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  • 1.
    Amid, C.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Olstedt, M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Le Lan, H.
    Tran Thi Minh, H.
    Van den Brink, P. J.
    Hellström, M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Tedengren, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Additive effects of the herbicide glyphosate and elevated temperature on the branched coral Acropora formosa in Nha Trang, Vietnam2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 14, p. 13360-13372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combined effects of the herbicide glyphosate and elevated temperature were studied on the tropical staghorn coral Acropora formosa, in Nha Trang bay, Vietnam. The corals were collected from two different reefs, one close to a polluted fish farm and one in a marine-protected area (MPA). In the laboratory, branches of the corals were exposed to the herbicide glyphosate at ambient (28 degrees C) and at 3 degrees C elevated water temperatures (31 degrees C). Effects of herbicide and elevated temperature were studied on coral bleaching using photography and digital image analysis (new colorimetric method developed here based on grayscale), chlorophyll a analysis, and symbiotic dinoflagellate (Symbiodinium, referred to as zooxanthellae) counts. All corals from the MPA started to bleach in the laboratory before they were exposed to the treatments, indicating that they were very sensitive, as opposed to the corals collected from the more polluted site, which were more tolerant and showed no bleaching response to temperature increase or herbicide alone. However, the combined exposure to the stressors resulted in significant loss of color, proportional to loss in chlorophyll a and zooxanthellae. The difference in sensitivity of the corals collected from the polluted site versus the MPA site could be explained by different symbiont types: the resilient type C3u and the stress-sensitive types C21 and C23, respectively. The additive effect of elevated temperatures and herbicides adds further weight to the notion that the bleaching of coral reefs is accelerated in the presence of multiple stressors. These results suggest that the corals in Nha Trang bay have adapted to the ongoing pollution to become more tolerant to anthropogenic stressors, and that multiple stressors hamper this resilience. The loss of color and decrease of chlorophyll a suggest that bleaching is related to concentration of chloro-pigments. The colorimetric method could be further fine-tuned and used as a precise, non-intrusive tool for monitoring coral bleaching in situ.

  • 2. Arias-Andrés, M.
    et al.
    Rämö, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Torres, F. Mena
    Ugalde, R.
    Grandas, L.
    Ruepert, C.
    Castillo, L. E.
    Van den Brink, P. J.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Lower tier toxicity risk assessment of agriculture pesticides detected on the Rio Madre de Dios watershed, Costa Rica2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 14, p. 13312-13321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Costa Rica is a tropical country with one of the highest biodiversity on Earth. It also has an intensive agriculture, and pesticide runoff from banana and pineapple plantations may cause a high toxicity risk to non-target species in rivers downstream the plantations. We performed a first tier risk assessment of the maximum measured concentrations of 32 pesticides detected over 4 years in the River Madre de Dios (RMD) and its coastal lagoon on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were plotted in order to derive HC5 values for each pesticide, i.e., hazard concentrations for 5 % of the species, often used as environmental criteria values in other countries. We also carried out toxicity tests for selected pesticides with native Costa Rican species in order to calculate risk coefficients according to national guidelines in Costa Rica. The concentrations of herbicides diuron and ametryn and insecticides carbofuran, diazinon, and ethoprophos exceeded either the HC5 value or the lower limit of its 90 % confidence interval suggesting toxic risks above accepted levels. Risk coefficients of diuron and carbofuran derived using local guidelines indicate toxicity risks as well. The assessed fungicides did not present acute toxic risks according to our analysis. Overall, these results show a possible toxicity of detected pesticides to aquatic organisms and provide a comparison of Costa Rican national guidelines with more refined methods for risk assessment based on SSDs. Further higher tier risk assessments of pesticides in this watershed are also necessary in order to consider pesticide water concentrations over time, toxicity from pesticide mixtures, and eventual effects on ecosystem functions.

  • 3.
    Avagyan, Rozanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Luongo, Giovanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Thorsén, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Benzothiazole, benzotriazole, and their derivates in clothing textiles - a potential source of environmental pollutants and human exposure2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 5842-5849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textiles play an important role in our daily life, and textile production is one of the oldest industries. In the manufacturing chain from natural and/or synthetic fibers to the final clothing products, the use of many different chemicals is ubiquitous. A lot of research has focused on chemicals in textile wastewater, but the knowledge of the actual content of harmful chemicals in clothes sold on the retail market is limited. In this paper, we have focused on eight benzothiazole and benzotriazole derivatives, compounds rated as high production volume chemicals. Twenty-six clothing samples of various textile materials and colors manufactured in 14 different countries were analyzed in textile clothing using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Among the investigated textile products, 11 clothes were for babies, toddlers, and children. Eight of the 11 compounds included in the investigation were detected in the textiles. Benzothiazole was present in 23 of 26 investigated garments in concentrations ranging from 0.45 to 51 μg/g textile. The garment with the highest concentration of benzothiazole contained a total amount of 8.3 mg of the chemical. The third highest concentration of benzothiazole (22 μg/g) was detected in a baby body made from “organic cotton” equipped with the “Nordic Ecolabel” (“Svanenmärkt”). It was also found that concentrations of benzothiazoles in general were much higher than those for benzotriazoles. This study implicates that clothing textiles can be a possible route for human exposure to harmful chemicals by skin contact, as well as being a potential source of environmental pollutants via laundering and release to household wastewater.

  • 4.
    Avagyan, Rozanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Sadiktsis, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Bergvall, Christoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Westerholm, Roger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Tire tread wear particles in ambient air—a previously unknown source of human exposure to the biocide 2-mercaptobenzothiazole2014In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, no 19, p. 11580-11586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban particulate matter (PM), asphalt, and tire samples were investigated for their content of benzothiazole and benzothiazole derivates. The purpose of this study was to examine whether wear particles, i.e., tire tread wear or road surface wear, could contribute to atmospheric concentrations of benzothiazole derivatives. Airborne particulate matter (PM10) sampled at a busy street in Stockholm, Sweden, contained on average 17 pg/m3 benzothiazole and 64 pg/m3 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, and the total suspended particulate-associated benzothiazole and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole concentrations were 199 and 591 pg/m3, respectively. This indicates that tire tread wear may be a major source of these benzothiazoles to urban air PM in Stockholm. Furthermore, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole was determined in urban air particulates for the first time in this study, and its presence in inhalable PM10 implies that the human exposure to this biocide is underestimated. This calls for a revision of the risk assessments of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole exposure to humans which currently is limited to occupational exposure.

  • 5.
    Bighiu, Maria Alexandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Eriksson-Wiklund, Ann-Kristin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Biofouling of leisure boats as a source of metal pollution2017In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 997-1006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The release of harmful metals from antifouling paints to water bodies is a well-known problem. In this study, we measured both the amount of biofouling growth on leisure boats during one season as well as the concentration of metals accumulated by the biofouling matrix. Furthermore, the efficiency of antifouling paints and mechanical boat cleaning as well as the effect of hull colour on biofouling were evaluated. Unlike paint residues, biofouling waste has never been regarded as a source of metal contamination and has previously been neglected in the scientific literature. Our results revealed that the biofouling waste contained very high concentrations of metals, up to 28,000 mg copper/kg dw and 171,000 mg zinc/kg dw, which exceeds the guidance values for least sensitive land use in Sweden by factors of 140 and 340, respectively. This observation is important because the contaminated biofouling waste is commonly disposed of in boatyard soils at the end of each season, thus increasing the levels of metal pollution. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the amount of biofouling if the boats were coated with copper or zinc containing paints or no paint at all, indicating that biocide paints might not be necessary in low-salinity areas such as the Stockholm archipelago. For boats that were not painted at all during the season, those washed on boat washers (mechanically) had on average half of the amount of biofouling compared to boats that were not cleaned mechanically. The results of the study indicate the importance of proper management of biofouling waste as well as the use of more environmentally friendly removal methods for biofouling such as boat washers.

  • 6. Carlsson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Breivik, Knut
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    Cousins, Ian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Christensen, Jesper
    Grimalt, Joan O.
    Halsall, Crispin
    Kallenborn, Roland
    Abass, Khaled
    Lammel, Gerhard
    Munthe, John
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Øyvind Odland, Jon
    Pawlak, Janet
    Rautio, Arja
    Reiersen, Lars-Otto
    Schlabach, Martin
    Stemmler, Irene
    Wilson, Simon
    Wöhrnschimmel, Henry
    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as sentinels for the elucidation of Arctic environmental change processes: a comprehensive review combined with ArcRisk project results2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 23, p. 22499-22528Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can be used as chemical sentinels for the assessment of anthropogenic influences on Arctic environmental change. We present an overview of studies on PCBs in the Arctic and combine these with the findings from ArcRisk-a major European Union-funded project aimed at examining the effects of climate change on the transport of contaminants to and their behaviour of in the Arctic-to provide a case study on the behaviour and impact of PCBs over time in the Arctic. PCBs in the Arctic have shown declining trends in the environment over the last few decades. Atmospheric long-range transport from secondary and primary sources is the major input of PCBs to the Arctic region. Modelling of the atmospheric PCB composition and behaviour showed some increases in environmental concentrations in a warmer Arctic, but the general decline in PCB levels is still the most prominent feature. 'Within-Arctic' processing of PCBs will be affected by climate change-related processes such as changing wet deposition. These in turn will influence biological exposure and uptake of PCBs. The pan-Arctic rivers draining large Arctic/sub-Arctic catchments provide a significant source of PCBs to the Arctic Ocean, although changes in hydrology/sediment transport combined with a changing marine environment remain areas of uncertainty with regard to PCB fate. Indirect effects of climate change on human exposure, such as a changing diet will influence and possibly reduce PCB exposure for indigenous peoples. Body burdens of PCBs have declined since the 1980s and are predicted to decline further.

