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  • 1.
    Apel, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Osteoarchaeological Research Laboratory. Lund University, Sweden.
    Wallin, Paul
    Storå, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Osteoarchaeological Research Laboratory.
    Possnert, Göran
    Early Holocene human population events on the island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea (9200-3800 cal. BP)2018In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 465, p. 276-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The summed probability distribution of 162 radiocarbon dates from Gotland was analysed with reference to archaeological and environmental data in order to evaluate possible variations in settlement intensity on the island. The data indicated variations in demographic development on the island, with probably several different colonization events and external influences; the pioneer settlement reached the island around 9200 cal. BP. After the initial colonization, the radiocarbon dates were rather evenly distributed until around 7700–7600 cal. BP, then there was a drop in the number of dates between 8300 and 8000 cal. BP that may be associated with the 8200 cold event. A marked decline in the number of dates between 7600 and 6000 cal. BP may be associated initially with the Littorina I transgression, but this transgression cannot explain why the Late Mesolithic period is not well represented on Gotland: the climatic development was favourable but did not result in increased human activity. The number of radiocarbon dates indicated that the population size remained low until around 6000 cal. BP, after which there was a gradual increase that reached a first ‘threshold’ after 5600 cal. BP and a second ‘threshold’ after 4500 cal. BP. The first apparent population increase was associated with the appearance of the Funnel Beaker Culture (FBC) and the second with Pitted Ware Culture (PWC) complexes. A decline in the number of dates occurred after 4300 cal. BP, i.e. towards the Late Neolithic. There was an association between the frequency distributions of the radiocarbon dates and the number of stray finds from different time periods but any correlation was not straightforward.

  • 2. Bonsall, Clive
    et al.
    Boroneant, Adina
    Evatt, Anna
    Soficaru, Andrei
    Nica, Cristina
    Bartosiewicz, László
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Cook, Gordon Thomas
    Higham, Thomas F. G
    Pickard, Catriona
    The ‘Clisurean’ finds from Climente II cave, Iron Gates, Romania2016In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 423, p. 303-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climente II cave, Iron Gates, Romania was excavated in 1968-9. Human remains were recovered from contexts identified as 'Clisurean' (Final Epigravettian), along with ca 6000 chipped stone artifacts, bone tools including awls, arrowheads and a fragment of a harpoon, and shell and animal tooth ornaments. This article presents a re-evaluation of the archaeological finds from Climente II. Osteological analysis of the human remains confirms at least three individuals: a robust, young adult male aged between 18 and 28 years, a second (older) adult, and a neonate. Single-entity C-14 dating of human bone and humanly modified animal bones suggests the Clisurean occupation occurred during the BollingeAllerod warm period. Carbon (delta C-13) and nitrogen (delta N-15) stable isotope analyses highlight the importance of fish in human diet at Climente II. Comparison of the Climente II archaeological inventory with that from later, fisher-hunter-gatherer settlements in the Iron Gates indicates continuity of mortuary ritual, lithic tradition and subsistence practices from the Lateglacial into the Early Holocene.

  • 3. Cage, Alix G.
    et al.
    Davies, Siwan M.
    Wastegård, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Austin, William E. N.
    Identification of the Icelandic Landnam tephra (AD 871 +/- 2) in Scottish fjordic sediment2011In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 246, p. 168-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Certain marginal marine environments, such as the Scottish fjord systems, contain high-resolution records of palaeoclimatic change in which decadal to centennial climatic events can be resolved. This paper explores the possibilities of using tephrochronology to stratigraphically constrain the timing of such events in the Loch Sunart record (MD04-2831) on the NW coast of Scotland (UK). One tephra horizon (containing both silicic and basaltic shards) is identified within Late Holocene sediment with geochemical analyses of the basaltic shards suggesting an origin in the Veidiviitn-Baroarbunga volcanic system. Radiocarbon age estimates and stratigraphic information suggests that the AD 871 Landnam tephra is the most likely candidate. The shards identified within this horizon appear hydrated and indicate the operation of post-depositional weathering processes possibly influenced by the saline conditions of the fjord environment.

