of PFSAs and their precursors-in herring muscle samples originating from the Kattegat at the west coast of Sweden were investigated covering the years 1991-2011. The following analytes were detected, all with decreasing or unchanged trends between 1991 and 2011: Perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS, below the method detection limit (<MDL)-10 pg/g), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS, 9-38 pg/g), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS, 240-930 pg/g), perfluorodecane sulfonic acid (PFDS, <MDL-4 pg/g), N-methyl and N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetic acid (MeFOSAA and EtFOSAA, 2-39 and 2-31 pg/g, respectively) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA, 78-920 pg/g). The highest concentrations were found for PFOS and FOSA around the turn of the century. Shorter disappearance half-lives were observed for precursors compared to PFSAs. Assuming that these trend differences are representative for fish consumed by the general Swedish population, this observation suggests that the relative contribution of precursors to total human exposure to PFOS via fish intake has decreased in Sweden over the study period. PFOS precursors in fish may have constituted a significant indirect exposure pathway for PFOS in the 1990s. Isomer-specific analysis of PFOS and FOSA revealed <10% relative contributions of branched isomers to total PFOS and total FOSA. Furthermore, the percentage branched isomers decreased over time for both compounds. These findings are contrary to patterns and temporal trends of PFOS isomers commonly found in human serum. In combination with literature data on isomer patterns in other edible fish species and on isomer-specific human toxicokinetics, our results suggest that fish consumption alone cannot account for the PFOS isomer patterns and trends observed in humans.

  • 39.
    Vestergren, Robin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Glynn, Anders
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids for the Swedish population in 1999, 2005 and 20102012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 49, p. 120-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dietary intake has been hypothesized to be the major pathway of human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). However, difficulties associated with the analysis of PFAAs at ultra trace levels in food samples have prevented the confirmation of this hypothesis. In this study, the dietary intake of PFAAs for the general Swedish population was estimated by applying a highly sensitive analytical method to a set of archived food market basket samples from 1999, 2005 and 2010. Dietary exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) (860-1440 pg kg(-1) day(-1)), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) (90-210 pg kg(-1) day(-1)), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) (50-110 pg kg(-1) day(-1)) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (70-80 pg kg(-1) day(-1)) was dominated by the consumption of fish and meat. In contrast, dietary exposure to PFOA (350-690 pg kg(-1) day(-1)) originated from low levels (8-62 pg g(-1)) found in several high consumption food categories including cereals, dairy products, vegetables and fruit. The dietary intakes of PFOS and PFOA estimated in this study were 4 to 10 times lower compared to previous exposure modeling studies. Nevertheless, the dietary intake of PFOS and PFOA was still a factor of 6 to 10 higher than exposure through ingestion of household dust and drinking water estimated for the general Swedish population. For perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) drinking water intake was the major exposure pathway (36-53% of the total exposure) whereas dust ingestion made a significant contribution (27-49%) to the total exposure for PFHxA, PFHpA, PFNA, perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) and perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA). Dietary intakes varied by less than a factor of three for all PFAAs during the different sampling years which demonstrates that dietary intake has been fairly constant over the past decade when many manufacturing changes occurred.