  • 7.
    Christiansson, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Teclechiel, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Identification and quantification of products formed via photolysis of decabromodiphenyl ether2009In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 312-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND, AIM, AND SCOPE: Decabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE) is used as an additive flame retardant in polymers. It has become a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, particularly abundant in abiotic media, such as sediments, air, and dust, and also present in wildlife and in humans. The main DecaBDE constituent, perbrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209), is susceptible to transformations as observed in experimental work. This work is aimed at identifying and assessing the relative amounts of products formed after UV irradiation of BDE-209. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BDE-209, dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF), methanol, or combinations of methanol/water, was exposed to UV light for 100 or 200 min. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (electron ionization) for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), methoxylated PBDEs, and phenolic PBDE products. RESULTS: The products formed were hexaBDEs to nonaBDEs, monoBDFs to pentaBDFs, and methoxylated tetraBDFs to pentaBDFs. The products found in the fraction containing halogenated phenols were assigned to be pentabromophenol, dihydroxytetrabromobenzene, dihydroxydibromodibenzofuran, dihydroxytribromodibenzofuran, and dihydroxytetrabromodibenzofuran. The PBDEs accounted for approximately 90% of the total amount of substances in each sample and the PBDFs for about 10%. DISCUSSION: BDE-209 is a source of PBDEs primarily present in OctaBDEs but also to some extent in PentaBDEs, both being commercial products now banned within the EU and in several states within the USA. It is notable that OH-PBDFs have not been identified or indicated in any of the photolysis studies performed to date. Formation of OH-PBDFs, however, may occur as pure radical reactions in the atmosphere. CONCLUSIONS: Photolysis of decaBDE yields a wide span of products, from nonaBDEs to hydroxylated bromobenzenes. It is evident that irradiation of decaBDE in water and methanol yields OH-PBDFs and MeO-PBDFs, respectively. BDE-202 (2,2',3,3',5,5',6,6'-octabromodiphenyl ether) is identified as a marker of BDE-209 photolysis. RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: BDE-209, the main constituent of DecaBDE, is primarily forming debrominated diphenyl ethers with higher persistence which are more bioaccumulative than the starting material when subjected to UV light. Hence, DecaBDE should be considered as a source of these PBDE congeners in the environment

  • 8.
    Dahlgren, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Enhus, Carolina
    Lindqvist, Dennis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Induced production of brominated aromatic compounds in the alga Ceramium tenuicorne2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 22, p. 18107-18114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Baltic Sea, high concentrations of toxic brominated aromatic compounds have been detected in all compartments of the marine food web. A growing body of evidence points towards filamentous algae as a natural producer of these chemicals. However, little is known about the effects of environmental factors and life history on algal production of brominated compounds. In this study, several congeners of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs), hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and brominated phenols (BPs) were identified in a naturally growing filamentous red algal species (Ceramium tenuicorne) in the Baltic Sea. The identified substances displayed large seasonal variations in the alga with a concentration peak in July. Production of MeO-/OH-PBDEs and BPs by C. tenuicorne was also established in isolated clonal material grown in a controlled laboratory setting. Based on three replicates, herbivory, as well as elevated levels of light and salinity in the culture medium, significantly increased the production of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP). Investigation of differences in production between the isomorphic female, male and diploid clonal life stages of the alga grown in the laboratory revealed a significantly higher production of 2,4,6-TBP in the brackish water female gametophytes, compared to the corresponding marine gametophytes. Even higher concentrations of 2,4,6-TBP were produced by marine male gametophytes and sporophytes.

  • 9. Echeverría-Sáenz, Silvia
    et al.
    Mena, Freylan
    Arias-Andrés, María
    Vargas, Seiling
    Ruepert, Clemens
    Van den Brink, Paul J.
    Castillo, Luisa E.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    In situ toxicity and ecological risk assessment of agro-pesticide runoff in the Madre de Dios River in Costa Rica2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 14, p. 13270-13282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The River Madre de Dios (RMD) and its lagoon is a biodiversity rich watershed formed by a system of streams, rivers, channels, and a coastal lagoon communicating with the Caribbean Sea. This basin sustains a large area of agricultural activity (mostly banana, rice, and pineapple) with intensive use of pesticides, continually detected in water samples. We investigated in situ the toxicological effects caused by pesticide runoff from agriculture and the relation of pesticide concentrations with different biological organization levels: early responses in fish biomarkers (sub-organismal), acute toxicity to Daphnia magna (organismal), and aquatic macroinvertebrate community structure. The evaluation was carried out between October 2011 and November 2012 at five sites along the RMD influenced by agricultural discharges and a reference site in a stream outside the RMD that receives less pesticides. Acute toxicity to D. magna was observed only once in a sample from the RMD (Cano Azul); the index of biomaiker responses in fish exposed in situ was higher than controls at the same site and at the RMD-Freeman. However, only macroinvertebrates were statistically related to the presence of pesticides, combined with both physical-chemical parameters and habitat degradation. All three groups of variables determined the distribution of macroinvertebrate taxa through the study sites.

  • 10.
    Eklund, Britta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Watermann, Burkard
    Persistence of TBT and copper in excess on leisure boat hulls around the Baltic Sea2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 15, p. 14595-14605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A handheld XRF-analyzer specially calibrated for measurements of metals on plastic boat hulls has been used on leisure boats in Denmark (DK), Finland (FI), and Germany (DE). The results on tin and copper are presented as mu g metal/cm(2). Tin is a proxy for the occurrence of organotin compounds on the boat. Two or three sites were visited in each country and between 25 and 90 boats were measured at each site. Every boat was measured at six to eight places, and the results are presented both as mean and median values. Linear regression of mean to median values of the 377 data pairs shows high relationship with R-2 = 0.9566 for tin and R-2 of 0.9724 for copper and thus both ways of calculation may be used. However, for regulative use, it is suggested that all individual measurements on each boat should be presented and used for decisions of removal or sealing of boat hulls. The results are compared with published data from different parts of Sweden, i.e., boats in fresh water, brackish water, and salt water. The results show that tin with mean values > 50 mu g Sn/cm(2) is still found on 42, 24, and 23% of the boats in DK, FI, and DE, respectively. The corresponding percentages based on median values are 38, 22, and 18% for DK, FI, and DE, respectively. The variation among boats is high with a maximum mean value of 2000 mu g Sn/cm(2). As comparison, one layer of an old TBT antifouling paint Hempels Hard racing superior, corresponds to 300 mu g Sn/cm(2). The percentage of boats with tin >400 mu g Sn/cm(2) content based on mean values was 10% in DK, 5% in FI, and 1% in DE. The corresponding median values were 9, 6, and 1% for DK, FI, and DE. Copper, >100 mu g Cu/cm(2), was detected on all measured boats in DK and in DE and on all but 3% of the FI boats. One layer of Hempels MilleXtra corresponds to I' 4000 mu g Cu/cm(2). The recommendation on the can is to apply two layers. The proportion of boats with higher mean copper values than 8000 mu g Cu/cm(2) was 51, 56, and 61 for boats in DK, FI, and DE, respectively. The proportion based on median values > 8000 mu g Cu/cm(2) was 50, 54, and 61% for DK, FI, and DE. The conclusion is that many leisure boats around the Baltic Sea still display or possess antifouling paints containing organotin compounds and that more than half of the boats have more copper than needed for one boat season according to the paint producers. Much of these known toxic compounds will probably be released into the environment and harm the biota. The calibrated XRF-method, intended for area measurements on boat hulls, is an easy and cheap way to detect boats with organotin compounds and high copper content. We recommend environmental authorities to use this method for identification of such boats and to use the results for requesting measures to minimize further leakage to the environment.

