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  • 1. Allan, Ian J.
    et al.
    Nilsson, Hans C.
    Tjensvoll, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Bradshaw, Clare
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Naes, Kristoffer
    Mobile passive samplers: Concept for a novel mode of exposure2011In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 159, no 10, p. 2393-2397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrative passive sampling with devices such as semipermeable membrane devices generally relies on rigs for month-long static exposures in water. We evaluate here whether mobile exposures of passive samplers can provide reliable estimates of dissolved contaminant concentrations. Mobile exposures were obtained by towing samplers fastened to the end of a benthic trawl net. Significant and reproducible absorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during 5 h-long deployments was made possible by high sampling rates resulting from high water turbulences during towing at 1.2-1.5 knots. Sampling rates (72-215 L d(-1)) estimated from the dissipation of performance reference compounds were supported by in situ calibration with samplers exposed for a 30 days in the vicinity of the test site. Higher fluoranthene and pyrene absorption in samplers exposed to the trawling-induced sediment plume could be attributed to desorption from re-suspended sediments. This mode of exposure has the potential to be used in monitoring programmes.

  • 2. Barthel, Paul
    et al.
    Thuens, Sabine
    Shunthirasingham, Chubashini
    Westgate, John N.
    Wania, Frank
    Radke, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Application of XAD-resin based passive air samplers to assess local (roadside) and regional patterns of persistent organic pollutants2012In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 166, p. 218-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used XAD-resin based passive air samplers (PAS) to measure atmospheric levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at five ombrotrophic bogs in Eastern Canada. The aims of our study were to investigate the influence of local roads on contaminant levels in the bogs, to derive the regional pattern of atmospheric concentrations, and to assess the uncertainties of the method. Expanded uncertainties based on the duplicate PAS deployed at 24 sites were good for the PAHs, while the deployment period of approx. 100 days was too short to yield acceptable uncertainties for PCBs. The regional PAH distribution was in good agreement with the calculated source proximity of the sampled bogs. We conclude that XAD-resin based PAS deployed for comparatively short periods are well suited for measuring atmospheric concentrations of volatile PAHs, while in remote regions longer deployment is necessary for less volatile PAHs and for PCBs.

  • 3.
    Bergqvist, Claes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Herbert, Roger
    Persson, Ingmar
    Greger, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Plants influence on arsenic availability and speciation in the rhizosphere, roots and shoots of three different vegetables2014In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 184, p. 540-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The toxicity of arsenic (As) in the environment is controlled by its concentration, availability and speciation. The aims of the study were to evaluate the accumulation and speciation of As in carrot, lettuce and spinach cultivated in soils with various As concentrations and to estimate the concomitant health risks associated with the consumption of the vegetables. Arsenic concentration and speciation in plant tissues and soils was analysed by HPLC, AAS and XANES spectroscopy. To estimate the plants influence in the rhizosphere, organic acids in lettuce root exudates were analysed by ion chromatography. The results showed that the As accumulation was higher in plants cultivated in soil with higher As extractability. Arsenate predominated in the soils, rhizosphere and root exudates of lettuce. Succinic acid was the major organic acid in lettuce root exudates. Ingestion of the tested vegetables may result in an intake of elevated levels of inorganic As.

  • 4. Bignert, Anders
    et al.
    Olsson, Mats
    Persson, Wawa
    Jensen, Sören
    Zakrisson, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Litzén, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Häggberg, Lisbeth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Alsberg, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Temporal trends of organochlorines in Northern Europe, 1967–1995. Relation to global fractionation, leakage from sediments and international measures1998In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 99, no 2, p. 177-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The time trend monitoring of organochlorine pollution was carried out in Sweden since the late 1960s. This report presents data on concentrations of DDT, PCB, HCHs and HCB in biota samples collected and analysed annually. All the matrices and compounds studied show a significant decrease over time. The data cover severely polluted Swedish marine and fresh water in southern Sweden as well as locally unpolluted waters in remote northern Arctic regions of Sweden. A total of 13 time series representing different locations and species are presented for the different pollutants. The period studied covers the time when pollution was serious as well as the time of recovery. All monitoring activities were carried out at the same laboratories over the entire study period, which means that comparability over time is good in the sets of data presented. The various time trends show a convincing agreement with trends and annual change over time, although the concentrations differ between the species and locations investigated, the highest concentrations being in the south. Since the annual changes are normally similar regardless of locations and species, spatial variations in concentrations remain over time, although concentrations are lower today. The onset of changes in concentrations over time can be related to international measures or other circumstances that lowered releases into the environment. Similarities in the annual changes, as well as the time when changes began, are discussed with respect to suggested hypotheses on the fate of the investigated organochlorines. It was not possible to verify that the oxygenation of anoxic sediments mobilised old pollution in Baltic sediments. Neither was it possible to conclude that eutrophication has caused a measurable effect on the rate and timing of the decreases. Finally, long-range transport to Arctic regions seems to be due more to a one step transport than to the ‘Grass-hopper’ effect. The comprehensive database used, clearly shows how important it is to have datasets big enough to describe between-year variation before attempting to evaluate the time trend. In addition, if between-year variation is not known, it is then also difficult to evaluate spatial variation on the basis of single year observations.

  • 5.
    Bradshaw, Clare
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Tjensvoll, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Sköld, M.
    Allan, I. J.
    Molvaer, J.
    Magnusson, J.
    Naes, K.
    Nilsson, H. C.
    Bottom trawling resuspends sediment and releases bioavailable contaminants in a polluted fjord2012In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 170, p. 232-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediments are sinks for contaminants in the world's oceans. At the same time, commercial bottom trawling is estimated to affect around 15 million km(2) of the world's seafloor every year. However, few studies have investigated whether this disturbance remobilises sediment-associated contaminants and, if so, whether these are bioavailable to aquatic organisms. This field study in a trawled contaminated Norwegian fjord showed that a single 1.8 km long trawl pass created a 3-5 million m(3) sediment plume containing around 9 t contaminated sediment; ie. 200 g dw m(-2) trawled, equivalent to c. 10% of the annual gross sedimentation rate. Substantial amounts of PCDD/Fs and non-ortho PCBs were released from the sediments, likely causing a semi-permanent contaminated sediment suspension in the bottom waters. PCDD/Fs from the sediments were also taken up by mussels which, during one month, accumulated them to levels above the EU maximum advised concentration for human consumption.

  • 6. Brandli, R.C.
    et al.
    Bergsli, A.
    Ghosh, U.
    Hartnik, T.
    Breedveld, G.D.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Quantification of activated carbon contents in soils and sediments using chemothermal and wet oxidation methods2009In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 157, no 12, p. 3465-3470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activated carbon (AC) strongly sorbs organic pollutants and can be used for remediation of soils and sediments. A method for AC quantification is essential to monitor AC (re)distribution. Since AC is black carbon (BC), two methods for BC quantification were tested for AC mixed in different soils and sediments: i) chemothermal oxidation (CTO) at a range of temperatures and ii) wet-chemical oxidation with a potassium dichromate/sulfuric acid solution. For three soils, the amount of AC was accurately determined by CTO at 375 degrees C. For two sediments, however, much of the AC disappeared during combustion at 375 degrees C, which could probably be explained by catalytic effects by sediment constituents. CTO at lower temperatures (325-350 degrees C) was a feasible alternative for one of the sediments. Wet oxidation effectively functioned for AC quantification in sediments, with almost complete AC recovery (81-92%) and low remaining amounts of native organic carbon (5-16%).