  • 40. Wang, Meng
    et al.
    Beelen, Rob
    Stafoggia, Massimo
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Fischer, Paul
    Houthuijs, Danny
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
    Weinmayr, Gudrun
    Vineis, Paolo
    Xun, Wei W.
    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina
    Samoli, Evangelia
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    Lanki, Timo
    Turunen, Anu W.
    Oftedal, Bente
    Schwarze, Per
    Aamodt, Geir
    Penell, Johanna
    De Faire, Ulf
    Korek, Michal
    Leander, Karin
    Pershagen, Göran
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Östenson, Claes-Göran
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Thorup Eriksen, Kirsten
    Sörensen, Mette
    Tjönneland, Anne
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Bots, Michiel L.
    Meliefste, Kees
    Kraemer, Ursula
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Sugiri, Dorothea
    Key, Timothy
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Wolf, Kathrin
    Peters, Annette
    Cyrys, Josef
    Jaensch, Andrea
    Concin, Hans
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Phuleria, Harish
    Ineichen, Alex
    Kuenzli, Nino
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Schaffner, Emmanuel
    Vilier, Alice
    Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise
    Declerq, Christophe
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Galassi, Claudia
    Migliore, Enrica
    Ranzi, Andrea
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Badaloni, Chiara
    Forastiere, Francesco
    Katsoulis, Michail
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Keuken, Menno
    Jedynska, Aleksandra
    Kooter, Ingeborg M.
    Kukkonen, Jaakko
    Sokhi, Ranjeet S.
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Hoek, Gerard
    Long-term exposure to elemental constituents of particulate matter and cardiovascular mortality in 19 European cohorts: Results from the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 66, p. 97-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Associations between long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality have been widely recognized. However, health effects of long-term exposure to constituents of PM on total CVD mortality have been explored in a single study only. Aims: The aim of this study was to examine the association of PM composition with cardiovascular mortality. Methods: We used data from 19 European ongoing cohorts within the framework of the ESCAPE (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) and TRANSPHORM (Transport related Air Pollution and Health impacts Integrated Methodologies for Assessing Particulate Matter) projects. Residential annual average exposure to elemental constituents within particle matter smaller than 2.5 and 10 pm (PM2.5 and PM10) was estimated using Land Use Regression models. Eight elements representing major sources were selected a priori (copper, iron, potassium, nickel, sulfur, silicon, vanadium and zinc). Cohort-specific analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models with a standardized protocol. Random-effects metaanalysis was used to calculate combined effect estimates. Results: The total population consisted of 322,291 participants, with 9545 CVD deaths. We found no statistically significant associations between any of the elemental constituents in PM2.5 or PM10 and CVD mortality in the pooled analysis. Most of the hazard ratios (HRs) were close to unity, e.g. for PM10 Fe the combined HR was 0.96 (0.84-1.09). Elevated combined HRs were found for PM2.5 Si (1.17, 95% Cl: 0.93-1.47), and S in PM2.5 (1.08,95% Cl: 0.95-1.22) and PM10 (1.09,95% Cl: 0.90-132). Conclusion: In a joint analysis of 19 European cohorts, we found no statistically significant association between long-term exposure to 8 elemental constituents of particles and total cardiovascular mortality.

  • 41. Wang, Zhanyun
    et al.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Berger, Urs
    Hungerbuhler, Konrad
    Scheringer, Martin
    Comparative assessment of the environmental hazards of and exposure to perfluoroalkyl phosphonic and phosphinic acids (PFPAs and PFPiAs): Current knowledge, gaps, challenges and research needs2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 89-90, p. 235-247Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluoroalkyl phosphonic and phosphinic acids (PFPAs and PFPiAs) are sub-groups of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) that have been commercialized since the 1970s, particularly as defoamers in pesticide formulations and wetting agents in consumer products. Recently, C-4/C-4 PFPiA and its derivatives have been presented as alternatives to long-chain PFASs in certain applications. In this study, we systematically assess the publicly available information on the hazardous properties, occurrence, and exposure routes of PFPAs and PFPiAs, and make comparisons to the corresponding properties of their better-known carboxylic and sulfonic acid analogs (i.e. PFCAs and PFPAs). This comparative assessment indicates that [i] PFPAs likely have high persistence and long-range transport potential; [ii] PFPiAs may transform to PFPAs (and possibly PFCAs) in the environment and biota; [iii] certain PFPAs and PFPiAs can only be slowly eliminated from rainbow trout and rats, similarly to long-chain PFCAs and PFPAs; [iv] PFPAs and PFPiAs have modes-of-action that are both similar to, and different from, those of PFCAs and PFSAs; and [v] the measured levels of PFPAs/PFPiAs in the global environment and biota appear to be low in comparison to PFCAs and PFPAs, suggesting, for the time being, low risks from PFPAs and PFPiAs alone. Although risks from individual PFPAs/PFPiAs are currently low, their ongoing production and use and high persistence will lead to increasing exposure and risks over time. Furthermore, simultaneous exposure to PFPAs, PFPiAs and other PFASs may result in additive effects necessitating cumulative risk assessments. To facilitate effective future research, we highlight possible strategies to overcome sampling and analytical challenges.