  • 11.
    Fång, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Elisabeth
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Winnberg, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bignert, Anders
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center (Swetox), Sweden.
    Spatial and temporal trends of the Stockholm Convention POPs in mothers' milk - a global review2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 12, p. 8989-9041Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been of environmental and health concern for more than half a century and have their own intergovernmental regulation through the Stockholm Convention, from 2001. One major concern is the nursing child's exposure to POPs, a concern that has led to a very large number of scientific studies on POPs in mothers' milk. The present review is a report on the assessment on worldwide spatial distributions of POPs and of their temporal trends. The data presented herein is a compilation based on scientific publications between 1995 and 2011. It is evident that the concentrations in mothers' milk depend on the use of pesticides and industrial chemicals defined as POPs. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins are higher in the more industrialized areas, Europe and Northern America, whereas pesticides are higher in Africa and Asia and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are reported in higher concentrations in the USA. POPs are consequently distributed to women in all parts of the world and are thus delivered to the nursing child. The review points out several major problems in the reporting of data, which are crucial to enable high quality comparisons. Even though the data set is large, the comparability is hampered by differences in reporting. In conclusion, much more detailed instructions are needed for reporting POPs in mothers' milk. Temporal trend data for POPs in mothers' milk is scarce and is of interest when studying longer time series. The only two countries with long temporal trend studies are Japan and Sweden. In most cases, the trends show decreasing concentrations of POPs in mothers' milk. However, hexabromocyclododecane is showing increasing temporal concentration trends in both Japan and Sweden.

  • 12. Ge, Linke
    et al.
    Dong, Qianqian
    Halsall, Crispin
    Chen, Chang-Er L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Li, Jun
    Wang, Degao
    Zhang, Peng
    Yao, Ziwei
    Aqueous multivariate phototransformation kinetics of dissociated tetracycline: implications for the photochemical fate in surface waters2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 16, p. 15726-15732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotics are ubiquitous pollutants in aquatic systems and can exist as different dissociated species depending on the water pH. New knowledge of their multivariate photochemical behavior (i.e., the photobehavior of different ionized forms) is needed to improve our understanding on the fate and possible remediation of these pharmaceuticals in surface and waste waters. In this study, the photochemical degradation of aqueous tetracycline (TC) and its dissociated forms (TCH20, TCH-, and TC2-) was investigated. Simulated sunlight experiments and matrix calculations indicated that the three dissociated species had dissimilar photolytic kinetics and photo-oxidation reactivities. TC2- photo-degraded the fastest due to apparent photolysis with a kinetic constant of 0.938 +/- 0.021 min(-1), followed by TCH- (0.020 +/- 0.005 min(-1)) and TCH20 (0.012 +/- 0.001 min(-1)), whereas Tar was found to be the most highly reactive toward center dot OH (105.78 +/- 3.40 M(-1 )s(-1)), and TC2- reacted the fastest with O-1(2) (344.96 +/- 45.07 M-1 s(-1)). Water with relatively high pH (e.g., similar to 8-9) favors the dissociated forms of TCH- and TC2- which are most susceptible to photochemical loss processes compared to neutral TC. The calculated corresponding environmental half-lives (t(1/2,E) ) in sunlit surface waters ranged from 0.05 h for pH = 9 in midsummer to 3.68 h for pH = 6 in midwinter at 45 degrees N latitude. The moms was dominated by apparent photolysis (especially in summer, 62-91%), followed by O-1(2) and center dot OH oxidation. Adjusting the pH to slightly alkaline conditions prior to UV or solar UV light treatment may be an effective way of enhancing the photochemical removal of TC from contaminated water.

  • 13.
    Gómara, Belén
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). CSIC, Spain.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Quintanilla-López, Jesús Eduardo
    José González, María
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Polychlorinated biphenyls and their hydroxylated metabolites in placenta from Madrid mothers2012In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 139-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Concentrations and congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in placenta samples from a Madrid population (Spain) are reported. Structure dependent retentions of OH-PCBs are known to occur in both humans and wildlife, making it of interest to assess placental transfer of both parent compounds and their metabolites to the developing foetus.

    Results The Sigma PCB concentrations found in placenta samples were in the range 943-4,331 pg/g fresh weight (f.w.), and their hydroxylated metabolites showed a 20-time lower concentration level (53-261 pg/g f.w.). The PCB profiles were surprisingly dominated by CB-52 and CB-101 accounting for more than 44% of the total PCB concentration. This is indicating a source of exposure that is not yet identified. The OH-PCB profiles were dominated by 4-OH-CB187 and 4-OH-CB146, representing >50% of the Sigma OH-PCB concentration of the placenta samples. Statistical analysis of the data revealed strong correlations between the PCB congeners, among some OH-PCBs, and between OH-PCB metabolites with a meta- and para- substitution pattern. Both PCB and OH-PCB concentrations presented homogeneous distribution, what allowed the establishment of a partial least squares model that correlated the concentrations of OH-PCB with those of PCBs in placenta samples. In addition, causal correlations were observed between the concentrations of OH-PCBs and those of their corresponding PCB precursors.

  • 14.
    Iadaresta, Francesco
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Manniello, Michele Dario
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Crescenzi, Carlo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. University of Salerno, Italy.
    Holmbäck, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Russo, Paola
    Chemicals from textiles to skin: an in vitro permeation study of benzothiazole2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 25, p. 24629-24638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the possible impact on human health, few studies have been conducted to assess the penetration and accumulation of contaminants in the skin after a prolonged contact with textile materials. In previous studies, we have shown that benzothiazole and its derivatives, as well as other potentially hazardous chemicals, often are present as textile contaminants in clothes available on the retail market. Since benzothiazole is a common contaminant in clothes, these can be a possible route for human chemical exposure, both systemic and onto the skin. To investigate this potential exposure, Franz-type and flow-through cells were used for the permeation studies together with a Strat-MA (R) artificial membranes. Experiments were performed using solutions of benzothiazole, as well as contaminated textile samples in the donor chamber. Benzothiazole was demonstrated to penetrate through, as well as being accumulated in the membrane mimicking the skin. After 24 h, up to 62% of benzothiazole was found in the acceptor cell, while up to 37% was found absorbed in the skin mimicking membrane. It also was shown that there was release and permeation from contaminated fabrics. The results indicate that benzothiazole can be released from textile materials, penetrate through the skin, and further enter the human body. This will possibly also apply to other chemical contaminants in textiles, and the results of this study indicate that the presence of these textile contaminants entails potential health risks. A rough risk assessment was made for clothing textiles according to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and European regulations for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic compounds, using literature data for benzothiazole.

  • 15.
    Javed, M. Tariq
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Stoltz, Eva
    Lindberg, Sylvia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Greger, Maria
    Changes in pH and organic acids in mucilage of Eriophorum angustifolium roots after exposure to elevated concentrations of toxic elements2012In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 1876-1880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of Eriophorum angustifolium in mine tailings of pyrite maintains a neutral pH, despite weathering, thus lowering the release of toxic elements into acid mine drainage water. We investigated if the presence of slightly elevated levels of free toxic elements triggers the plant rhizosphere to change the pH towards neutral by increasing organic acid content. Plants were treated with a combination of As, Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn at different concentrations in nutrient medium and in soil in a rhizobox-like system for 48-120 hrs. The pH and organic acids were detected in the mucilage dissolved from root surface, reflecting the rhizosphere solution. Also the pH of root-cell apoplasm was investigated. Both apoplasmic and mucilage pH increased and the concentrations of organic acids enhanced in the mucilage with slightly elevated levels of toxic elements. When organic acid concentration was high, also the pH was high. Thus, efflux of organic acids from the roots of E. angustifolium may induce rhizosphere basification.

  • 16.
    Lage, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Burian, Alfred
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Rasmussen, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Costa, Pedro Reis
    Annadotter, Heléne
    Godhe, Anna
    Rydberg, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    BMAA extraction of cyanobacteria samples: which method to choose?2016In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 338-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    beta-N-Methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxin reportedly produced by cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates, is proposed to be linked to the development of neurological diseases. BMAA has been found in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, both in its phytoplankton producers and in several invertebrate and vertebrate organisms that bioaccumulate it. LC-MS/MS is the most frequently used analytical technique in BMAA research due to its high selectivity, though consensus is lacking as to the best extraction method to apply. This study accordingly surveys the efficiency of three extraction methods regularly used in BMAA research to extract BMAA from cyanobacteria samples. The results obtained provide insights into possible reasons for the BMAA concentration discrepancies in previous publications. In addition and according to the method validation guidelines for analysing cyanotoxins, the TCA protein precipitation method, followed by AQC derivatization and LC-MS/MS analysis, is now validated for extracting protein-bound (after protein hydrolysis) and free BMAA from cyanobacteria matrix. BMAA biological variability was also tested through the extraction of diatom and cyanobacteria species, revealing a high variance in BMAA levels (0.0080-2.5797 mu g g(-1) DW).

  • 17.
    Lagerström, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Norling, Matz
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Metal contamination at recreational boatyards linked to the use of antifouling paints-investigation of soil and sediment with a field portable XRF2016In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 10, p. 10146-10157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of a field portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (FPXRF) to measure Cu, Zn, and Pb in soil and sediments at recreational boatyards by Lake Malaren in Sweden was investigated. Confirmatory chemical analysis on freeze-dried samples shows that, ex situ, the FPXRF produces definitive level data for Cu and Zn and quantitative screening data for Pb, according to USEPA criteria for data quality. Good agreement was also found between the ex situ measurements and the in situ screening. At each of the two studied boatyards, >40 in situ soil measurements were carried out. Statistical differences in soil concentration based on land use were consequently found: the areas used for boat storage and maintenance were significantly higher in Cu and Zn than the areas used for car parking and transportation. The metal pollution in the boat storage areas is therefore shown to be directly linked to hull maintenance activities during which metal-containing antifouling paint particles are shed, end up on the ground, and consequently pollute the soil. In the boat storage areas, the Cu and Zn concentrations often exceeded the national guideline values for soil. In this study, they were also shown to increase with increasing age of the boatyard operation. Pb soil concentrations were only elevated at a few measurement points, reflecting the phasing out of Pb compounds from antifouling products over the past 2 decades. In the surface sediments, concentrations of Cu and Zn were 2-3 times higher compared to deeper levels. No decrease in metal concentration with time was found in the sediments, indicating that boat owners are not complying with the ban of biocide-containing paints in freshwater introduced over 20 years ago.