  • 7.
    Bui, Thuy T.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Xu, Fuchao
    Van den Eede, Nele
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Covaci, Adrian
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Probing the relationship between external and internal human exposure of organophosphate flame retardants using pharmacokinetic modelling2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 230, p. 550-560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human external exposure (i.e. intake) of organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) has recently been quantified, but no link has yet been established between external and internal exposure. In this study, we used a pharmacokinetic (PK) model to probe the relationship between external and internal exposure data for three PFRs (EHDPHP, TNBP and TPHP) available for a Norwegian cohort of 61 individuals from 61 different households. Using current literature on metabolism of PFRs,, we predicted the metabolite serum/urine concentrations and compared it to measured data from the study population. Unavailable parameters were estimated using a model fitting approach (least squares method) after assigning reasonable constraints on the ranges of fitted parameters. Results showed an acceptable comparison between PK model estimates and measurements (<10-fold deviation) for EHDPHP. However, a deviation of 10-1000 was observed between PM model estimates and measurements for TNBP and TPHP. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis on the PK model revealed that EHDPHP results showed higher uncertainty than TNBP or TPHP. However, there are indications that (1) current biomarkers of exposure (i.e. assumed metabolites) for TNBP and TPHP chemicals might not be specific and ultimately affecting the outcome of the modelling and (2) some exposure pathways might be missing. Further research, such as in vivo laboratory metabolism experiments of PFRs including identification of better biomarkers will reduce uncertainties in human exposure assessment.

  • 8. Chen, Bing
    et al.
    Bai, Zhe
    Cui, Xinjuan
    Chen, Jianmin
    Andersson, August
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Light absorption enhancement of black carbon from urban haze in Northern China winter2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 221, p. 418-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) is an important pollutant for both air quality and Earth's energy balance. Estimates of BC climate forcing remain highly uncertain, e.g., due to the mixing with non-absorbing components. Non-absorbing aerosols create a coating on BC and may thereby act as a lens which may enhance the light absorption. However, this absorption enhancement is poorly constrained. To this end a two-step solvent dissolution protocol was employed to remove both organic and inorganic coatings, and then investigate their effects on BC light absorption. Samples were collected at a severely polluted urban area, Jinan, in the North China Plain (NCP) during February 2014. The BC mass absorption cross-section (MAC) was measured for the aerosol samples before and after the solvent-decoating treatment, and the enhancement of MAC (E-MAC) from the coating effect was defined as the ratio. A distinct diurnal pattern for the enhancement was observed, with EMAC 1.3 +/- 0.3 (1 S.D.) in the morning, increasing to 2.2 +/- 1.0 in the afternoon, after that dropping to 1.5 +/- 0.8 in the evening-night. The BC absorption enhancement primarily was associated with urban-scale photochemical production of nitrate and sulfate aerosols. In addition to that, regional-scale haze plume with increasing sulfate levels strengthened the absorption enhancement. These observations offer direct evidence for an increased absorption enhancement of BC due to severe air pollution in China.

  • 9.
    Gebbink, Wouter A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Glynn, Anders
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Temporal changes (1997-2012) of perfluoroalkyl acids and selected precursors (including isomers) in Swedish human serum2015In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 199, p. 166-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations (including isomer patterns) and temporal changes (1997-2012) of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and selected perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) precursors were determined in serum samples from Swedish women. Perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) and perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetic acid (FOSAA), as well as its N-methyl and N-ethyl derivatives (MeFOSAA and EtFOSAA) were consistently detected. Highest PFOS precursor concentrations were found for EtFOSAA (before year 2000) or MeFOSAA and FOSAA (after 2000). Disappearance half-lives for all PFOS precursors were shorter compared to PFOS. 4:2/6:2 and 6:2/6:2 polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs) were detected in <60% of the samples, whereas 6:2/8:2 and 8:2/8:2 diPAPs were detected in >60% of the samples, but showed no significant change in concentrations over time. Linear and sumbranched isomers were quantified separately for three PFAAs and three precursors. Significant changes between 1997 and 2012 in the % linear isomer were observed for PFOA and FOSA (increase) and PFOS (decrease).

  • 10.
    Gebbink, Wouter A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Glynn, Anders
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in Swedish food: The relative importance of direct and indirect dietary exposure2015In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 198, p. 108-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyzed food market basket samples obtained in Sweden from 1999, 2005, and 2010 for perfluoroallcyl acids (PFAAs) and a range of precursor compounds. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) precursors were detected in all food year pools with the highest concentrations in 1999. Six polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs, 4:2/6:2, 6:2/6:2, 6:2/8:2, 8:2/8:2, 6:2/10:2, and 10:2/10:2) were detected in the year pools with the highest Sigma diPAP concentrations in 1999 and 2005. All precursors were predominantly found in meat, fish, and/or eggs based on analysis of individual food groups from 1999. Based on year pools, PFOS precursors contributed between 4 and 1% as an indirect source to total dietary PFOS intakes between 1999 and 2010. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) exposure originated entirely from diPAPs, whereas for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), diPAPs contributed between 1 and 19% to total exposure. The lowest precursor contributions were generally seen in food samples from 2010.

  • 11.
    Greger, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Kabir, Ahmad H.
    Landberg, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Maity, Pooja J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Lindberg, Sylvia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Silicate reduces cadmium uptake into cells of wheat2016In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 211, p. 90-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cadmium (Cd) is a health threat all over the world and high Cd content in wheat causes high Cd intake. Silicon (Si) decreases cadmium content in wheat grains and shoot. This work investigates whether and how silicate (Si) influences cadmium (Cd) uptake at the cellular level in wheat. Wheat seedlings were grown in the presence or absence of Si with or without Cd. Cadmium, Si, and iron (Fe) accumulation in roots and shoots was analysed. Leaf protoplasts from plants grown without Cd were investigated for Cd uptake in the presence or absence of Si using the fluorescent dye, Leadmium Green AM. Roots and shoots of plants subjected to all four treatments were investigated regarding the expression of genes involved in the Cd uptake across the plasma membrane (i.e. LCT1) and efflux of Cd into apoplasm or vacuole from the cytosol (i.e. HMA2). In addition, phytochelatin (PC) content and PC gene (PCS1) expression were analysed. Expression of iron and metal transporter genes (IRT1 and NRAMP1) were also analysed. Results indicated that Si reduced Cd accumulation in plants, especially in shoot. Si reduced Cd transport into the cytoplasm when Si was added both directly during the uptake measurements and to the growth medium. Silicate downregulated LCT1 and HMA2 and upregulated PCS1. In addition, Si enhanced PC formation when Cd was present. The IRT1 gene, which was downregulated by Cd was upregulated by Si in root and shoot facilitating Fe transport in wheat. NRAMP1 was similarly expressed, though the effect was limited to roots. This work is the first to show how Si influences Cd uptake on the cellular level.

  • 12.
    Greger, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Wang, Yaodong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Neuschütz, Clara
    Absence of Hg transpiration by shoot after Hg uptake by roots of six terrestrial plant species2005In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 134, no 2, p. 201-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigated if, and to what extent, six different plant species accumulate, translocate and emit mercury (Hg) into the air. The Hg uptake by roots, distribution of Hg to the shoot and release of Hg via shoots of garden pea, spring wheat, sugar beet, oil-seed rape, white clover and willow were investigated in a transpiration chamber. The airborne Hg was trapped in a Hopcalite trap or a gold trap. Traps and plant materials were analysed for content of Hg by CVAAS. The results show that all plant species were able to take up Hg to a large extent from a nutrient solution containing 200 μg L−1 Hg. However, the Hg translocation to the shoot was low (0.17–2.5%) and the Hg that reached the leaves was trapped and no release of the absorbed Hg to the air was detected.

    Mercury translocation to shoots was low.

