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  • 1. Blösch, Günter
    et al.
    Bierkens, Marc F. P.
    Chambel, Antonio
    Cudennec, Christophe
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Fiori, Aldo
    Kirchner, James W.
    McDonnell, Jeffrey J.
    Savenije, Hubert H. G.
    Sivapalan, Murugesu
    Stumpp, Christine
    Toth, Elena
    Volpi, Elena
    Carr, Gemma
    Lupton, Claire
    Salinas, Jose
    Szeles, Borbala
    Viglione, Alberto
    Aksoy, Hafzullah
    Allen, Scott T.
    Amin, Anam
    Andreassian, Vazken
    Arheimer, Berit
    Aryal, Santosh K.
    Baker, Victor
    Bardsley, Earl
    Barendrecht, Marlies H.
    Bartosova, Alena
    Batelaan, Okke
    Berghuijs, Wouter R.
    Beven, Keith
    Blume, Theresa
    Bogaard, Thom
    de Amorim, Pablo Borges
    Boettcher, Michael E.
    Boulet, Gilles
    Breinl, Korbinian
    Brilly, Mitja
    Brocca, Luca
    Buytaert, Wouter
    Castellarin, Attilio
    Castelletti, Andrea
    Chen, Xiaohong
    Chen, Yangbo
    Chen, Yuanfang
    Chifflard, Peter
    Claps, Pierluigi
    Clark, Martyn P.
    Collins, Adrian L.
    Croke, Barry
    Dathe, Annette
    David, Paula C.
    de Barros, Felipe P. J.
    de Rooij, Gerrit
    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano
    Driscoll, Jessica M.
    Duethmann, Doris
    Dwivedi, Ravindra
    Eris, Ebru
    Farmer, William H.
    Feiccabrino, James
    Ferguson, Grant
    Ferrari, Ennio
    Ferraris, Stefano
    Fersch, Benjamin
    Finger, David
    Foglia, Laura
    Fowler, Keirnan
    Gartsman, Boris
    Gascoin, Simon
    Gaume, Eric
    Gelfan, Alexander
    Geris, Josie
    Gharari, Shervan
    Gleeson, Tom
    Glendell, Miriam
    Bevacqua, Alena Gonzalez
    Gonzalez-Dugo, Maria P.
    Grimaldi, Salvatore
    Gupta, A. B.
    Guse, Bjoern
    Han, Dawei
    Hannah, David
    Harpold, Adrian
    Haun, Stefan
    Heal, Kate
    Helfricht, Kay
    Herrnegger, Mathew
    Hipsey, Matthew
    Hlavacikova, Hana
    Hohmann, Clara
    Holko, Ladislav
    Hopkinson, Christopher
    Hrachowitz, Markus
    Illangasekare, Tissa H.
    Inam, Azhar
    Innocente, Camyla
    Istanbulluoglu, Erkan
    Jarihani, Ben
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Kalvans, Andis
    Khanal, Sonu
    Khatami, Sina
    Kiesel, Jens
    Kirkby, Mike
    Knoben, Wouter
    Kochanek, Krzysztof
    Kohnova, Silvia
    Kolechkina, Alla
    Krause, Stefan
    Kreamer, David
    Kreibich, Heidi
    Kunstmann, Harald
    Lange, Holger
    Liberato, Margarida L. R.
    Lindquist, Eric
    Link, Timothy
    Liu, Junguo
    Loucks, Daniel Peter
    Luce, Charles
    Mahe, Gil
    Makarieva, Olga
    Malard, Julien
    Mashtayeva, Shamshagul
    Maskey, Shreedhar
    Mas-Pla, Josep
    Mavrova-Guirguinova, Maria
    Mazzoleni, Maurizio
    Mernild, Sebastian
    Misstear, Bruce Dudley
    Montanari, Alberto
    Mueller-Thomy, Hannes
    Nabizadeh, Alireza
    Nardi, Fernando
    Neale, Christopher
    Nesterova, Nataliia
    Nurtaev, Bakhram
    Odongo, Vincent O.
    Panda, Subhabrata
    Pande, Saket
    Pang, Zhonghe
    Papacharalampous, Georgia
    Perrin, Charles
    Pfister, Laurent
    Pimentel, Rafael
    Polo, Maria J.
    Post, David
    Sierra, Cristina Prieto
    Ramos, Maria-Helena
    Renner, Maik
    Reynolds, Jose Eduardo
    Ridolfi, Elena
    Rigon, Riccardo
    Riva, Monica
    Robertson, David E.
    Rosso, Renzo
    Roy, Tirthankar
    Sa, Joao H. M.
    Salvadori, Gianfausto
    Sandells, Mel
    Schaefli, Bettina
    Schumann, Andreas
    Scolobig, Anna
    Seibert, Jan
    Servat, Eric
    Shafiei, Mojtaba
    Sharma, Ashish
    Sidibe, Moussa
    Sidle, Roy C.
    Skaugen, Thomas
    Smith, Hugh
    Spiessl, Sabine M.
    Stein, Lina
    Steinsland, Ingelin
    Strasser, Ulrich
    Su, Bob
    Szolgay, Jan
    Tarboton, David
    Tauro, Flavia
    Thirel, Guillaume
    Tian, Fuqiang
    Tong, Rui
    Tussupova, Kamshat
    Tyralis, Hristos
    Uijlenhoet, Remko
    van Beek, Rens
    van der Ent, Ruud J.
    van der Ploeg, Martine
    Van Loon, Anne F.
    van Meerveld, Ilja
    van Nooijen, Ronald
    van Oel, Pieter R.
    Vidal, Jean-Philippe
    von Freyberg, Jana
    Vorogushyn, Sergiy
    Wachniew, Przemyslaw
    Wade, Andrew J.
    Ward, Philip
    Westerberg, Ida K.
    White, Christopher
    Wood, Eric F.
    Woods, Ross
    Xu, Zongxue
    Yilmaz, Koray K.
    Zhang, Yongqiang
    Twenty-three unsolved problems in hydrology (UPH) - a community perspective2019In: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is the outcome of a community initiative to identify major unsolved scientific problems in hydrology motivated by a need for stronger harmonisation of research efforts. The procedure involved a public consultation through online media, followed by two workshops through which a large number of potential science questions were collated, prioritised, and synthesised. In spite of the diversity of the participants (230 scientists in total), the process revealed much about community priorities and the state of our science: a preference for continuity in research questions rather than radical departures or redirections from past and current work. Questions remain focused on the process-based understanding of hydrological variability and causality at all space and time scales. Increased attention to environmental change drives a new emphasis on understanding how change propagates across interfaces within the hydrological system and across disciplinary boundaries. In particular, the expansion of the human footprint raises a new set of questions related to human interactions with nature and water cycle feedbacks in the context of complex water management problems. We hope that this reflection and synthesis of the 23 unsolved problems in hydrology will help guide research efforts for some years to come.