  • 18. Lin, Zhong
    et al.
    Zhen, Zhen
    Chen, Changer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Li, Yongtao
    Luo, Chunling
    Zhong, Laiyuan
    Hu, Hanqiao
    Li, Jin
    Zhang, Yueqin
    Liang, Yanqiu
    Yang, Jiewen
    Zhang, Dayi
    Rhizospheric effects on atrazine speciation and degradation in laterite soils of Pennisetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 13, p. 12407-12418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) is a worldwide-used herbicide and often detected in agricultural soils and groundwater at concentrations above the permitted limit, because of its high mobility, persistence, and massive application. This study applied pot experiments to investigate the atrazine contents and speciation during the phytoremediation process by Pennisetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng. in laterite soils. From the change of the total atrazine and bioavailable atrazine measured by diffusive gradients in thin film (DGT), P. alopecuroides significantly improved atrazine degradation efficiency from 15.22 to 51.46%, attributing to the increasing bioavailable atrazine in rhizosphere. Only a small amount of atrazine was taken up by P. alopecuroides root and the acropetal translocation from roots to shoots was limited. The atrazine speciation was significantly different between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere, attributing to the declining pH and organic matters in rhizosphere. The relationship between pH and soil-bound/humus-fixed atrazine illustrated the pH-dependant release of the atrazine from soils and the competition between humus adsorption and uptake by P. alopecuroides. The present study reveals the important roles of soil pH and organic matters in atrazine speciation and availability in laterite soils, and provides new insights in the rhizospheric effects on effective phytoremediation of atrazine.

  • 19.
    Lindqvist, Dennis
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Jensen, Sören
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Lipid-soluble conjugates of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in blue mussels from the Baltic Sea2014In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 954-961Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) of proposed natural origin have been detected throughout the food web of the Baltic Sea. Some OH-PBDEs have been shown to disrupt oxidative phosphorylation and the thyroid hormone system in exposed organisms. This paper describes an investigation into the fate of OH-PBDEs in the Baltic Sea's predominant specie, the blue mussel. The main focus was on the conjugation of OH-PBDEs with lipophilic moieties (e.g., fatty acids) and the potential role this transformation mechanism may have in heavily exposed mussels in nature. Analytical methods were developed to accurately determine the concentrations of these conjugates in blue mussels collected on different occasions during the summer in a coastal area of the Baltic proper. The measured concentrations of conjugated OH-PBDEs were compared to those of the unconjugated parent compounds, and it was found that in some cases, the levels of the conjugated derivatives can be equal or even higher than the levels of the unconjugated OH-PBDEs. This is, to our knowledge, the first study on lipid-soluble OH-PBDE conjugates, and the first study to investigate the occurrence of such conjugates of halogenated phenolic compounds in environmentally exposed mussels. The mussels were also found to contain hydrolysable water-soluble derivatives of OH-PBDEs (such as e.g., glucuronic acid and/or sulfate conjugates etc.). These were tentatively determined to be of lower concentration (by up to an order of magnitude) than that of the OH-PBDEs which were conjugated with lipophilic moieties.

  • 20.
    Luongo, Giovanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Avagyan, Rozanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Hongyu, Ren
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    The washout effect during laundry on benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and their derivatives in clothing textiles2016In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 2537-2548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In two previous papers, the authors have shown that benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and several of their derivatives are widespread in clothing textile articles. A number of these compounds exhibit allergenic and irritating properties and, due to their octanol-water partition coefficient, are prone to be absorbed by the skin. Moreover, they are slightly soluble in water, which could make washing of clothes a route of emission into the environment. In the present study, the washout effect of benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and some of their derivatives has been investigated. Twenty-seven textile samples were analyzed before, as well as after five and ten times of washing. The most abundant analyte was found to be benzothiazole, which was detected in 85 % of the samples with an average concentration of 0.53 mu g/g (median 0.44 mu g/g), followed by quinoline, detected in 81 % of the samples with an average concentration of 2.42 mu g/g (median 0.21 mu g/g). The average decrease in concentration for benzothiazoles was 50 % after ten times washing, while it was around 20 % for quinolines. The average emission to household wastewater of benzothiazoles and quinolines during one washing (5 kg of clothes made from polyester materials) was calculated to 0.5 and 0.24 g, respectively. These results strongly indicate that laundering of clothing textiles can be an important source of release of these compounds to household wastewater and in the end to aquatic environments. It also demonstrates a potential source of human exposure to these chemicals since considerable amounts of the compounds remain in the clothes even after ten times of washing.

  • 21.
    Löfstrand, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Malmvärn, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå Universitet, Kemiska institutionen.
    Bignert, Anders
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Miljögiftsforskning.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Brominated phenols, anisoles, and dioxins present in blue mussels from the Swedish coastline2010In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 1460-1468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction  

    Naturally occurring hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), their methoxylated counterparts (MeO-PBDEs), and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), together with their potential precursors polybrominated phenols (PBPs) and polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), were analyzed in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) gathered along the east coast (bordering the Baltic Sea) and west coast of Sweden (bordering the North Sea). Brown algae (Dictyosiphon foenicolaceus) and cyanobacteria (Nodularia spumigena) from the Baltic Sea, considered to be among the primary producers of these compounds, were also analyzed for comparison.

    Materials and methods  

    The samples were liquid–liquid extracted, separated into a phenolic and a neutral fraction, and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GS-MS).

    Results and discussion  

    The levels of OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs were significantly higher in Baltic Sea mussels than in those from the west coast, whereas the levels of PBPs and PBAs displayed the opposite pattern. The blue mussels from the Baltic Sea contained high levels of all analyzed substances, much higher than the levels of, e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers. In addition, the GC-MS chromatogram of the phenolic fraction of the west coast samples was dominated by four unknown peak clusters, three of which were tentatively identified as dihydroxy-PBDEs and the other as a hydroxylated-methyl-tetraBDE.

    Conclusions  

    Clearly, all of the compounds analyzed are natural products, both in the Baltic and the North Sea. However, the geographical differences in composition may indicate different origin, e.g., due to differences in the occurrence and/or abundance of various algae species along these two coasts or possibly a more extensive dilution on the west coast.

  • 22.
    Meng, Qingpeng
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Peking University, China.
    Zhang, Jing
    Zhang, Zhaoyu
    Wu, Tairan
    Geochemistry of dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Dan River Drainage (China): distribution, sources, and water quality assessment2016In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 8091-8103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Dan River drainage basin, which is the drinking water source area of South-to-North Water Transfer Project (China), affect large numbers of people and should therefore be carefully monitored. To investigate the distribution, sources, and quality of river water, this study integrating catchment geology and multivariate statistical techniques was carried out in the Dan River drainage from 99 river water samples collected in 2013. The distribution of trace metal concentrations in the Dan River drainage was similar to that in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, indicating that the reservoir was significantly affected by the Dan River drainage. Moreover, our results suggested that As, Sb, Cd, Mn, and Ni were the major pollutants. We revealed extremely high concentrations of As and Sb in the Laoguan River, Cd in the Qingyou River, Mn, Ni, and Cd in the Yinhua River, As and Sb in the Laojun River, and Sb in the Dan River. According to the water quality index, water in the Dan River drainage was suitable for drinking; however, an exposure risk assessment model suggests that As and Sb in the Laojun and Laoguan rivers could pose a high risk to humans in terms of adverse health and potential non-carcinogenic effects.