  • 13.
    Göktas, Recep Kaya
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Kocaeli University, Turkey.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Remoteness from sources of persistent organic pollutants in the multi-media global environment2016In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 217, p. 33-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantifying the remoteness from sources of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can inform the design of monitoring studies and the interpretation of measurement data. Previous work on quantifying remoteness has not explicitly considered partitioning between the gas phase and aerosols, and between the atmosphere and the Earth's surface. The objective of this study is to present a metric of remoteness for POPs transported through the atmosphere calculated with a global multimedia fate model, BETR-Research. We calculated the remoteness of regions covering the entire globe from emission sources distributed according to light emissions, and taking into account the multimedia partitioning properties of chemicals and using averaged global climate data. Remoteness for hypothetical chemicals with distinct partitioning properties (volatile, seimi-volatile, hydrophilic, low-volatility) and having two different half-lives in air (60-day and 2-day) are presented. Differences in remoteness distribution among the hypothetical chemicals are most pronounced in scenarios assuming 60-day half-life in air. In scenarios with a 2-day half-life in air, degradation dominates over wet and dry deposition processes as a pathway for atmospheric removal of all chemicals except the low-volatility chemical. The remoteness distribution of the low-volatility chemical is strongly dependent on assumptions about degradability on atmospheric aerosols. Calculations that considered seasonal variability in temperature, hydroxyl radical concentrations in the atmosphere and global atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns indicate that variability in hydroxyl radical concentrations largely determines the seasonal variability of remoteness. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) measured in tree bark from around the world are more highly correlated with remoteness calculated using our methods than with proximity to human population, and we see considerable potential to apply remoteness calculations for interpretation of monitoring data collected under programs such as the Stockholm Convention Global Monitoring Plan.

  • 14. Heath, E.
    et al.
    Kosjek, T.
    Andersen, H. R.
    Luetzhoft, H.-C. Holten
    Adolfson-Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Coquery, M.
    Duering, R. -A
    Gans, O.
    Guignard, C.
    Karlsson, P.
    Manciot, F.
    Moldovan, Z.
    Patureau, D.
    Cruceru, L.
    Sacher, F.
    Ledin, A.
    Inter-laboratory exercise on steroid estrogens in aqueous samples2010In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 158, no 3, p. 658-662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An inter-laboratory comparison exercise was organized among European laboratories, under the aegis of EU COST Action 636: ""Xenobiotics in Urban Water Cycle"" The objective was to evaluate the performance of testing laboratories determining ""Endocrine Disrupting Compounds"" (EDC) in various aqueous matrices. As the main task three steroid estrogens. 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol, 17 beta-estradiol and estrone were determined in four spiked aqueous matrices' tap water, river water and wastewater treatment plant influent and effluent using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS Results were compared and discussed according to the analytical techniques applied, the accuracy and reproducibility of the analytical methods and the nature of the sample matrices. Overall, the results obtained in this inter-laboratory exercise reveal a high level of competence among the participating laboratories for the detection of steroid estrogens in water samples indicating that GC-MS as well as LC-MS/MS can equally be employed for the analysis of natural and synthetic hormones.

  • 15.
    Jaeschke, Benedict
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Millward, Geoffrey E.
    Moody, A. John
    Jha, Awadhesh N.
    Tissue-specific incorporation and genotoxicity of different forms of tritium in the marine mussel, Mytilus edulis2011In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 159, no 1, p. 274-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine mussels (Mytilus edulis) were exposed to seawater spiked with tritiated water (HTO) at a dose rate of 122 and 79 mu Gy h(-1) for 7 and 14 days, respectively, and tritiated glycine (T-Gly) at a dose rate of 4.9 mu Gy h(-1) over 7 days. This was followed by deputation in clean seawater for 21 days. Tissues (foot, gills, digestive gland, mantle, adductor muscle and byssus) and DNA extracts from tissues were analysed for their tritium activity concentrations. All tissues demonstrated bio-accumulation of tritium from HTO and T-Gly. Tritium from T-Gly showed increased incorporation into DNA compared to HTO. About 90% of the initial activity from HTO was depurated within one day, whereas T-Gly was depurated relatively slowly, indicating that tritium may be bound with different affinities in tissues. Both forms of tritium caused a significant induction of micronuclei in the haemocytes of mussels. Our findings identify significant differential impacts on Mytilus edulis of the two chemical forms of tritium and emphasise the need for a separate classification and control of releases of tritiated compounds, to adequately protect the marine ecosystem.

  • 16.
    Johansson, Jana H.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Berger, Urs
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Can the use of deactivated glass fibre filters eliminate sorption artefacts associated with active air sampling of perfluorooctanoic acid?2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 224, p. 779-786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental work was undertaken to test whether gaseous perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) sorbs to glassfibre filters (GFFs) during air sampling, causing an incorrect measure of the gas-particle equilibriumdistribution. Furthermore, tests were performed to investigate whether deactivation by siliconisationprevents sorption of gaseous PFOA to filter materials. An apparatus was constructed to closely simulate ahigh-volume air sampler, although with additional features allowing introduction of gaseous test compoundsinto an air stream stripped from particles. The set-up enabled investigation of the sorption ofgaseous test compounds to filter media, eliminating any contribution from particles. Experiments wereperformed under ambient outdoor air conditions at environmentally relevant analyte concentrations.The results demonstrate that gaseous PFOA sorbs to GFFs, but that breakthrough of gaseous PFOA on theGFFs occurs at trace-level loadings. This indicates that during high volume air sampling, filters do notquantitatively capture all the PFOA in the sampled air. Experiments with siliconised GFFs showed thatthis filter pre-treatment reduced the sorption of gaseous PFOA, but that sorption still occurred atenvironmentally relevant air concentrations. We conclude that deactivation of GFFs does not allow forthe separation of gaseous and particle bound perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) during active airsampling. Consequently, the well-recognised theory that PFCAs do not prevail as gaseous species in theatmosphere may be based on biased measurements. Caution should be taken to ensure that this artefactwill not bias the conclusions of future field studies.

  • 17.
    Johansson, Jana H.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Vestergren, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Norwegian Institute for Air Resarch NILU, Norway.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bignert, Anders
    Glynn, Anders
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    Temporal trends (1999-2010) of perfluoroalkyl acids in commonly consumed food items2014In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 188, p. 102-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine how dietary exposure to PFAAs has changed over the period when major production changes occurred. Archived samples (1999-2010) of eggs, milk and farmed rainbow trout were analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Statistically significant decreasing trends were observed for concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) in fish (p < 0.002 and p < 0.032, respectively) and eggs (p < 0.001 for both compounds). Concentrations of PFOS in fish and eggs decreased by a factor of 10 and 40, respectively. In eggs there was also a statistically significant decreasing trend in concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). The results of this study demonstrate that PFAA concentrations in food items from agricultural food chains and aquatic food chains close to sources respond rapidly to changes in environmental emissions. Implications for the overall understanding of human exposure are discussed.

  • 18.
    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Norström, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Olsson, Mats
    Pham-Tuan, Hai
    Hühnerfuss, Heinrich
    Bignert, Anders
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Temporal trend of bis(4-chlorophenyl) sulfone, methylsulfonyl-DDE andd -PCB in Baltic guillemot (Uria aalge) egg 1971-2001 - A comparison to 4,4'-DDE and PCB trends2006In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 141, no 2, p. 226-237Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ytreberg, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Toxicity of anti-fouling paints for use on ships and leisure boats to non-target organisms representing three trophic levels2010In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 158, no 3, p. 681-687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leachates of anti-fouling paints for use on ships and leisure boats are examined for their ecotoxicological potential. Paint leachates were produced in both 7‰ artificial (ASW) and natural seawater (NSW) and tested on three organisms, the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne, and the crustacean Nitocra spinipes. Generally, leaching in ASW produced a more toxic leachate and was up to 12 times more toxic to the organisms than was the corresponding NSW leachate. The toxicity could be explained by elevated concentrations of Cu and Zn in the ASW leachates. Of the NSW leachates, those from the ship paints were more toxic than those from leisure boat paints. The most toxic paint was the biocide-free leisure boat paint Micron Eco. This implies that substances other than added active agents (biocides) were responsible for the observed toxicity, which would not have been discovered without the use of biological tests.