  • 4. Chabangborn, Akkaneewut
    et al.
    Yamoah, Kweku K. A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Phantuwongraj, Sumet
    Choowong, Montri
    Climate in Sundaland and Asian monsoon variability during the last deglaciation2018In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 479, p. 141-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of semi-quantitative paleo data from mainland Southeast Asia, especially from the emergent Sundaland, creates a marked difficulty in following the past Asian monsoon variability. The published pollen records from the adjacent sites to the Sundaland were selected in this study and evaluated for the relationship between taxa and plant functional types (PFTs), and subsequently between PFTs and biome, to eventually reconstruct the semi-quantitative temporal temperature and precipitation profile. In order to comprehend the Asian monsoon modification between 18.5 and 11 ka BP, the derived pollen based temperature and precipitation records were further analyzed together with other selected speleothem records from the Asian monsoon region, with reference to the Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. The warmer temperature in the Southern Hemisphere caused a southward shift of the mean position of the Intertropical Convergent Zone (ITCZ) and weakened the summer monsoon in the Asian monsoon region between 18.5 and 15 ka BP. The Northern Hemisphere temperature played an important role in the Asian monsoon modification between 15 and 13.5 ka BP, where the warmer Northern Hemisphere conditions strengthened the summer monsoon intensity in the Asian monsoon region and moved the mean position of the ITCZ to the north. However, the opposing precipitation pattern between the East and the West Indian Ocean suggested the potential influence of the Walker circulation on the Sundaland climate from 13.5 to 11 ka BP.

  • 5. Chen, H.-F.
    et al.
    Song, S.-R.
    Lee, T.-Q.
    Löwemark, Ludvig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Chi, Z.
    Yong, W.
    A multiproxy lake record from Inner Mongolia displays a late Holocene teleconnection between central Asian and North Atlantic climate2010In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 227, no 2, p. 170-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to study how the Holocene Central Asian climate is coupled to the global climate system, a 4.24 m long lake core from western Inner Mongolia in China was studied using a multiproxy approach. Sedimentology and geochemical parameters such as gypsum and dolomite content, presence of lakeshore sand changing to aeolian sand, and changes in paleomagnetic properties bear witness to a trend toward a generally drier climate over the late Holocene. Aridification is linked to the southward retreat of the northern boundary of the Asian summer monsoon, leaving central Asia under the influence of the westerly belt. The weakening of the Asian summer monsoon in turn was caused by an orbitally driven decrease in summer insolation. The weakening summer insolation also likely increased the intensity of the Siberian High pressure system, further promoting aridification of central Asia. On a shorter time scale, the multiproxy record shows the climate to have been relatively dry during the Medieval Warm Period (AD 800–1100) with the ensuing humid environment at the end of this period gradually turning to become extremely dry (AD 1100–1550) at the Little Ice Age Maximum. Switches in the North Atlantic Oscillation caused these changes through a teleconnection in the form of westerlies. These westerlies provided most of central Asia’s moisture after the retreat of the Asian summer monsoon. The central Asian climate therefore corresponds closely with late Holocene European climate changes.

  • 6. Chiu, Pin-Yao
    et al.
    Chao, Weng-Si
    Gyllencreutz, Richard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Li, Hong-Chun
    Löwemark, Ludvig
    O'Regan, Matt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    New constraints on Arctic Ocean Mn stratigraphy from radiocarbon dating on planktonic foraminifera2017In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 447, p. 13-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variations in the abundance of manganese (Mn) in Arctic Ocean sediments are used as a tool to identify glacial and interglacial periods. This study aims to provide new insight into the applicability of Mn as a stratigraphic tool in the topmost sediment and to investigate the occurrence of Mn peaks in sediments within the range of radiocarbon dating. In combination with variations in ice-rafted debris (IRD), radiocarbon dating is used to better constrain the stratigraphic occurrence of Mn peaks, and the synchroneity between multiple records, especially during the late glacial and the Holocene. We find that a hiatus spanning MIS 2 is widely observed in most of our cores, resulting in a merging of Mn peaks of Holocene age and the later part of MIS 3. The Holocene Mn peak is usually high amplitude but short, while the MIS 3 Mn peak has a lower amplitude and is protracted. Where preserved, MIS 2 sediments form a 2-3 cm thick layer characterized by a light color, low Mn content, sparse IRD and low foraminiferal abundance. IRD variations provide a powerful tool to identify the boundary of the Holocene and late MIS 3 in cores with a MIS 2 hiatus. Because the IRD content displays a general increment from the start of MIS 3, and both the Holocene and MIS 2 show small IRD variations, the end of MIS 3 can be pinpointed to the point of decrease in IRD. The hiatus of MIS 2 is widely observed in our cores, suggesting extensive persistent sea ice coverage during the peak of the last glacial cycle, with sharply reduced sedimentation throughout the Arctic Ocean. Identifying similar events during previous glacial periods may be an important step towards constructing longer and more accurate chronologies for Arctic Ocean sediments.