  • 23.
    Moreira Bastos, Patricia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Vidarson, Jenny
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Oxidative transformation of polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (PBDEs) and of hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs)2008In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 606-613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND, AIM, AND SCOPE: The historical and widespread use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as flame retardants in consumer products worldwide has caused PBDEs to now be regarded as pervasive environmental contaminants. Most recently, hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs) and methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) have emerged as environmentally relevant due to reports of their natural production and metabolism. An important parameter for assessing the environmental impact of a chemical substance is persistence. By formulating the concept that persistence is the result of the substance's physicochemical properties and chemical reactivity, Green and Bergman have proposed a new methodology to determine the inherent persistence of a chemical. If persistence could be predicted by straightforward methods, substances with this quality could be screened out before large-scale production/manufacturing begins. To provide data to implement this concept, we have developed new methodologies to study chemical transformations through photolysis; hydrolysis, substitution, and elimination; and via oxidation. This study has focused on adapting an oxidative reaction method to be applicable to non-water soluble organic pollutants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PBDEs and one MeO-PBDE were dissolved in tetrahydrofuran/methanol and then diluted in alkaline water. The OH-PBDEs were dissolved in alkaline water prior to reaction. The oxidation degradation reaction was performed at 50 degrees C using potassium permanganate as described elsewhere. The pH was maintained at 7.6 with disodium hydrogen phosphate and barium hydrogen phosphate, the latter also serving as a trapping agent for manganate ions. The oxidation reactions were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography and reaction rates were calculated. RESULTS: The OH-PBDEs have very fast oxidative transformation rates compared to the PBDEs. The reaction rates seem to be primarily dependent on substitution pattern of the pi-electron-donating bromine substituents and of bromine content. There are indications that further reactions of OH-PBDEs, e.g., methylation to the MeO-PBDEs, decrease the oxidation rates, and thereby generate more persistent substances. DISCUSSION: The resistance of PBDEs to oxidation, a major degradation pathway in air, should be further investigated, since these compounds do undergo long range transport. With slight modifications, the original method has been adapted to include a larger variety of chemical substances, and preliminary data are now available on the oxidative transformation rates for PBDEs and of OH-PBDEs. CONCLUSIONS: The original oxidation degradation method can now include non-water soluble compounds. This modification, using low concentrations of test chemicals, allows us to measure oxidative transformation rates, for some of the lower brominated DEs, data that can be used to assess their persistence in future model calculations. Oxidative transformation rates for PBDEs are slow compared to those for the OH-PBDEs. This suggests that OH-PBDEs, when released into the environment, undergo faster oxidative metabolism and excretion than the PBDEs. RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: To evaluate the modified method, more degradation reactions with non-water soluble compounds should be investigated. Recent studies show that OH-PBDEs are present in rats and in humans and, because of their activity as endocrine disruptors, determining their subsequent environmental fate is of importance. The resistance of PBDEs to oxidative degradation should be acknowledged as of possible future concern. Several other compound classes (such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs), and pharmaceuticals) need to be subjected to this screening method to increase the database of transformation rates that can be used with this model.

  • 24. Nguyen, Thanh
    et al.
    Berg, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Nguyen, Van
    The combined effect of Bassa 50EC and Vitashield 40EC on the brain acetylcholinesterase activity in climbing perch (Anabas testudineus)2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 17, p. 17207-17215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combined effect of Vitashield 40EC (chlorpyrifos ethyl-CPF) and Bassa 50EC (fenobucarb-F) was compared with the effects from exposure to the two pesticides separately, by measuring the brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in climbing perch fingerlings (Anabas testudineus). The experiment was conducted under controlled laboratory conditions and included three treatments containing 0.173 mg/L of CPF, 1.137 mg/L of F, 0.173 mg/L of CPF + 1.137 mg/L of F (M), and a control. The inhibition of the brain AChE activity in fish exposed to F was weaker and shorter than in fish exposed to CPF. The inhibition by the mixture of CPF and F was significantly lower and less prolonged than the inhibition by only CPF but significantly higher than the inhibition by only F.

  • 25.
    Nguyen, Thanh Tam
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Nong Lam University, Vietnam.
    Berg, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Van Nguyen, Cong
    The joint toxicity effects of Chlorpyrifos ethyl and Fenobucarb to Climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) from rice fields in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 13226-13234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organophosphates (e.g. chlorpyrifos ethyl) and carbamates (e.g. fenobucarb), are commonly used to control a wide range of pests in rice fields of the Mekong Delta in Vietnam. This study assesses the combined effect of chlorpyrifos ethyl (CPF) and fenobucarb (F) on the brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in climbing perch fingerlings from rice fields in the Mekong Delta. It also investigates if Pyridine-2-aldoxime methiodide (2-PAM) can be used to re-activate cholinesterase that has been blocked by CPF and F. Three days after spraying, the water concentrations of both insecticides decreased quickly below the detection levels. However the brain AChE activity in fish was inhibited for more than seven days. The results indicate a quicker but less prolonged inhibition of the brain AChE activity by the mixture than by only CPF. The inhibition levels were above 70% only during the first 48 hours, which could explain why all fish survived. 2-PAM resulted in a significant re-activation of the cholinesterase blocked by a combination of CPF and F, and it is proposed that the re-activation by 2-PAM could provide a way to assess the AChE inhibition level in organisms, when no unexposed individuals are available as controls. The results indicate that current use of CPF and F in rice farming in the Mekong Delta is likely to cause negative effects on non-target organisms. Many of these effects may be sub-lethal, and there is a need to develop relevant bio-markers, that are relevant, cheap and easy to apply under tropical conditions in developing countries.

  • 26. Norden, Marcus
    et al.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Engwall, Magnus
    High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in eggs and embryo livers of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) and herring gull (Larus argentatus) from Lake Vanern, Sweden2013In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 8021-8030Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the eggs and developing chick livers in the two wild bird species, great cormorant and herring gull, the concentrations of a range of 15 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were determined. Eggs of the two species were collected from Lake Vanern, Sweden, and analysed either as undeveloped egg (whole egg or separated into yolk and albumen) or incubated until start of the hatching process when the chick liver was removed and analysed. High levels of PFAAs were found in all matrixes except albumen. The predominant PFAA was perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which was found in the mu g/g wet weight (ww) range in some samples of cormorant whole egg, yolk and liver and herring gull egg yolk and liver. The average concentration in yolk was 1,506 ng/g ww in cormorant and 589 ng/g ww in herring gull. The average liver concentrations of PFOS were 583 ng/g ww in cormorant and 508 ng/g ww in herring gull. At these concentrations, biochemical effects in the developing embryo or effects on embryo survival cannot be ruled out. For perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), the liver/egg and liver/yolk concentration ratios increased with PFCA chain length in cormorant but not in herring gull, indicating that chain length could possibly affect egg-to-liver transfer of PFCAs and that species differences may exist.

  • 27. Nordén, Marcus
    et al.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Developmental toxicity of PFOS and PFOA in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), herring gull (Larus argentatus) and chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)2016In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 10855-10862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found globally in environmental samples and have been studied in various species. In this study, we compare the sensitivity of three avian species to the toxic effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Eggs of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), herring gull (Larus argentatus) and the domestic White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) were exposed in ovo by injection into the air sac. Effects on embryo survival were observed following exposure to PFOS and PFOA in chicken and herring gull. Chicken was found to be the most sensitive species with 50 % reduced embryo survival at 8.5 mu g/g egg for PFOS and 2.5 mu g/g egg for PFOA. Cormorant was shown to be the least sensitive species. The difference in sensitivity between chicken and herring gull was a factor of 2.7 for PFOS and 3.5 for PFOA. Between chicken and great cormorant, the sensitivity difference was 2.6 for PFOS and 8.2 for PFOA. Effects on embryo survival were seen at egg injection doses of PFOS close to levels found in environmental samples from wild birds, indicating that PFOS could be having effects in highly exposed populations of birds. This study also shows that there are differences in species sensitivity to PFOS and PFOA that should be taken into consideration in avian wildlife risk assessment.

  • 28.
    Rämö, Robert A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    van den Brink, Paul J.
    Ruepert, Clemens
    Castillo, Luisa E.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Environmental risk assessment of pesticides in the River Madre de Dios, Costa Rica using PERPEST, SSD, and msPAF models2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 14, p. 13254-13269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assesses the ecological risks (ERA) of pesticides to aquatic organisms in the River Madre de Dios (RMD), which receives surface runoff water from banana, pineapple, and rice plantations on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Water samples collected over 2 years at five sites in the RMD revealed a total of 26 pesticides. Their toxicity risk to aquatic organisms was assessed using three recent ERA models. (1) The PERPEST model showed a high probability (>50 %) of clear toxic effects of pesticide mixtures on algae, macrophytes, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, and community metabolism and a low probability (<50 %) of clear effects on fish. (2) Species sensitivity distributions (SSD) showed a moderate to high risk of three herbicides: ametryn, bromacil, diuron and four insecticides: carbaryl, diazinon, ethoprophos, terbufos. (3) The multi-substance potentially affected fraction (msPAF) model showed results consistent with PERPEST: high risk to algae (maximum msPAF: 73 %), aquatic plants (61 %), and arthropods (25 %) and low risk to fish (0.2 %) from pesticide mixtures. The pesticides posing the highest risks according to msPAF and that should be substituted with less toxic substances were the herbicides ametryn, diuron, the insecticides carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, ethoprophos, and the fungicide difenoconazole. Ecological risks were highest near the plantations and decreased progressively further downstream. The risk to fish was found to be relatively low in these models, but water samples were not collected during fish kill events and some highly toxic pesticides known to be used were not analyzed for in this study. Further sampling and analysis of water samples is needed to determine toxicity risks to fish during peaks of pesticide mixture concentrations. The msPAF model, which estimates the ecological risks of mixtures based on their toxic modes of action, was found to be the most suitable model to assess toxicity risks to aquatic organisms in the RMD. The PERPEST model was found to be a strong tool for screening risk assessments. The SSD approach is useful in deriving water quality criteria for specific pesticides. This study, through the application of three ERA models, clearly shows that pesticides used in plantations within the RMD watershed are expected to have severe adverse effects on most groups of aquatic organisms and that actions are urgently needed to reduce pesticide pollution in this high biodiversity ecosystem.