  • 20. Kylin, Henrik
    et al.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Jensen, Sören
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Strachan, William M. J.
    Franich, Robert
    Bouwman, Hindrik
    The trans-continental distributions of pentachlorophenol and pentachloroanisole in pine needles indicate separate origins2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 229, p. 688-695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production and use of pentachlorophenol (PCP) was recently prohibited/restricted by the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs), but environmental data are few and of varying quality. We here present the first extensive dataset of the continent-wide (Eurasia and Canada) occurrence of PCP and its methylation product pentachloroanisole (PCA) in the environment, specifically in pine needles. The highest concentrations of PCP were found close to expected point sources, while PCA chiefly shows a northern and/or coastal distribution not correlating with PCP distribution. Although long-range transport and environmental methylation of PCP or formation from other precursors cannot be excluded, the distribution patterns suggest that such processes may not be the only source of PCA to remote regions and unknown sources should be sought. We suggest that natural sources, e.g., chlorination of organic matter in Boreal forest soils enhanced by chloride deposition from marine sources, should be investigated as a possible partial explanation of the observed distributions. The results show that neither PCA nor total PCP (Sigma PCP = PCP + PCA) should be used to approximate the concentrations of PCP; PCP and PCA must be determined and quantified separately to understand their occurrence and fate in the environment. The background work shows that the accumulation of airborne POPs in plants is a complex process. The variations in life cycles and physiological adaptations have to be taken into account when using plants to evaluate the concentrations of POPs in remote areas.

  • 21.
    Lagerström, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Strand, Jakob
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Ytreberg, Erik
    Total tin and organotin speciation in historic layers of antifouling paint on leisure boat hulls2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 220, p. 1333-1341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite their ban on small vessels in 1989 in the EU, organotin compounds (OTCs) are still being released into the environment due to their presence in historic paint layers on leisure boats. 23 paint samples scraped from recreational boats from three countries around the Baltic Sea were analyzed for total tin (Sn) and OTCs. Two antifouling paint products were also subjected to the same analyses. A new method for the detection of Sn in paint flake samples was developed and found to yield more accurate results compared to four different acid digestion methods. A new method was also developed for the extraction of OTCs from ground paint flakes. This endeavor revealed that existing methods for organotin analysis of sediment may not have full recoveries of OTCs if paint flakes are present in the sample. The hull paint samples had Sn concentrations ranging from 25 to 18,000 mg/kg paint and results showed that tributyltin (TBT) was detected in all samples with concentrations as high as 4.7 g (as Sn)/kg paint. TBT was however not always the major OTC. Triphenyltin (TPhT) was abundant in many samples, especially in those originating from Finland. Several other compounds such as monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), tetrabutyltin (TeBT), monophenyltin (MPhT) and diphenyltin (DPhT) were also detected. These could be the result of degradation occurring on the hull or of impurities in the paint products as they were also identified in the two analyzed paint products. A linear correlation (r(2) = 0.934) was found between the total tin content and the sum of all detected OTCs. The detection of tin can therefore be used to indicate the presence of OTCs on leisure boats. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.

  • 22.
    Lindim, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    vanGils, J.
    Estimating emissions of PFOS and PFOA to the Danube River catchment and evaluating them using a catchment-scale chemical transport and fate model2015In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 207, p. 97-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel approaches for estimating the emissions of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to surface waters are explored. The Danube River catchment is used to investigate emissions contributing to riverine loads of PFOS and PFOA and to verify the accuracy of estimates using a catchment-scale dynamic fugacity-based chemical transport and fate model (STREAM-EU; Spatially and Temporally Resolved Exposure Assessment Model for European basins). Model accuracy evaluation performed by comparing STREAM-EU predicted concentrations and monitoring data for the Danube and its tributaries shows that the best estimates for PFOS and PFOA emissions in the Danube region are obtained by considering the combined contributions of human population, wealth (based on local gross domestic product (GDP)) and wastewater treatment. Human population alone cannot explain the levels of PFOS and PFOA found in the Danube catchment waters. Introducing wealth distribution information in the form of local GDPs improves emission estimates markedly, likely by better representing emissions resulting from consumer trends, industrial and commercial sources. For compounds such as PFOS and PFOA, whose main sink and transport media is the aquatic compartment, a major source to freshwater are wastewater treatment plants. Introducing wastewater treatment information in the emission estimations also further improves emission estimates.

  • 23.
    Lindim, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    van Gils, J.
    Cousins, I. T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Kuehne, R.
    Georgieva, D.
    Kutsarova, S.
    Mekenyan, O.
    Model-predicted occurrence of multiple pharmaceuticals in Swedish surface waters and their flushing to the Baltic Seat2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 223, p. 595-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An exposure assessment for multiple pharmaceuticals in Swedish surface waters was made using the STREAM-EU model. Results indicate that Metformin (27 ton/y), Paracetamol (6.9 ton/y) and Ibuprofen (2.33 ton/y) were the drugs with higher amounts reaching the Baltic Sea in 2011. 35 of the studied substances had more than 1 kg/y of predicted flush to the sea. Exposure potential given by the ratio amount of the drug exported to the sea/amount emitted to the environment was higher than 50% for 7 drugs (Piperacillin, Lorazepam, Metformin, Hydroxycarbamide, Hydrochlorothiazide, Furosemide and Cetirizine), implying that a high proportion of them will reach the sea, and below 10% for 27 drugs, implying high catchment attenuation. Exposure potentials were found to be dependent of persistency and hydrophobicity of the drugs. Chemicals with Log D > 2 had exposure potentials <10% regardless of their persistence. Chemicals with Log D < 2 had exposure potentials >35% with higher ratios typically achieved for longer half-lives. For Stockholm urban area, 17 of the 54 pharmaceuticals studied had calculated concentrations higher than 10 ng/L. Model agreement with monitored values had an r(2) = 0.62 for predicted concentrations and an r2 = 0.95 for predicted disposed amounts to sea.

  • 24.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    von Waldow, Harald
    Tay, Pascal
    Armitage, James M.
    Woehrnschimmel, Henry
    Riley, William J.
    McKone, Thomas E.
    Hungerbuhler, Konrad
    BETR global - A geographically-explicit global-scale multimedia contaminant fate model2011In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 159, no 5, p. 1442-1445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present two new software implementations of the BETR Global multimedia contaminant fate model. The model uses steady-state or non-steady-state mass-balance calculations to describe the fate and transport of persistent organic pollutants using a desktop computer. The global environment is described using a database of long-term average monthly conditions on a 15 degrees x 15 degrees grid. We demonstrate BETR Global by modeling the global sources, transport, and removal of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5).

  • 25.
    Mustajärvi, Lukas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Eek, Espen
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Eriksson-Wiklund, Ann-Kristin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Undeman, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Sobek, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    In situ benthic flow-through chambers to determine sediment-to-water fluxes of legacy hydrophobic organic contaminants2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 231, p. 854-862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contaminated sediment can release hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) and thereby act as a secondary source of primarily legacy hazardous substances to the water column. There is therefore a need for assessments of the release of HOCs from contaminated sediment for prioritization of management actions. In situ assessment of HOC sediment-to-water flux is currently done with (closed) benthic flux chambers, which have a sampling time exceeding one month. During this time, the water inside the chamber is depleted of oxygen and the effect of bioturbation on the sediment-to-water release of HOCs is largely ignored. Here we present a novel benthic flux chamber, which measures sediment-to-water flux of legacy HOCs within days, and includes the effect of bioturbation since ambient oxygen levels inside the chamber are maintained by continuous pumping of water through the chamber. This chamber design allows for sediment-to-water flux measurements under more natural conditions. The chamber design was tested in a contaminated Baltic Sea bay. Measured fluxes were 62–2300 ng m−2 d−1 for individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 5.5–150 ng m−2 d−1 for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). These fluxes were 3–23 times (PAHs) and 12–74 times (PCBs) higher than fluxes measured with closed benthic chambers deployed in parallel at the same location. We hypothesize that the observed difference in HOC flux between the two chamber designs are partly an effect of bioturbation. This hypothesized effect of bioturbation was in accordance with literature data from experimental studies.