  • 42. Wang, Zhanyun
    et al.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Scheringer, Martin
    Buck, Robert C.
    Hungerbuehler, Konrad
    Global emission inventories for C-4-C-14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) homologues from 1951 to 2030, Part I: production and emissions from quantifiable sources2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 70, p. 62-75Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We quantify global emissions of C-4-C-14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) homologues during the life-cycle of products based on perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic add (PFNA), perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (POSF), and fluorotelomer compounds. We estimate emissions of 2610-21400 tonnes of C-4-C-14 PFCAs in the period from 1951 to 2015, and project 20-6420 tonnes to be emitted from 2016 to 2030. The global annual emissions steadily increased in the period 1951-2002, followed by a decrease and then another increase in the period 2002-2012. Releases from fluoropolymer production contributed most to historical PFCA emissions (e.g. 55-83% in 1951-2002). Since 2002, there has been a geographical shift of industrial sources (particularly fluoropolymer production sites) from North America, Europe and Japan to emerging Asian economies, especially China Sources differ between PFCA homologues, sometimes Considerably, and the relative contributions of each source change over time. For example, whereas 98-100% of historical (1951-2002) PFOA emissions are attributed to direct releases during the life-cycle of products containing PFOA as ingredients or impurities, a much higher historical contribution from PFCA precursor degradation is estimated for some other homologues (e.g. 9-78% for PFDA). We address the uncertainties of the PFCA emissions by defining a lower and a higher emission scenario, which differ by approximately a factor of eight.

  • 43. Wang, Zhanyun
    et al.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Scheringer, Martin
    Buck, Robert C.
    Hungerbuehler, Konrad
    Global emission inventories for C-4-C-14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) homologues from 1951 to 2030, part II: The remaining pieces of the puzzle2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 69, p. 166-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We identify eleven emission sources of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic adds (PFCAs) that have not been discussed in the past. These sources can be divided into three groups: [i] PFCAs released as ingredients or impurities, e.g., historical and current use of perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and their derivatives; [ii] PFCAs formed as degradation products, e.g., atmospheric degradation of some hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and hydrofluoroethers (HFEs); and [iii] sources from which PFCAs are released as both impurities and degradation products, e.g., historical and current use of perfluorobutane sulfonyl fluoride (PBSF)- and perfluorohexane sulfonyl fluoride (PHxSF)-based products. Available information confirms that these sources were active in the past or are still active today, but due to a lack of information, it is not yet possible to quantify emissions from these sources. However, our review of the available information on these sources shows that some of the sources may have been significant in the past (e.g., the historical use of PFBA-, PFHxA-, PBSF- and PHxSF-based products), whereas others can be significant in the long-term (e.g., (bio)degradation of various side-chain fluorinated polymers where PFCA precursors are chemically bound to the backbone). In addition, we summarize critical knowledge and data gaps regarding these sources as a basis for future research.

  • 44. Wang, Zhanyun
    et al.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Scheringer, Martin
    Hungerbuehler, Konrad
    Fluorinated alternatives to long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and their potential precursors2013In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 60, p. 242-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2000 there has been an on-going industrial transition to replace long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), perfluoroalkane sulfonic adds (PFSAs) and their precursors. To date, information on these replacements including their chemical identities, however, has not been published or made easily accessible to the public, hampering risk assessment and management of these chemicals. Here we review information on fluorinated alternatives in the public domain. We identify over 20 fluorinated substances that are applied in [i] fluoropolymer manufacture, [ii] surface treatment of textile, leather and carpets, [iii] surface treatment of food contact materials, [iv] metal plating, [v] fire-fighting foams, and [vi] other commercial and consumer products. We summarize current knowledge on their environmental releases, persistence, and exposure of biota and humans. Based on the limited information available, it is unclear whether fluorinated alternatives are safe for humans and the environment. We identify three major data gaps that must be filled to perform meaningful risk assessments and recommend generation of the missing data through cooperation among all stakeholders (industry, regulators, academic scientists and the public).

  • 45. Wang, Zhanyun
    et al.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Scheringer, Martin
    Hungerbuehler, Konrad
    Hazard assessment of fluorinated alternatives to long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their precursors: Status quo, ongoing challenges and possible solutions2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 75, p. 172-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of concerns over the impact of long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) on humans and the environment, PFAAs and their precursors are being substituted by alternative substances including fluorinated alternatives that are structurally similar to the substances they replace. Using publicly accessible information, we aimed to identify the status quo of the hazard assessment of identified fluorinated alternatives, to analyze possible systemic shortcomings of the current industrial transition to alternative substances, and to outline possible solutions. Fluorinated alternatives, particularly short-chain PFAAs and perfluoroether carboxylic and sulfonic acids (PFECAs and PFESAs), possess high environmental stability and mobility implying that they have a high global contamination potential. In addition to their potential for causing global exposures, certain fluorinated alternatives have been identified as toxic and are thus likely to pose global risks to humans and the environment. Various factors, particularly the information asymmetry between industry and other stakeholders, have contributed to the current lack of knowledge about the risks posed by fluorinated alternatives. Available cases show that a non-fluorinated substitution strategy (employing either chemical or functionality substitutions) can be a possible long-term, sustainable solution and needs to be further developed and assessed.