  • 2. Koussis, A. D.
    et al.
    Georgopoulou, E.
    Kotronarou, A.
    Lalas, D. P.
    Restrepo, P.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Rodriguez, J. J.
    Rodriguez-Mirasol, J.
    Cordero, T.
    Gomez-Gotor, A.
    Cost-efficient management of coastal aquifers via recharge with treated wastewater and desalination of brackish groundwater: General framework2010In: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, Vol. 55, no 7, p. 1217-1233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-arid coastal zones often suffer water-stress, as water demand is high and markedly seasonal, due to agriculture and tourism. Driven by scarcity of surface water, the communities in semi-arid coastal regions turn to aquifers as prime water source; but intensive exploitation of coastal aquifers causes seawater intrusion, which degrades the quality of groundwater. The cost-efficient and sustainable development of coastal aquifers can be achieved through a holistic management scheme which combines two non-traditional water sources: (a) saltwater, to be treated to the desired quality, and (b) wastewater, to be re-claimed to augment aquifer recharge for control of seawater intrusion, and also to meet certain demands. This management scheme is based on the idea that it is cost-advantageous to: (i) desalt brackish groundwater, instead of seawater, as the former requires far less energy, and (ii) to re-use wastewater at only the differential cost to any treatment already practiced. In this paper, we present the general framework of the proposed management scheme, and a decision aid tool (DAT) which has been developed to assist decision makers to explore the scheme's decision space. The DAT uses cost as optimization criterion to screen various management scenarios, via modelling of the dynamic natural-engineered system behaviour, and identifies those cost-efficient ones that meet the water demand and achieve aquifer protection.

  • 3. Koussis, A. D.
    et al.
    Georgopoulou, E.
    Kotronarou, A.
    Lalas, D. P.
    Restrepo, P.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Rodriguez, J. J.
    Rodriguez-Mirasol, J.
    Cordero, T.
    Ioannou, C.
    Georgiou, A.
    Schwarz, J.
    Zacharias, I.
    Cost-efficient management of coastal aquifers via recharge with treated wastewater and desalination of brackish groundwater: Application to the Akrotiri Basin and Aquifer, Cyprus2010In: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, Vol. 55, no 7, p. 1234-1245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the general methodology for an intensive development of coastal aquifers, described in a companion paper, through its application to the management of the Akrotiri aquifer, Cyprus. The Zakaki area of that aquifer, adjacent to Lemessos City, is managed such that it permits a fixed annual agricultural water demand to be met, as well as and a fraction of the water demand of Lemessos, which varies according to available surface water. Effluents of the Lemessos wastewater treatment plant are injected into the aquifer to counteract the seawater intrusion resulting from the increased pumping. The locations of pumping and injection wells are optimized based on least-cost, subject to meeting the demand. This strategy controls sea intrusion so effectively that desalting of only small volumes of slightly brackish groundwater is required over short times, while ∼2.3 m3 of groundwater is produced for each 1 m3 of injected treated wastewater. The cost over the 20-year period 2000-2020 of operation is ∼40 M€ and the unit production cost of potable water is under 0.2 €/m3. The comparison between the deterministic and stochastic analyses of the groundwater dynamics indicates the former as conservative, i.e. yielding higher groundwater salinity at the well. The Akrotiri case study shows that the proposed aquifer management scheme yields solutions that are preferable to the widely promoted seawater desalination, also considering the revenues from using the treated wastewater for irrigation.