  • 26. Mwevura, Haji
    et al.
    Amir, Omar A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Kishimba, Michael
    Berggren, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Organohalogen compounds in blubber of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) and spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) from Zanzibar, Tanzania2010In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 158, no 6, p. 2200-2207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blubber samples of Indo-Pacific bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and spinner (Stenella longirostris) dolphins from Zanzibar, East Africa, were analysed for a wide range of organohalogen compounds. Methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-BDEs), presumably biogenic, were found at higher concentrations than anthropogenic organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Only traces of industrial pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, were detected. The OCP levels found off Zanzibar were lower than those reported from other regions while MeO-BDE levels were higher. The relative composition of the OCPs indicated recent use of lindane (γ-hexachlorocyclohexane) and aged residues of DDT and technical HCH. Placental transfer was estimated to 2.5% and 0.5% of the total burden of OCPs and MeO-BDEs, respectively. Overall transfer from mother to calf in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins was estimated to 72% and 85% for the OCPs and MeO-BDEs burdens, respectively. Health effects of MeO-BDEs are not known, but structural similarities with well-known environmental toxins are cause for concern.

  • 27.
    Nfon, Erick
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins, Ian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Modelling PCB bioaccumulation in a Baltic food web2007In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 148, p. 73-82Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Nfon, Erick
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Interpreting time trends and biomagnification of PCBs in the Baltic region using the equilibrium lipid partitioning approach2006In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 144, p. 994-1000Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29. Nhu, Trang T.
    et al.
    Schaubroeck, Thomas
    Henriksson, Patrik J. G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. WorldFish, Penang, Malaysia.
    Bosma, Roel
    Sorgeloos, Patrick
    Dewulf, Jo
    Environmental impact of non-certified versus certified (ASC) intensive Pangasius aquaculture in Vietnam, a comparison based on a statistically supported LCA2016In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 219, p. 156-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pangasius production in Vietnam is widely known as a success story in aquaculture, the fastest growing global food system because of its tremendous expansion by volume, value and the number of international markets to which Pangasius has been exported in recent years. While certification schemes are becoming significant features of international fish trade and marketing, an increasing number of Pangasius producers have followed at least one of the certification schemes recognised by international markets to incorporate environmental and social sustainability practices in aquaculture, typically the Pangasius Aquaculture Dialogue (PAD) scheme certified by the Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC). An assessment of the environmental benefit of applying certification schemes on Pangasius production, however, is still needed. This article compared the environmental impact of ASC-certified versus non-ASC certified intensive Pangasius aquaculture, using a statistically supported LCA. We focused on both resource-related (water, land and total resources) and emissions-related (global warming, acidification, freshwater and marine eutrophication) categories. The ASC certification scheme was shown to be a good approach for determining adequate environmental sustainability, especially concerning emissions related categories, in Pangasius production. However, the non-ASC certified farms, due to the large spread, the impact (e.g., water resources and freshwater eutrophication) was possibly lower for a certain farm. However, this result was not generally prominent. Further improvements in intensive Pangasius production to inspire certification schemes are proposed, e.g., making the implementation of certification schemes more affordable, well-oriented and facilitated; reducing consumed feed amounts and of the incorporated share in fishmeal, especially domestic fishmeal, etc. However, their implementation should be vetted with key stakeholders to assess their feasibility.

  • 30.
    Palm, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Trent University.
    Mackay, Donald
    Trent University.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University.
    Metcalfe, Chris
    Trent University.
    Alaee, Mehran
    National Water Research Institute.
    Assessing the environmental fate of chemicals of emerging concern:a case study of the polybrominated diphenyl ethers2002In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 117, no 2, p. 195-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is suggested that assessments of chemicals of emerging concern can be rationally structured around a multistage process in which fate and risk are evaluated with increasing accuracy as new data become available. An initial tentative and approximate assessment of fate and risk can identify key data gaps and justify and direct further investigations, which progressively improve the reliability of the assessment. This approach is demonstrated for a class of chemicals, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which is of increasing concern, but about which there is presently a lack of comprehensive data on properties, sources, fate and effects. Specifically, 20 PBDE congeners are investigated using the suggested approach and research needs are identified.

  • 31. Peng, Qin
    et al.
    Wang, Mengke
    Cui, Zewei
    Huang, Jie
    Chen, Changer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Guo, Lu
    Liang, Dongli
    Assessment of bioavailability of selenium in different plant-soil systems by diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT)2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 225, p. 637-643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uptake of selenium (Se) by plants largely depend on the availability of Se in soil. Soils and plants were sampled four times within 8 weeks of plant growth in pot experiments using four plant species. Sequential extraction and diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) method were employed to measure Se concentrations in potted soils in selenite- or selenate-amended soils. Results showed that DGT-measured Se concentrations (C-DGT-Se) were generally several folds higher for selenate than selenite amended soils, which were obviously affected by the plant species and the duration of their growth. For example, the folds in soil planted with mustard were 1.49-3.47 and those in soils planted with purple cabbage and broccoli, which grew for 3 and 4 weeks after sowing, were 1.06-2.14 and only 0.15-0.62 after 6 weeks of growth. The selenate-amended soil planted with wheat showed an extremely high C-DGT-Se compared with selenite-amended soil, except the last harvest. Furthermore, minimal changes in C-DGT-Se and soluble Se(IV) were found in selenite-amended soils during plant growth, whereas significant changes were observed in selenate-amended soils (p < 0.05). Additionally, Se distribution in various fractions of soil remarkably changed; the soils planted with purple cabbage and broccoli showed the most obvious change followed by wheat and mustard. Soluble Se(VI) and exchangeable Se(VI) were likely the major sources of C-DGT-Se in selenate-amended soils, and soluble Se(IV) was the possible source of C-DCT-Se in selenite-amended soils. In selenate-amended soils, soluble Se(VI) and exchangeable Se(VI) were significantly correlated with Se concentrations in purple cabbage, broccoli, and mustard; in wheat, Se concentration was significantly correlated only with soluble Se(VI) but not with exchangeable Se. C-DGT-Se eventually became positively correlated with Se concentrations accumulated by different plants, indicating that DGT is a feasible method in predicting plant uptake of selenate but not of selenite.

  • 32. Reichenberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlson, Ulrich Gosewinkel
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Long, Sara M.
    Pritchard, Parmely H.
    Mayer, Philipp
    Low accessibility and chemical activity of PAHs restrict bioremediation and risk of exposure in a manufactured gas plant soil2010In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 158, no 5, p. 1214-1220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composting of manufactured gas plant soil by a commercial enterprise had removed most of its polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but concentrations remained above regulatory threshold levels. Several amendments and treatments were first tested to restart the PAH degradation, albeit with little success. The working hypothesis was then that PAHs were ""stuck"" due to strong sorption to black carbon. Accessibility was measured with cyclodextrin extractions and on average only 4% of the PAHs were accessible. Chemical activity of the PAHs was measured by equilibrium sampling, which confirmed a low exposure level. These results are consistent with strong sorption to black carbon (BC), which constituted 59% of the total organic carbon. Composting failed to remove the PAHs, but it succeeded to minimize PAH accessibility and chemical activity. This adds to accumulating evidence that current regulatory thresholds based on bulk concentrations are questionable and alternative approaches probing actual risk should be considered.

  • 33. Roos, Anna M.
    et al.
    Backlin, Britt-Marie V. M.
    Helander, Bjorn O.
    Riget, Frank E.
    Eriksson, Ulla C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Improved reproductive success in otters (Lutra lutra), grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) from Sweden in relation to concentrations of organochlorine contaminants2012In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 170, p. 268-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied indices of reproductive outcome in three aquatic species in relation to organochlorine concentrations during four decades. In female otters, the frequency of signs of reproduction increased after 1990. In grey seals, pregnancy rate increased 1990-2010 and uterine obstructions ceased after 1993. The frequency of uterine tumours was highest 1980-2000. The number of sea eagle nestlings per checked nest increased 1985-2000, while the frequency of desiccated eggs decreased. Organochlorine concentrations decreased at annual rates between 3.5 and 10.2%. The estimated mean concentration (mg/kg lw) for total-PCB decreased from 70 to 8 (otters), from 110 to 15 (seals) and from 955 to 275 (eagles). The corresponding concentrations for Sigma DDT decreased from 3.4 to 0.2 (otters), from 192 to 2.8 (seals) and from 865 to 65 (eagles). This study adds evidence to support the hypothesis that PCBs and DDTs have had strong negative effects on the reproduction and population levels of these species.