  • 46. Whaley, Paul
    et al.
    Halsall, Crispin
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Aiassa, Elisa
    Benford, Diane
    Bilotta, Gary
    Coggon, David
    Collins, Chris
    Dempsey, Ciara
    Duarte-Davidson, Raquel
    FitzGerald, Rex
    Galay-Burgos, Malyka
    Gee, David
    Hoffmann, Sebastian
    Lam, Juleen
    Lasserson, Toby
    Levy, Len
    Lipworth, Steven
    Ross, Sarah Mackenzie
    Martin, Olwenn
    Meads, Catherine
    Meyer-Baron, Monika
    Miller, James
    Pease, Camilla
    Rooney, Andrew
    Sapiets, Alison
    Stewart, Gavin
    Taylor, David
    Implementing systematic review techniques in chemical risk assessment: Challenges, opportunities and recommendations2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 92-93, p. 556-564Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic review (SR) is a rigorous, protocol-driven approach designed to minimise error and bias when summarising the body of research evidence relevant to a specific scientific question. Taking as a comparator the use of SR in synthesising research in healthcare, we argue that SR methods could also pave the way for a step change in the transparency, objectivity and communication of chemical risk assessments (CRA) in Europe and elsewhere. We suggest that current controversies around the safety of certain chemicals are partly due to limitations in current CRA procedures which have contributed to ambiguity about the health risks posed by these substances. We present an overview of how SR methods can be applied to the assessment of risks from chemicals, and indicate how challenges in adapting SR methods from healthcare research to the CRA context might be overcome. Regarding the latter, we report the outcomes from a workshop exploring how to increase uptake of SR methods, attended by experts representing a wide range of fields related to chemical toxicology, risk analysis and SR Priorities which were identified include: the conduct of CRA-focused prototype SRs; the development of a recognised standard of reporting and conduct for SRs in toxicology and CRA; and establishing a network to facilitate research, communication and training in SR methods. We see this paper as a milestone in the creation of a research climate that fosters communication between experts in CRA and SR and facilitates wider uptake of SR methods into CRA.

  • 47.
    Wong, Fiona
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bounding uncertainties in intrinsic human elimination half-lives and intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the North American population2013In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 59, p. 168-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the balance between intake, intrinsic elimination half-lives and human body burdens measured in biomonitoring for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the North American population using the population-level pharmacokinetic model developed by Ritter et al. (2011). Empirical data are collected from two studies that made total intake estimates for the North American population for the years 2004 and 2005, and eight biomonitoring studies for the years 1992 to 2009. We assume intake of PBDEs increased exponentially to a peak in 2004, and has since exponentially declined. The model is fitted to the empirical PBDE intake and biomonitoring data on PBDE body burden using a least-square optimization method by adjusting the intake in 2004 and 2038, and the intrinsic elimination rate constants, which can be expressed as equivalent half-lives. We. fit the model in two types of scenarios using different combinations of PBDE intake estimates and biomonitoring data. Our modeling results indicate that there is an inconsistency between the PBDE intake estimates and the biomonitoring data, and that the inconsistency is likely due to underestimation of population-level intake. More efforts are needed to better characterize intake rates and identify potentially-unrecognized exposure pathways. Additional age-stratified biomonitoring data, and time trends of PBDE intakes would better constrain the model and provide an improved estimation of the intrinsic elimination half-lives.