  • 4.
    Koutsouris, Alexander J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. The Nature Conservancy, USA.
    Advancing understanding in data-limited conditions: estimating contributions to streamflow across Tanzania's rapidly developing Kilombero Valley2018In: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 197-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large seasonal variability in precipitation patterns may help overcome data limitations and difficult conditions when characterizing hydrological flow pathways. We used a limited amount of weekly water chemistry as well as stable water isotope data to perform end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) in a generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) framework in a sub-catchment of the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania. While there were considerable uncertainties related to the characterization and mixing of end-members, some robust estimates could be made on contributions to seasonal streamflow variability. For example, there is a low connectivity between the deep groundwater and the stream system throughout the year. Also, a considerable wetting-up period is required before overland flow occurs. Thus, in spite of large uncertainties, our results highlight how improved system understanding of hydrological flows can be obtained even when working in difficult environments.

  • 5. Reynolds, J. E.
    et al.
    Halldin, S.
    Seibert, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Uppsala University, Sweden; University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Xu, C. Y.
    Definitions of climatological and discharge days: do they matter in hydrological modelling?2018In: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, Vol. 63, no 5, p. 836-844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of hydrological models is affected by uncertainty related to observed climatological and discharge data. Although the latter has been widely investigated, the effects on hydrological models from different starting times of the day have received little interest. In this study, observational data from one tropical basin were used to investigate the effects on a typical bucket-type hydrological model, the HBV, when the definitions of the climatological and discharge days are changed. An optimization procedure based on a genetic algorithm was used to assess the effects on model performance. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies varied considerably between day definitions, with the largest dependence on the climatological-day definition. The variation was likely caused by how storm water was assigned to one or two daily rainfall values depending on the definition of the climatological day. Hydrological models are unlikely to predict high flows accurately if rainfall intensities are reduced because of the day definition.

  • 6. Reynolds, J. E.
    et al.
    Halldin, S.
    Seibert, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. University of Zurich, Switzerland; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Xu, C. Y.
    Grabs, T.
    Robustness of flood-model calibration using single and multiple events2019In: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lack of discharge data for model calibration is challenging for flood prediction in ungauged basins. Since establishment and maintenance of a permanent discharge station is resource demanding, a possible remedy could be to measure discharge only for a few events. We tested the hypothesis that a few flood-event hydrographs in a tropical basin would be sufficient to calibrate a bucket-type rainfall-runoff model, namely the HBV model, and proposed a new event-based calibration method to adequately predict floods. Parameter sets were chosen based on calibration of different scenarios of data availability, and their ability to predict floods was assessed. Compared to not having any discharge data, flood predictions improved already when one event was used for calibration. The results further suggest that two to four events for calibration may considerably improve flood predictions with regard to accuracy and uncertainty reduction, whereas adding more events beyond this resulted in small performance gains.

  • 7.
    Seibert, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    McDonnell, J. J.
    Land-cover impacts on streamflow: a change-detection modelling approach that incorporates parameter uncertainty2010In: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 316-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of land-use or land-cover change on stream runoff dynamics is not fully understood. In many parts of the world, forest management is the major land-cover change agent. While the paired catchment approach has been the primary methodology used to quantify such effects, it is only possible for small headwater catchments where there is uniformity in precipitation inputs and catchment characteristics between the treatment and control catchments. This paper presents a model-based change-detection approach that includes model and parameter uncertainty as an alternative to the traditional paired-catchment method for larger catchments. We use the HBV model and data from the HJ Andrews Experimental Forest in Oregon, USA, to develop and test the approach on two small (< 1 km(2)) headwater catchments (a 100% clear-cut and a control) and then apply the technique to the larger 62 km(2) Lookout catchment. Three different approaches are used to detect changes in stream peak flows using: (a) calibration for a period before (or after) change and simulation of runoff that would have been observed without land-cover changes (reconstruction of runoff series); (b) comparison of calibrated parameter values for periods before and after a land-cover change; and (c) comparison of runoff predicted with parameter sets calibrated for periods before and after a land-cover change. Our proof-of-concept change detection modelling showed that peak flows increased in the clear-cut headwater catchment, relative to the headwater control catchment, and several parameter values in the model changed after the clear-cutting. Some minor changes were also detected in the control, illustrating the problem of false detections. For the larger Lookout catchment, moderately increased peak flows were detected. Monte Carlo techniques used to quantify parameter uncertainty and compute confidence intervals in model results and parameter ranges showed rather wide distributions of model simulations. While this makes change detection more difficult, it also demonstrated the need to explicitly consider parameter uncertainty in the modelling approach to obtain reliable results.

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