  • 34. Rozemeijer, J. C.
    et al.
    van der Velde, Y.
    Soil Physics, Ecohydrology and Groundwater management Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    van Geer, F. C.
    Bierkens, M. F. P.
    Broers, H. P.
    Direct measurements of the tile drain and groundwater flow route contributions to surface water contamination: From field-scale concentration patterns in groundwater to catchment-scale surface water quality2010In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 158, no 12, p. 3571-3579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enhanced knowledge of water and solute pathways in catchments would improve the understanding of dynamics in water quality and would support the selection of appropriate water pollution mitigation options. For this study, we physically separated tile drain effluent and groundwater discharge from an agricultural field before it entered a 43.5-m ditch transect. Through continuous discharge measurements and weekly water quality sampling, we directly quantified the flow route contributions to surface water discharge and solute loading. Our multi-scale experimental approach allowed us to relate these measurements to field-scale NO(3) concentration patterns in shallow groundwater and to continuous NO(3) records at the catchment outlet. Our results show that the tile drains contributed 90-92% of the annual NO(3) and heavy metal loads. Considering their crucial role in water and solute transport, enhanced monitoring and modeling of tile drainage are important for adequate water quality management.

  • 35.
    Sandhi, Arifin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Landberg, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Greger, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Phytofiltration of arsenic by aquatic moss (Warnstorfia fluitans)2018In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 237, p. 1098-1105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigates whether aquatic moss (Warnstorfia fluitans) originating from an arsenic (As) contaminated wetland close to a mine tailings impoundment may be used for phytofiltration of As. The aim was to elucidate the capacity of W. fluitans to remove As from arsenite and arsenate contaminated water, how nutrients affect the As uptake and the proportion of As adsorption and absorption by the moss plant, which consists of dead and living parts. Arsenic removal from 0, 1, or 10% Hoagland nutrient solution containing 0-100 mu M arsenate was followed over 192 h, and the total As in aquatic moss after treatment was analysed. The uptake and speciation of As in moss cultivated in water containing 10 mu M arsenate or arsenite were examined as As uptake in living (absorption + adsorption) and dead (adsorption) plant parts. Results indicated that W. fluitans removed up to 82% of As from the water within one hour when 1 mu M arsenate was added in the absence of nutrients. The removal time increased with greater nutrient and As concentrations. Up to 100 mu M As had no toxic effect on the plant biomass. Both arsenite and arsenate were removed from the solution to similar extents and, independent of the As species added, more arsenate than arsenite was found in the plant. Of the As taken up, over 90% was firmly bound to the tissue, a possible mechanism for resisting high As concentrations. Arsenic was both absorbed and adsorbed by the moss, and twice as much As was found in living parts as in dead moss tissue. This study revealed that W fluitans has potential to serve as a phytofilter for removing As from As-contaminated water without displaying any toxic effects of the metalloid.

  • 36. Sicard, Pierre
    et al.
    Augustaitis, Algirdas
    Belyazid, Salim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Calfapietra, Carlo
    de Marco, Alessandra
    Fenn, Mark
    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej
    Grulke, Nancy
    He, Shang
    Matyssek, Rainer
    Serengil, Yusuf
    Wieser, Gerhard
    Paoletti, Elena
    Global topics and novel approaches in the study of air pollution, climate change and forest ecosystems2016In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 213, p. 977-987Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research directions from the 27th conference for Specialists in Air Pollution and Climate Change Effects on Forest Ecosystems (2015) reflect knowledge advancements about (i) Mechanistic bases of tree responses to multiple climate and pollution stressors, in particular the interaction of ozone (O-3) with nitrogen (N) deposition and drought; (ii) Linking genetic control with physiological whole-tree activity; (iii) Epigenetic responses to climate change and air pollution; (iv) Embedding individual tree performance into the multi-factorial stand-level interaction network; (v) Interactions of biogenic and anthropogenic volatile compounds (molecular, functional and ecological bases); (vi) Estimating the potential for carbon/pollution mitigation and cost effectiveness of urban and periurban forests; (vii) Selection of trees adapted to the urban environment; (viii) Trophic, competitive and host/parasite relationships under changing pollution and climate; (ix) Atmosphere -iosphere-pedosphere interactions as affected by anthropospheric changes; (x) Statistical analyses for epidemiological investigations; (xi) Use of monitoring for the validation of models; (xii) Holistic view for linking the climate, carbon, N and O-3 odelling; (xiii) Inclusion of multiple environmental stresses (biotic and abiotic) in critical load determinations; (xiv) Ecological impacts of N deposition in the under-investigated areas; (xv) Empirical models for mechanistic effects at the local scale; (xvi) Broad-scale N and sulphur deposition input and their effects on forest ecosystem services; (xvii) Measurements of dry deposition of N; (xviii) Assessment of evapotranspiration; (xix) Remote sensing assessment of hydrological parameters; and (xx) Forest management for maximizing water provision and overall forest ecosystem services. Ground-level O-3 is still the phytotoxic air pollutant of major concern to forest health. Specific issues about O-3 are: (xxi) Developing dose response relationships and stomatal O-3 flux parameterizations for risk assessment, especially, in under-investigated regions; (xxii) Defining biologically based O-3 standards for protection thresholds and critical levels; (xxiii) Use of free-air exposure facilities; (xxiv) Assessing O-3 impacts on forest ecosystem services.

  • 37.
    Soerensen, Anne Laerke
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Schartup, A. T.
    Skrobonja, A.
    Björn, E.
    Organic matter drives high interannual variability in methylmercury concentrations in a subarctic coastal sea2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 229, p. 531-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Levels of neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) in phytoplankton are strongly associated with water MeHg concentrations. Because uptake by phytoplankton is the first and largest step of bioaccumulation in aquatic food webs many studies have investigated factors driving seasonal changes in water MeHg concentrations. Organic matter (OM) is widely accepted as an important driver of MeHg production and uptake by phytoplankton but is also known for strong interannual variability in concentration and composition within systems. In this study, we explore the role of OM on spatial and interannual variability of MeHg in a subarctic coastal sea, the northern Baltic Sea. Using MeHg (2014: 80 +/- 25 fM; 2015: <LOD; 2016: 21 +/- 9 fM) and OM measurements during late summer/early fall, we find that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and humic matter content explain 60% of MeHg variability. We find that while labile DOC increases MeHg levels in the water, humic content reduces it. We propose that the positive association between MeHg and labile DOC shows that labile DOC is a proxy for OM remineralization rate in nearshore and offshore waters. This is consistent with other studies finding that in situ MeHg production in the water column occurs during OM remineralization. The negative association between water humic content and MeHg concentration is most likely due to humic matter decreasing inorganic mercury (Hg-II) bioavailability to methylating microbes. With these relationships, we develop a statistical model and use it to calculate MeHg concentrations in late summer nearshore and offshore waters between 2006 and 2016 using measured values for water DOC and humic matter content. We find that MeHg concentrations can vary by up to an order of magnitude between years, highlighting the importance of considering interannual variability in water column MeHg concentrations when interpreting both short and long term MeHg trends in biota.