  • 29.
    Samuelsson, Göran S.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Svensk Ekologikonsult, Sweden.
    Raymond, Caroline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Agrenius, Stefan
    Schaanning, Morten
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Response of marine benthic fauna to thin-layer capping with activated carbon in a large-scale field experiment in the Grenland fjords, Norway2017In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 24, no 16, p. 14218-14233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A field experiment with thin-layer capping was conducted in the Grenland fjords, Norway, for remediation in situ of mercury and dioxin-contaminated sediments. Experimental fields at 30 and 95 m depth were capped with (i) powdered activated carbon (AC) mixed with clay (AC+clay), (ii) clay, and (iii) crushed limestone. Ecological effects on the benthic community and species-feeding guilds were studied 1 and 14 months after capping, and a total of 158 species were included in the analyses. The results show that clay and limestone had only minor effects on the benthic community, while AC+clay caused severe perturbations. AC+clay reduced the abundance, biomass, and number of species by up to 90% at both 30 and 95 m depth, and few indications of recovery were found during the period of this investigation. The negative effects of AC+clay were observed on a wide range of species with different feeding strategies, although the suspension feeding brittle star Amphiura filiformis was particularly affected. Even though activated carbon is effective in reducing sediment-to-water fluxes of dioxins and other organic pollutants, this study shows that capping with powdered AC can lead to substantial disturbances to the benthic community.

  • 30. Sanderson Bellamy, Angelina
    et al.
    Svensson, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    van den Brink, Paul J.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Tedengren, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Insect community composition and functional roles along a tropical agricultural production gradient2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 14, p. 13426-13438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High intensity agricultural production systems are problematic not only for human health and the surrounding environment, but can threaten the provision of ecosystem services on which farm productivity depends. This research investigates the effects of management practices in Costa Rica on on-farm insect diversity, using three different types of banana farm management systems: high-input conventional system, low-input conventional system, and organic system. Insect sampling was done using pitfall and yellow bowl traps, left for a 24-h period at two locations inside the banana farm, at the edge of the farm, and in adjacent forest. All 39,091 individual insects were classified to family level and then morphospecies. Insect species community composition and diversity were compared using multivariate statistics with ordination analysis and Monte Carlo permutation testing, and revealed that each of the management systems were significantly different from each other for both trap types. Insect diversity decreased as management intensity increased. Reduced insect diversity resulted in fewer functional groups and fewer insect families assuming different functions essential to ecosystem health. Organic farms had similar species composition on the farm compared to adjacent forest sites, whereas species composition increasingly differed between farm and forest sites as management intensity increased. We conclude that while organic production has minimal impact on insect biodiversity, even small reductions in management intensity can have a significantly positive impact on on-farm insect biodiversity and functional roles supported.

  • 31.
    Schück, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Greger, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Capacity of 34 Wetland Plant Species to Remove Heavy Metals from WaterIn: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polluted stormwater, a major source of heavy metal load to the sea, is often left untreated or treated in stormwater ponds that do not remove dissolved heavy metals. Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) may reduce heavy metal levels in stormwater, but the choice of plant species for efficient metal removal has received little attention. We investigated the capacity of 34 wetland plant species to remove metals dissolved in water and the possible underlying traits of plants with the best removal capacity. The plants were grown hydroponically for 5 days in a solution containing 1.2 µg Cd L–1, 68.5 µg Cu L–1 ¸ 78.4 µg Pb L–1, and 559 µg Zn L–1. Results indicate that plants could remove up to 61, 86, 94, and 52% of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, respectively, after 0.5 h of exposure, and up to 100% of Cd, Pb, and Zn, respectively, and 98% of Cu after 5 days of exposure. There were large differences in metal removal between the investigated species. Plant size contributed more to high removal capacity than did net metal uptake per unit of fine roots. Carex pseudocyperus and C. riparia were the most efficient and versatile species because they could remove all studied metals after short exposure. In conclusion, it is possible to increase metal removal in FTW applications by selecting high-performing plant species.

  • 32. Schütze, Eileen
    et al.
    Ahmed, Engy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Voit, Annekatrin
    Klose, Michael
    Greyer, Matthias
    Svatoš, Aleš
    Merten, Dirk
    Roth, Martin
    Holmström, Sara J. M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Kothe, Erika
    Siderophore production by streptomycetes-stability and alteration of ferrihydroxamates in heavy metal-contaminated soil2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 24, p. 19376-19383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy metal-contaminated soil derived from a former uranium mining site in Ronneburg, Germany, was used for sterile mesocosms inoculated with the extremely metal-resistant Streptomyces mirabilis P16B-1 or the sensitive control strain Streptomyces lividans TK24. The production and fate of bacterial hydroxamate siderophores in soil was analyzed, and the presence of ferrioxamines E, B, D, and G was shown. While total ferrioxamine concentrations decreased in water-treated controls after 30 days of incubation, the sustained production by the bacteria was seen. For the individual molecules, alteration between neutral and cationic forms and linearization of hydroxamates was observed for the first time. Mesocosms inoculated with biomass of either strain showed changes of siderophore contents compared with the non-treated control indicating for auto-alteration and consumption, respectively, depending on the vital bacteria present. Heat stability and structural consistency of siderophores obtained from sterile culture filtrate were shown. In addition, low recovery (32 %) from soil was shown, indicating adsorption to soil particles or soil organic matter. Fate and behavior of hydroxamate siderophores in metal-contaminated soils may affect soil properties as well as conditions for its inhabiting (micro)organisms.

  • 33.
    Stadlinger, Nadja
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Berg, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Van den Brink, Paul J.
    Tam, Nguyen T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Nong Lam University, Vietnam.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Comparison of predicted aquatic risks of pesticides used under different rice-farming strategies in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 14, p. 13322-13334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates the risks of pesticides applied in rice-fish and rice farming, with and without integrated pest management (IPM) strategies, to non-target aquatic organisms in two provinces of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Pesticide inventories and application patterns were collected from 120 Vietnamese farmers through interviews. Risks were assessed using (1) Pesticide RIsks in the Tropics to Man, Environment, and Trade (PRIMET), a first-tier model, which calculates predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of pesticides in the rice field, based on the compound's physico-chemical properties and the application pattern, and then compares the PECs to safe concentrations based on literature data, and (2) species sensitivity distribution (SSD), a second-tier assessment model using species sensitivity distributions to calculate potentially affected fraction (PAF) of species based on the PECs from PRIMET. Our results show that several of the used insecticides pose a high risk to fish and arthropods and that the risks are higher among rice farmers than among rice-fish farmers. This study indicates that the PRIMET model in combination with SSDs offer suitable approaches to help farmers and plant protection staff to identify pesticides that may cause high risk to the environment and therefore should be substituted with safer alternatives.

  • 34. Sturve, Joachim
    et al.
    Balk, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Liewenborg, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Förlin, Lars
    Carney Almroth, Bethanie
    Effects of an oil spill in a harbor assessed using biomarkers of exposure in eelpout2014In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, no 24, p. 13758-13768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oil spills occur commonly, and chemical compounds originating from oil spills are widespread in the aquatic environment. In order to monitor effects of a bunker oil spill on the aquatic environment, biomarker responses were measured in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) sampled along a gradient in Goteborg harbor where the oil spill occurred and at a reference site, 2 weeks after the oil spill. Eelpout were also exposed to the bunker oil in a laboratory study to validate field data. The results show that eelpout from the Goteborg harbor are influenced by contaminants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), also during normal conditions. The bunker oil spill strongly enhanced the biomarker responses. Results show elevated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in all exposed sites, but, closest to the oil spill, the EROD activity was partly inhibited, possibly by PAHs. Elevated DNA adduct levels were also observed after the bunker oil spill. Chemical analyses of bile revealed high concentrations of PAH metabolites in the eelpout exposed to the oil, and the same PAH metabolite profile was evident both in eelpout sampled in the harbor and in the eelpout exposed to the bunker oil in the laboratory study.

  • 35. Svanfelt, Jesper
    et al.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Kronberg, Leif
    Photochemical transformation of the thyroid hormone levothyroxine in aqueous solution2011In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 871-876Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The direct aqueous photolysis of the thyroid hormone levothyroxine (T(4)) has been studied. Methods and Result One of the major photoproducts, i.e., 4-[4-(2-amino-2-carboxy-ethyl)-2,6-diiodo-phenoxy]-penta-2,4-dienoic acid (P1), was isolated by liquid chromatography and structurally assigned by mass spectrometric (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic methods. The identity of a second major product, i.e., 3,5-diiodo-l-thyrosine (P3), was confirmed through access to a commercially available standard. Furthermore, the structures of three additional transformation products are proposed on the basis of data obtained by high-resolution MS analyses. UV absorption spectra were determined for T(4) and the two photoproducts P1 and P3. Disappearance quantum yields were calculated for T(4) (I center dot = 0.014 at pH 12) and P3 (I center dot = 0.024 at pH 12 and I center dot = 0.010 at pH 8.5), whereas the compound P1 was found to be stable under the studied conditions (T(1/2) = 600 min). Conclusion The results indicate that solar UV light may have a significant impact on the fate of T(4) in the aquatic environment.