  • 48. Xu, Fuchao
    et al.
    Tay, Joo-Hui
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Covaci, Adrian
    Padilla-Sánchez, Juan Antonio
    Papadopoulou, Eleni
    Haug, Line Småstuen
    Neels, Hugo
    Sellström, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Assessment of dietary exposure to organohalogen contaminants, legacy and emerging flame retardants in a Norwegian cohort2017In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 102, p. 236-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), emerging halogenated flame retardants (EHFRs) and organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) were detected in 24 h duplicate diet samples from a Norwegian cohort (n = 61), with concentrations ranging from <method limit of quantification (MLQ)-0.64 ng/g ww, <MLQ-0.70 ng/g ww, <MLQ-0.93 ng/g ww, <MLQ-0.14 ng/g ww, and <MLQ-150 ng/g ww, respectively. All studied contaminants were detected in the duplicate diet samples with detection frequencies (DF) ranging from 1.6 to 98%. The major contaminants were CB153 (median 0.042 ng/g ww), alpha-HCH (median 0.22 ng/g ww), BDE209 (median 0.45 ng/g ww), ethyl hexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPHP) (median 3.0 ng/g ww) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-phthalate (BEH-TEBP) (< MLQ-0.14 ng/g ww). Human dietary exposure assessment was conducted for each participant based on individual body weight and contaminant concentrations in their collected duplicate diet samples. The estimated median (95th percentile) dietary exposures for Sigma PFR, Sigma PCB, Sigma OCP, Sigma PBDE, and Sigma EHFR were 87 (340), 5.8 (27),11 (31), 1.3 (14), and <0.01 (3.4) ng/kg bw/day, respectively. The median and 95th percentile dietary exposures of most of the target analytes did not exceed the reference dose (RID), except for PCBs where 16% of the participants exceeded the RID. However, a relatively short period of such high intake is not expected to result in any adverse health effects. Participants of this cohort were exposed to higher levels of EHDPHP than any other FRs. Fish was the major dietary route for PCB, OCP and PBDE exposure, while meat was the main dietary exposure route for PFRs.

  • 49.
    Yuan, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Strid, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Nyström, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Chlorinated paraffins leaking from hand blenders can lead to significant human exposures2017In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 109, p. 73-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chlorinated paraffins (CPs, polychlorinated n-alkanes) are versatile, high-production-volume chemicals. A previous study indicated that hand blenders leak CPs into prepared food. & para;& para;Objectives: (1) to estimate exposure to CPs from hand blender use compared to background CP exposure from diet; (2) to assess the risk from human dietary exposure to CPs from hand blender use; (3) to investigate how hand blenders leak out CPs. & para;& para;Methods: CPs were analyzed in food market baskets, in cooking oil/water samples (1 g oil/100 mL water) mixed using 16 different hand blenders, and in dismantled components of the hand blenders. & para;& para;Results: Dietary intake of CPs from food market baskets was calculated to be 4.6 mu g/day per capita for Swedish adults. Total CP amounts in oil/water leakage samples ranged from < 0.09 to 120 mu g using the hand blenders once. CP leakage showed no decreasing levels after 20 times of hand blender usage. CP profiles in the leakage samples matched those of self-lubricating bearings and/or polymer components disassembled from the hand blenders. & para;& para;Conclusions: Usage of 75% of the hand blenders tested will lead to increased human exposure to CPs. The intake of CPs for Swedish adults by using hand blenders once a day can raise their daily dietary intake by a factor of up to 26. The 95th percentile intake of CPs via using the hand blenders once a day exceeded the TDI for Swedish infants with a body weight < 7.2 kg. CP leakage came from blender components which contain CPs. The leakage may last several hundred times of hand blender use.

  • 50.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Beronius, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Weight of evidence evaluation and systematic review in EU chemical risk assessment: Foundation is laid but guidance is needed2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 92-93, p. 590-596Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this review was to investigate if and how the application of weight of evidence (WoE) evaluation or systematic review (SR) in chemical risk assessment is promoted within different regulatory frameworks in the European Union. Legislative and relevant guidance documents within nine regulatory frameworks were scrutinized and compared. WoE evaluation or SR is promoted in seven of the investigated frameworks but sufficient guidance for how to perform these processes is generally lacking. None of the investigated frameworks give enough guidance for generating robust and reproducible WoE evaluations or SRs. In conclusion, the foundation for use of WoE evaluation and SR is laid-in the majority of the investigated frameworks, but there is a need to provide more structured and detailed guidance. In order to make the process of developing guidance as efficient as possible, and to ensure smooth transfer of risk assessment's between frameworks if a chemical is risk assessed both as, for example, a biocide and an industrial chemical, it is recommended that guidance is developed jointly by the European regulatory agencies.

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