  • 38.
    Stark, Karolina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Andersson, P.
    Beresford, N. A.
    Yankovich, T. L.
    Wood, M. D.
    Johansen, M. P.
    Vives i Batlle, J.
    Twining, J.
    Keum, D. -K
    Bollhöfer, A.
    Doering, C.
    Ryan, B.
    Grzechnik, M.
    Vandenhove, H.
    Predicting exposure of wildlife in radionuclide contaminated wetland ecosystems2015In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 196, p. 201-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many wetlands support high biodiversity and are protected sites, but some are contaminated with radionuclides from routine or accidental releases from nuclear facilities. This radiation exposure needs to be assessed to demonstrate radiological protection of the environment. Existing biota dose models cover generic terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems, not wetlands specifically. This paper, which was produced under IAEA's Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS) II programme, describes an evaluation of how models can be applied to radionuclide contaminated wetlands. Participants used combinations of aquatic and terrestrial model parameters to assess exposure. Results show the importance of occupancy factor and food source (aquatic or terrestrial) included. The influence of soil saturation conditions on external dose rates is also apparent. In general, terrestrial parameters provided acceptable predictions for wetland organisms. However, occasionally predictions varied by three orders of magnitude between assessors. Possible further developments for biota dose models and research needs are identified.

  • 39.
    Stoltz, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Greger, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Influences of wetland plants on weathered acidic mine tailings2006In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 144, no 2, p. 689-694Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Establishment of Carex rostrata, Eriophorum angustifolium and Phragmites australis on weathered, acidic mine tailings (pH 3) and their effect on pH in tailings were investigated in a field experiment. The amendments, sewage sludge and an ashes–sewage sludge mixture, were used as plant nutrition and their influence on the metal and As concentrations of plant shoots was analysed. An additional experiment was performed in greenhouse with E. angustifolium and sewage sludge as amendments in both weathered and unweathered tailings. After one year, plants grew better in amendments containing ashes in the field, also in those plants the metal and As shoot concentrations were generally lower than in other treatments. After two years, the only surviving plants were found in sewage sludge mixed with ashes. No effect on pH by plants was found in weathered acidic mine tailings in either field- or greenhouse experiment. Wetland plant establishment on acidic mine tailings may contribute to a reduced metal release and a stabilisation of pH.

  • 40. Vanhoudt, Nathalie
    et al.
    Vandenhove, Hildegarde
    Real, Almudena
    Bradshaw, Clare
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Stark, Karolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    A review of multiple stressor studies that include ionising radiation2012In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 168, p. 177-192Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies were reviewed that investigated the combined effects of ionising radiation and other stressors on non-human biota. The aim was to determine the state of research in this area of science, and determine if a review of the literature might permit a gross generalization as to whether the combined effects of multi-stressors and radiation are fundamentally additive, synergistic or antagonistic. A multiple stressor database was established for different organism groups. Information was collected on species, stressors applied and effects evaluated. Studies were mostly laboratory based and investigated two-component mixtures. Interactions declared positive occurred in 58% of the studies, while 26% found negative interactions. Interactions were dependent on dose/concentration, on organism's life stage and exposure time and differed among endpoints. Except for one study, none of the studies predicted combined effects following Concentration Addition or Independent Action, and hence, no justified conclusions can be made about synergism or antagonism.

  • 41. Vestergren, Robin
    et al.
    Herzke, Dorte
    Wang, Thanh
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Are imported consumer products an important diffuse source of PFASs to the Norwegian environment?2015In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 198, p. 223-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to measure perfluoroalkyl substances in a selection of imported consumer products (n = 45) and estimate population normalized emission rates during the use phase. 6:2 and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) were found in the highest concentrations ranging from <MDL to 374 and 163 mu g m(-2) respectively. Concentrations of FTOHs were approximately 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than those of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Although perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected in one carpet sample at 1.7 mu g m(-2), the majority of samples complied with regulatory limits for PFOS in the EU. Population normalized emission rates of perfluorooctanoic acid, 6:2 FTOH and 8:2 FTOH from imported consumer products were estimated to be 6.6, 2130 and 197 mu g year(-1) capita(-1) respectively for the intermediate emistion scenario. The results from this study suggest that emissions from imported products would have a small impact on the environmental concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids on a regional scale.

  • 42. Wang, Zhanyun
    et al.
    Scheringer, Martin
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bogdal, Christian
    Mueller, Claudia E.
    Gerecke, Andreas C.
    Hungerbuehler, Konrad
    Atmospheric fate of poly- and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs): II. Emission source strength in summer in Zurich, Switzerland2012In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 169, p. 204-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamides (FOSAs) are present in consumer products and are semi-volatile precursors of persistent perfluoroallcyl acids (PFAAs). The high variability of levels of FrOHs and FOSAs in products makes it difficult to derive FTOH- and FOSA-emissions from urban areas based on emission factors. Here we used a multimedia mass balance model that describes the day-night cycle of semi-volatile organic chemicals in air to interpret measurements of 8:2 FTOH, 10:2 FTOH, MeFOSA and EtFOSA from a sampling campaign in summer 2010 in Zurich, Switzerland. The estimated emission source strength of the four substances follows the sequence: 8:2 FTOH (2.6 g/h) > 10:2 FTOH (0.75 g/h) > MeFOSA (0.08 g/h) > EtFOSA (0.05 g/h). There is no FTOHs- or FOSAs-related industry in Zurich. Accordingly, our estimates are representative of diffusive emissions during use and disposal of consumer products, and describe noticeable sources of these PFASs to the environment.

  • 43.
    Winkens, Kerstin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Koponen, Jani
    Schuster, Jasmin
    Shoeib, Mahiba
    Vestergren, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Berger, Urs
    Karvonen, Anne M.
    Pekkanen, Juha
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in indoor air sampled in children's bedrooms2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 222, p. 423-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The contamination levels and patterns of perfluoroallcyl acids (PFAAs) and their precursors in indoor air of children's bedrooms in Finland, Northern Europe, were investigated. Our study is among the most comprehensive indoor air monitoring studies (n = 57) and to our knowledge the first one to analyse air in children's bedrooms for PFASs (17 PFAAs and 9 precursors, including two acrylates, 6:2 FTAC and 6:2 FTMAC). The most frequently detected compound was 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) with the highest median concentration (3570 pg/m(3)). FTOH concentrations were generally similar to previous studies, indicating that in 2014/2015 the impact of the industrial transition had been minor on FTOH levels in indoor air. However, in contrast to earlier studies (with one exception), median concentrations of 6:2 FTOH were higher than 10:2 FTOH. The C8 PFAAs are still the most abundant acids, even though they have now been phased out by major manufacturers. The mean concentrations of FOSE/As, especially MeFOSE (89.9 pg/m(3)), were at least an order of magnitude lower compared to previous studies. Collectively the comparison of FTOHs, PFAAs and FOSE/FOSAs with previous studies indicates that indoor air levels of PFASs display a time lag to changes in production of several years. This is the first indoor air study investigating 6:2 FTMAC, which was frequently detected (58%) and displayed some of the highest maximum concentrations (13 000 pg/m(3)). There were several statistically significant correlations between particular house and room characteristics and PFAS concentrations, most interestingly higher EtFOSE air concentrations in rooms with plastic floors compared to wood or laminate.

  • 44.
    Ytreberg, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bighiu, Maria Alexandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Lundgren, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    XRF measurements of tin, copper and zinc in antifouling paints coated on leisure boats2016In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 213, p. 594-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tributyltin (TBT) and other organotin compounds have been restricted for use on leisure boats since 1989 in the EU. Nonetheless, release of TBT is observed from leisure boats during hull maintenance work, such as pressure hosing. In this work, we used a handheld X-ray Fluorescence analyser (XRF) calibrated for antifouling paint matrixes to measure tin, copper and zinc in antifouling paints coated on leisure boats in Sweden. Our results show that over 10% of the leisure boats (n = 686) contain >400 mu g/cm(2) of tin in their antifouling coatings. For comparison, one layer (40 mu m dry film) of a TBT-paint equals approximate to 800 mu g Sn/cm(2). To our knowledge, tin has never been used in other forms than organotin (OT) in antifouling paints. Thus, even though the XRF analysis does not provide any information on the speciation of tin, the high concentrations indicate that these leisure boats still have OT coatings present on their hull. On several leisure boats we performed additional XRF measurements by progressively scraping off the top coatings and analysing each underlying layer. The XRF data show that when tin is detected, it is most likely present in coatings close to the hull with several layers of other coatings on top. Thus, leaching of OT compounds from the hull into the water is presumed to be negligible. The risk for environmental impacts arises during maintenance work such as scraping, blasting and high pressure hosing activities. The data also show that many boat owners apply excessive paint layers when following paint manufacturers recommendations. Moreover, high loads of copper were detected even on boats sailing in freshwater, despite the more than 20 year old ban, which poses an environmental risk that has not been addressed until now.