  • 36.
    Svensson, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Sanderson Bellamy, Angelina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Cardiff University, UK.
    Van den Brink, Paul J.
    Tedengren, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Assessing the ecological impact of banana farms on water quality using aquatic macroinvertebrate community composition2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 14, p. 13373-13381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Costa Rica, considerable effort goes to conservation and protection of biodiversity, while at the same time agricultural pesticide use is among the highest in the world. Several protected areas, some being wetlands or marine reserves, are situated downstream large-scale banana farms, with an average of 57 pesticide applications per year. The banana industry is increasingly aware of the need to reduce their negative environmental impact, but few ecological field studies have been made to evaluate the efficiency of proposed mitigation strategies. This study compared the composition of benthic macroinvertebrate communities up- and downstream effluent water from banana farms in order to assess whether benthic invertebrate community structure can be used to detect environmental impact of banana fanning, and thereby usable to assess improvements in management practises. Aquatic invertebrate samples were collected at 13 sites, using kick-net sampling. both up- and downstream banana farms in fast flowing streams in the Caribbean zone of Costa Rica. In total, 2888 invertebrate specimens were collected, belonging to 15 orders and 48 families or taxa. The change in community composition was analysed using multivariate statistics. Additionally, a biodiversity index and the Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) score system was applied along with a number of community composition descriptors. Multivariate analyses indicated that surface waters immediately up- and downstream large-scale banana farms have different macroinvertebrate community compositions with the most evident differences being higher dominance by a single taxa and a much higher total abundance, mostly of that same taxon. Assessment of macroinvertebrate community composition thus appears to be a viable approach to detect negative impact from chemical-intensive agriculture and could become an effective means to monitor the efficacy of changes/proposed improvements in fanning practises in Costa Rica and similar systems.

  • 37. Tanwir, Kashif
    et al.
    Akram, M. Sohail
    Masood, Sajid
    Chaudhary, Hassan Javed
    Lindberg, Sylvia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Javed, M. Tariq
    Cadmium-induced rhizospheric pH dynamics modulated nutrient acquisition and physiological attributes of maize (Zea mays L.)2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 12, p. 9193-9203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly mobile toxic element in soil-plant systems that interferes with plant growth and nutrient acquisition by modulations in the rhizospheric environment. The current study investigated the influence of maize roots on the medium pH, alterations in nutrient uptake, and impact on the plant's physiological attributes under Cd stress. Among the nine maize cultivars, subjected to Cd stress (9.15 mg/kg of sand), one was identified as Cd tolerant (3062-Pioneer) and the second as Cd sensitive (31P41-Pioneer). The selected maize cultivars were grown in nutrient solutions supplemented with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, or 50 mu M CdCl2 under controlled conditions and a starting pH of 6.0. The rhizospheric pH dynamics were monitored each day up to 3 days. Both cultivars caused medium basification; however, the response was different at low (10 and 20 mu M) Cd treatments (sensitive cultivar caused medium basification) and at higher (50 mu M) Cd treatment (tolerant cultivar caused medium basification). Furthermore, higher Cd was accumulated by the sensitive cultivar which was predominantly found in the roots. Higher Cd levels in the medium resulted in increased uptake and translocation of both Cd and K (in the tolerant cultivar) or only Cd (in the sensitive cultivar). Uptake of other nutrients (Ca, Zn, and Fe) was antagonistically affected by Cd stress in both cultivars. Moreover, Cd stress significantly impaired chlorophyll content, catalase activity, and total protein content; irrespective of the genotype. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content was found to increase, in both cultivars, together with Cd level. However, the extent to which Cd interfered with the studied attributes was more pronounced in the sensitive cultivar as compared to the tolerant one. It is concluded that the maize roots responded to Cd stress by initiating modulations of medium pH which might be dependent on Cd tolerance levels. The study results may help to develop strategies to reduce Cd accumulation in maize and decontamination of metal-polluted soil sediments.

  • 38.
    Vestergren, Robin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Orata, Francis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids in dairy cows in a naturally contaminated environment2013In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 7959-7969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Beef and dairy products may be important vectors of human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), but the understanding of how PFAAs are accumulated and transferred through agricultural food chains is very limited. Here, the bioaccumulation of PFAAs in dairy cows receiving naturally contaminated feed and drinking water was investigated by conducting a mass balance of PFAAs for a herd of dairy cows in a barn on a typical Swedish dairy farm. It was assumed that the cows were able to reach steady state with their dietary intake of PFAAs. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with 8 to 12 carbons were detected in cow tissue samples (liver, muscle, and blood) at concentrations up to 130 ng kg(-1). Mass balance calculations demonstrated an agreement between total intake and excretion within a factor of 1.5 and consumption of silage was identified as the dominant intake pathway for all PFAAs. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) were highly tissue and homologue specific. While BMFs of PFOS and PFCAs with 9 and 10 fluorinated carbons in liver ranged from 10 to 20, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was not biomagnified (BMF < 1) in any of the investigated tissues. Biotransfer factors (BTFs; defined as the concentration in tissue divided by the total daily intake) were calculated for muscle and milk. Log BTFs ranged from -1.95 to -1.15 day kg(-1) with the highest BTF observed for PFOS in muscle. Overall, the results of this study suggest that long-chain PFAAs have a relatively high potential for transfer to milk and beef from the diet of dairy cows. However, a low input of PFAAs to terrestrial systems via atmospheric deposition and low bioavailability of PFAAs in soil limits the amount of PFAAs that enter terrestrial agricultural food chains in background contaminated environments and makes this pathway less important than aquatic exposure pathways. The BTFs estimated here provide a useful tool for predicting human exposure to PFAAs via milk and beef under different contamination scenarios.

  • 39. Weidemann, Eva
    et al.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Bidleman, Terry
    Boman, Christoffer
    Carlin, Danielle J.
    Collina, Elena
    Cormier, Stephania A.
    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C.
    Gullett, Brian K.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Environment and Health Administration, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lucas, Donald
    Lundin, Lisa
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Marklund, Stellan
    Nording, Malin L.
    Ortuno, Nuria
    Sallam, Asmaa A.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Jansson, Stina
    14th congress of combustion by-products and their health effects-origin, fate, and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources2016In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 8141-8159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 14th International Congress on Combustion By-Products and Their Health Effects was held in UmeAyen, Sweden from June 14th to 17th, 2015. The Congress, mainly sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, focused on the Origin, fate and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources. The international delegates included academic and government researchers, engineers, scientists, policymakers and representatives of industrial partners. The Congress provided a unique forum for the discussion of scientific advances in this research area since it addressed in combination the health-related issues and the environmental implications of combustion by-products. The scientific outcomes of the Congress included the consensus opinions that: (a) there is a correlation between human exposure to particulate matter and increased cardiac and respiratory morbidity and mortality; (b) because currently available data does not support the assessment of differences in health outcomes between biomass smoke and other particulates in outdoor air, the potential human health and environmental impacts of emerging air-pollution sources must be addressed. Assessment will require the development of new approaches to characterize combustion emissions through advanced sampling and analytical methods. The Congress also concluded the need for better and more sustainable e-waste management and improved policies, usage and disposal methods for materials containing flame retardants.

  • 40.
    Wong, Fiona
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Jantunen, Liisa M.
    Papakyriakou, Tim
    Staebler, Ralf M.
    Stern, Gary A.
    Bidleman, Terry F.
    Comparison of micrometeorological and two-film estimates of air-water gas exchange for alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane in the Canadian archipelago2012In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 1908-1914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The air-sea gas exchange of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH) in the Canadian Arctic was estimated using a micrometeorological approach and the commonly used Whitman two-film model. Concurrent shipboard measurements of alpha-HCH in air at two heights (1 and 15 m) and in surface seawater were conducted during the Circumpolar Flaw Lead study in 2008. Sampling was carried out during eight events in the early summer time when open water was encountered. The micrometeorological technique employed the vertical gradient in air concentration and the wind speed to estimate the flux; results were corrected for atmospheric stability using the Monin-Obukhov stability parameter. The Whitman two-film model used the concentrations of alpha-HCH in surface seawater, in bulk air at 1 and 15 m above the surface, and the Henry's law constant adjusted for temperature and salinity to derive the flux. Both approaches showed that the overall net flux of alpha-HCH was from water to air. Mean fluxes calculated using the micrometeorological technique ranged from -3.5 to 18 ng m(-2) day(-1) (mean 7.4), compared to 3.5 to 14 ng m(-2) day(-1) (mean 7.5) using the Whitman two-film model. Flux estimates for individual events agreed in direction and within a factor of two in magnitude for six of eight events. For two events, fluxes estimated by micrometeorology were zero or negative, while fluxes estimated with the two-film model were positive, and the reasons for these discrepancies are unclear. Improvements are needed to shorten air sampling times to ensure that stationarity of meteorological conditions is not compromised over the measurement periods. The micrometeorological technique could be particularly useful to estimate fluxes of organic chemicals over water in situations where no water samples are available.