  • 45. Ytreberg, Erik
    et al.
    Lagerström, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Holmqvist, Albin
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Elwing, Hans
    Dahlström, Magnus
    Dahl, Peter
    Dahlström, Mia
    A novel XRF method to measure environmental release of copper and zinc from antifouling paints2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 225, p. 490-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The release of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) from vessels and leisure crafts coated with antifouling paints can pose a threat to water quality in semi-enclosed areas such as harbors and marinas as well as to coastal archipelagos. However, no reliable, practical and low-cost method exists to measure the direct release of metals from antifouling paints. Therefore, the paint industry and regulatory authorities are obliged to use release rate measurements derived from either mathematical models or from laboratory studies. To bridge this gap, we have developed a novel method using a handheld X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) to determine the cumulative release of Cu and Zn from antifouling paints. The results showed a strong linear relationship between XRF Kα net intensities and metal concentrations, as determined by ICP-MS. The release of Cu and Zn were determined for coated panels exposed in harbors located in the Baltic Sea and in Kattegat. The field study showed salinity to have a strong impact on the release of Cu, i.e. the release increased with salinity. Contrary, the effect of salinity on Zn was not as evident. As exemplified in this work, the XRF method also makes it possible to identify the governing parameters to the release of Cu and Zn, e.g. salinity and type of paint formulation. Thus, the XRF method can be used to measure environmentally relevant releases of metallic compounds to design more efficient and optimized antifouling coatings.

  • 46.
    Yuan, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Fu, Jianjie
    Wang, Yawei
    Jiang, Guibin
    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins in soil, paddy seeds (Oryza sativa) and snails (Ampullariidae) in an e-waste dismantling area in China: Homologue group pattern, spatial distribution and risk assessment2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 220, p. 608-615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in multi-environmental matrices are studied in Taizhou, Zhejiang Province, China, which is a notorious e-waste dismantling area. The investigated matrices consist of paddy field soil, paddy seeds (Oryza sativa, separated into hulls and rice unpolished) and apple snails (Ampullariidae, inhabiting the paddy fields). The sampling area covered a 65-km radius around the contamination center. C-10 and C-11 are the two predominant homologue groups in the area, accounting for about 35.7% and 33.0% of total SCCPs, respectively. SCCPs in snails and hulls are generally higher than in soil samples (30.4-530 ng/g dw), and SCCPs in hulls are approximate five times higher than in corresponding rice samples (4.90-55.1 ng/g dw). Homologue pattern analysis indicates that paddy seeds (both hull and rice) tend to accumulate relatively high volatile SCCP homologues, especially the ones with shorter carbon chain length, while snails tend to accumulate relatively high lipophilic homologues, especially the ones with more substituted chlorines. SCCPs in both paddy seeds and snails are linearly related to those in the soil. The e-waste dismantling area, which covers a radius of approximate 20 km, shows higher pollution levels for SCCPs according to their spatial distribution in four matrices. The preliminary assessment indicates that SCCP levels in local soils pose no significant ecological risk for soil dwelling organisms, but higher risks from dietary exposure of SCCPs are suspected for people living in e-waste dismantling area.

  • 47.
    Zhou, Yihui
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Tongji University, China.
    Chen, Qiaofeng
    Du, Xinyu
    Yin, Ge
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Qiu, Yanling
    Ye, Lu
    Zhu, Zhiliang
    Zhao, Jianfu
    Occurrence and trophic magnification of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their methoxylated derivatives in freshwater fish from Dianshan Lake, Shanghai, China2016In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 219, p. 932-938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) were analyzed in eleven freshwater fish species from Dianshan Lake, Shanghai, China. The highest concentrations of PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs were found in snakehead, with mean values of 38 ng g(-1) lw and 4.2 ng g(-1) lw, respectively. BDE-47 was the predominant congener of PBDEs, followed by BDE-154. Congener pattern variation of PBDEs was observed among different fish species, implying differences in biotransformation potential among fish. Yellow catfish showed highest concentrations of BDE-99, -153 and -183, suggesting that it is more resistant to debromination than any other fish analyzed in the present study. Trophic magnification factors were in the range of 1.35-1.81 for all the PBDE congeners, but not for 2'-MeO-BDE-68. Negative relationship was observed between PBDEs concentration and sample size (length and weight), indicating fish size dilution effect.

  • 48.
    Zhou, Yihui
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Tongji University, China.
    Yin, Ge
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Stewart, Kathryn
    Rantakokko, Panu
    Bignert, Anders
    Ruokojärvi, Päivi
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Qiu, Yanling
    Ma, Zhijun
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Tongji University, China; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Human exposure to PCDDs and their precursors from heron and tern eggs in the Yangtze River Delta indicate PCP origin2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 225, p. 184-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are highly toxic to humans and wildlife. In the present study, PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the eggs of whiskered terns (Chlidonias hybrida), and genetically identified eggs from black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) sampled from two lakes in the Yangtze River Delta area, China. The median toxic equivalent (TEQ) of PCDD/Fs were 280 (range: 95-1500) and 400 (range: 220-1100) pg TEQ g(-1) lw (WHO, 1998 for birds) in the eggs of black-crowned night heron and whiskered tern, respectively. Compared to known sources, concentrations of PCDDs relative to the sum of PCDD/Fs in bird eggs, demonstrated high abundance of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptaCDD and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexaCDD indicating pentachlorophenol (PCP), and/or sodium pentachlorophenolate (Na-PCP) as significant sources of the PCDD/Fs. The presence of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), hydroxylated and methoxylated polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (OH-and Me0-PCDEs, known impurities in PCP products), corroborates this hypothesis. Further, significant correlations were found between the predominant congener CDE-206, 3'-OH-CDE-207, 2'-MeO-CDE-206 and OCDD, indicating a common origin. Eggs from the two lakes are sometimes used for human consumption. The WHO health-based tolerable intake of PCDD/Fs is exceeded if eggs from the two lakes are consumed regularly on a weekly basis, particularly for children. The TEQs extensively exceed maximum levels for PCDD/Fs in hen eggs and egg products according to EU legislation (2.5 pg TEQ g(-1)/w). The results suggest immediate action should be taken to manage the contamination, and further studies evaluating the impacts of egg consumption from wild birds in China. Likewise, studies on dioxins and other POPs in common eggs need to be initiated around China.

  • 49. Ågerstrand, M.
    et al.
    Kuester, A.
    Bachmann, J.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ebert, I.
    Rechenberg, B.
    Ruden, C.
    Reporting and evaluation criteria as means towards a transparent use of ecotoxicity data for environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals2011In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 159, no 10, p. 2487-2492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecotoxicity data with high reliability and relevance are needed to guarantee the scientific quality of environmental risk assessments of pharmaceuticals. The main advantages of a more structured approach to data evaluation include increased transparency and predictability of the risk assessment process, and the possibility to use non-standard data. In this collaboration, between the research project MistraPharma and the German Federal Environment Agency, a new set of reporting and evaluation criteria is presented and discussed. The new criteria are based on the approaches in the literature and the OECD reporting requirements, and have been further developed to include both reliability and relevance of test data. Intended users are risk assessors and researchers performing ecotoxicological experiments, but the criteria can also be used for education purposes and in the peer-review process for scientific papers. This approach intends to bridge the gap between the regulator and the scientist's needs and way of work.

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