  • 41.
    Wu, Desheng
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Song, Yu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School. Wuhan University of Technology, China.
    Xie, Kefan
    Zhang, Baofeng
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School. University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Traits and causes of environmental loss-related chemical accidents in China based on co-word analysis2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 18, p. 18189-18199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical accidents are major causes of environmental losses and have been debated due to the potential threat to human beings and environment. Compared with the single statistical analysis, co-word analysis of chemical accidents illustrates significant traits at various levels and presents data into a visual network. This study utilizes a co-word analysis of the keywords extracted from the Web crawling texts of environmental loss-related chemical accidents and uses the Pearson's correlation coefficient to examine the internal attributes. To visualize the keywords of the accidents, this study carries out a multidimensional scaling analysis applying PROXSCAL and centrality identification. The research results show that an enormous environmental cost is exacted, especially given the expected environmental loss-related chemical accidents with geographical features. Meanwhile, each event often brings more than one environmental impact. Large number of chemical substances are released in the form of solid, liquid, and gas, leading to serious results. Eight clusters that represent the traits of these accidents are formed, including leakage, poisoning, explosion, pipeline crack, river pollution, dust pollution, emission, and industrial effluent. Explosion and gas possess a strong correlation with poisoning, located at the center of visualization map.

  • 42.
    Wu, Yan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Tongji University, China.
    Zhou, Yihui
    Qiu, Yanling
    Chen, Da
    Zhu, Zhiliang
    Zhao, Jianfu
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center (Swetox), Sweden; Tongji University, China.
    Occurrence and risk assessment of trace metals and metalloids in sediments and benthic invertebrates from Dianshan Lake, China2017In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 24, no 17, p. 14847-14856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study measured concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Pb in surface sediments and two benthic invertebrate species (Anodonta woodiana and Bellamya aeruginosa) collected from Dianshan Lake, located in the Yangtze River Delta. The Dianshan Lake acts as one of the most important drinking water sources to Shanghai, the biggest city in China. Concentrations of trace metals and metalloids ranged from 0.04 mg/kg for Cd to 288.0 mg/kg for Zn. Substantial bioaccumulation in invertebrates was observed for Zn and Cu based on the biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) measurements. The results revealed that concentrations of metals and metalloids in sediments from Dianshan Lake were at the lower end of the range of levels found in other regions of China. The assessment of three significantly inter-related evaluation indices, including the geo-accumulation Index (I-geo), potential ecological risk factor (Er-i), and mean probable effect concentration quotients (Q(m-PEC)), suggested that sediment-associated trace elements exhibited no considerable ecological risks in the studied watershed. However, the target hazard quotient and hazard index analysis suggested that selected elements (particularly As) accumulation in edible tissues of benthic invertebrates could pose potential health risks to local populations, especially fishermen. Given that wild aquatic organisms (e.g., fish and bivalves) constitute the diet of local populations as popular food/protein choices, further investigations are needed to better elucidate human health risks from metal and metalloid exposure via edible freshwater organisms.

  • 43.
    Yin, Ge
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Qui, Yanling
    Zhou, Yihui
    Wang, Hua
    Yao, Zongli
    Jiang, Jianbin
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Tongji University, China.
    Chlorinated and brominated organic pollutants in shellfish from the Yellow Sea and East China Sea2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 1713-1722Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global contamination with persistent organic pollutants (POPs), or compounds with similar characteristics, is well known. Still there are data gaps for POP concentrations from many areas in the world. The aim of the present study is to assess several legacies POPs and also hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) in shellfish from three locations in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. The sources of the contaminants are discussed. Pooled samples were treated by liquid-liquid extraction and acid and column cleanup prior to analysis by gas chromatogram equipped with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The by far most abundant environmental contaminant originates from dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), independent of species analyzed or sampling site. The results indicate ongoing or at least recent discharges of DDT. The second highest concentrations were reported for HBCDD (21–40 ng/g fat) in the shellfish, independent of sampling sites. The two natural products, 6-MeO-BDE-47 and 2′-MeO-BDE-68, were also present in the shellfish (1.3–22 and 1–14 ng/g fat, respectively). The polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener CB-153 (0.8–6.5 ng/g fat), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (1.1–3.6 ng/g fat), and β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) (2.3–4.9 ng/g fat) were all higher than the concentrations of other HCH isomers, β-endosulfan, PBDE congeners, and mirex. Apart from the DDTs and HBCDDs, it is evident that the pollution of shellfish was similar to, or lower than, the contamination of shellfish in other parts of the world.

  • 44.
    Yin, Ge
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Sweden; Tongji University, China.
    Zhou, Yihui
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Tongji University, China.
    Qiu, Yanling
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    A refined method for analysis of 4,4 '-dicofol and 4,4 '-dichlorobenzophenone2017In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 24, no 15, p. 13307-13314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The acaricide, dicofol, is a well-known pesticide and partly a substitute for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Only few reports on environmental occurrence and concentrations have been reported calling for improvements. Hence, an analytical method was further developed for dicofol and dichlorobenzophenone (DCBP) to enable assessments of their environmental occurrence. Concentrated sulfuric acid was used to remove lipids and to separate dicofol from DCBP. On-column injection was used as an alternative to splitless injection to protect dicofol from thermal decomposition. By the method presented herein, it is possible to quantify dicofol and DCBP in the same samples. Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) were spiked at two dose levels and the recoveries were determined. The mean recovery for dicofol was 65% at the low dose (1 ng) and 77% at the high dose (10 ng). The mean recovery for DCBP was 99% at the low dose (9.2 ng) and 146% at the high dose (46 ng). The method may be further improved by use of another lipid removal method, e.g., gel permeation chromatography. The method implies a step forward in dicofol environmental assessments.

  • 45.
    Yin, Ge
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Zhou, Yihui
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Tongji University, China.
    Strid, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Zheng, Ziye
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Umeå University, Sweden.
    Bignert, Anders
    Ma, Taowu
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Qiu, Yanling
    Spatial distribution and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in snails (Bellamya aeruginosa) and sediments from Taihu Lake area, China2017In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 24, no 8, p. 7740-7751Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Taihu Lake area is one of the densest metropolitan areas in the world including diverse industrial activity. In the present study, the snail (Bellamya aeruginosa) and sediment were collected from the Taihu Lake area to investigate the contamination status, congener pattern, spatial distribution, and bioaccumulation effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The samples underwent liquid extraction, lipid removal by sulfuric acid, and acidic silica gel column, and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Concentration of S22PCBs ranged between 90 and 680 ng g(-1) lipid weight in the snails and between 0.018 and 0.82 ng g(-1) dry weight in the sediments. Concentration of S24PBDEs varied from 25 to 200 ng g(-1) lipid weight in the snails and from 0.62 to 67 ng g(-1) dry weight in the sediments. The levels of PCBs and PBDEs observed were in the medium to low range compared with other studies in the world. CB-153 was the predominant PCB congener in both snails and sediments whereas BDE-209 showed a low bioavailability in the snails, even if it contributed up to 70% of S24PBDEs in the sediments. The spatial distribution showed that the highest concentration of PCBs and PBDEs were detected in samples from Zhushan Lake. East Taihu Lake and Dianshan Lake showed lower concentration of PCBs and PBDEs than the other sampling sites. Biota-sediment accumulation was found between snails and sediments of most of PCB and PBDE congeners except for the highly brominated BDEs (i.e., BDE-209). Therefore, sediment is suggested to be an appropriate matrix to monitor BDE-209 while aquatic species such as the snail could be good for monitoring of PCBs and lower brominated BDE congeners. No significant correlation (Spearman correlation test, two-tailed) of CB-153 (r = 0.54, p = 0.27) or BDE-47 (r = 0.60, p = 0.21) was found between snails and sediments.

  • 46. Åberg, Annika
    et al.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wiberg, Karin
    Performance of the CalTOX fate and exposure model in a case study for a dioxin-contaminated site2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 11, p. 8719-8727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil with high levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) is found at contaminated sites all over the world. Transfer of PCDD/Fs from contaminated soil to the food chain could lead to elevated human exposure. As a complement to available monitoring data, multimedia fate and exposure modeling can be applied to support risk assessment of sites with PCDD/F contaminated soil. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the CalTOX fate and exposure model for 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs against measured concentrations in air, soil, grass, carrots, potatoes, milk, meat, and eggs from a contaminated site in northern Sweden. The calculated total toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations agree with measurements within a factor of 10 for all exposure media but one. Results for individual congeners demonstrated that the model did not always perform well at describing key processes that mobilize PCDD/Fs out of soils, such as transfer into root crops and ingestion of soil by chickens. Uncertainty in only a small subset of input parameters affects the model output. Improved information and models describing transfer of soil particles onto leafy vegetation by rain splash and biotransfer factors for PCDD/Fs to milk, meat, and eggs are particular research needs to reduce uncertainties in model-based assessments.

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