  • 7. de la Rosa, Jose M.
    et al.
    Garcia, Laura Sanchez
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    de Andres, Jose R.
    Gonzalez-Vila, Francisco J.
    Antonio Gonzalez-Perez, Jose
    Knicker, Heike
    Contribution of black carbon in recent sediments of the Gulf of Cadiz: Applicability of different quantification methodologies2011In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 243, no 2, p. 264-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Southwestern Iberian Peninsula, vegetation fires are rather common, and produce a considerable amount of charred material that, due to erosion, is fluvially transported to the continental margins. The present study constitutes the first comparative assessment of the contribution of this charred material (generally black carbon, BC) to marine sediments of the inner continental shelf of the Gulf of Cadiz (GoC). Given the ambiguity of BC definition and the heterogeneity of quantification techniques, four of the most common and well established methodologies were applied to obtain a representative range of the BC content on four surface sediments: chemical-thermal oxidation (GBC), molecular markers (benzenopolycarboxylic acids, BPCA), thermogravimetry coupled to mass spectrometry (TG-DSC-QMS), and chemical oxidation with sodium chlorite. The BC results obtained for the GoC sediments are compared, and the applicability of each technique on marine sediments is discussed. The mean BC values of the four methods (4.4-14.4% total organic carbon) were within ranges previously reported for marine sediments from diverse origins. However, a large variability was observed within individual samples when comparing the BC results obtained with the four methods (relative standard deviation from 31% to 75%). The BPCA approach produced the highest BC values, whereas the GBC method the lowest. This reflects the analytical variability derived from the different windows composing the BC continuum. The results derived from the TG-DSC-QMS application generated certain uncertainties, despite the correction factor introduced to reduce the BC overestimation previously reported for this method. Considerable differences in the BC content of spatially close samples evidenced the complexity of coastal currents and sediment fluxes in the area, suggesting the existence of other factors affecting the BC distribution. The lack of correlation between the BC and TOC, as well as between the BC and lignin contents in all samples, ruled out the occurrence of charring artifacts. Preferential degradation and/or erosion of BC could explain the BC distribution in the area. The use of ancillary terrigenous biomarkers (lignin and inorganic silica) pointed to a preferential fluvial transport of the terrestrial organic matter and indicated that the longer distance from the source, the greater degradation of the OM. In addition, the northern dominant winds in the region may have favored the additional introduction of airborne transported BC in the marine system.

  • 8. Dominguez-Rodrigo, Manuel
    et al.
    Jesus Sanchez-Flores, Antonio
    Baquedano, Enrique
    Arriaza, Mari Carmen
    Aramendi, Julia
    Cobo-Sanchez, Lucia
    Organista, Elia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. University of Alcalá de Henares, Spain.
    Barba, Rebeca
    Constraining time and ecology on the Zinj paleolandscape: Microwear and mesowear analyses of the archaeofaunal remains of FLK Zinj and DS (Bed I), compared to FLK North (Bed I) and BK (Bed II) at Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania)2019In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 526, p. 4-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Defining the time that any given archaeofaunal assemblage took to be accumulated is challenging. Understanding the time variable is crucial to interpret how early sites were formed and what these sites represent in terms of hominin behavior. Two complementary dental analysis techniques (microwear and mesowear) have been used to understand dietary niches of ungulates. Microwear has also specifically been used to detect the character of occupations at archaeological sites. Here, we apply these techniques to a selection of Olduvai sites. Microwear and mesowear analyses on bovid teeth from a set of anthropogenic sites (FLK Zinj, DS, BK) and a carnivore palimpsest (FLK North) yielded different results. Microwear data from the three anthropogenic sites are similar, reflecting short, seasonal occupations, in contrast with the carnivore assemblage, which suggests a more prolonged period of deposition. The similar microwear signal in the two pene-contemporaneous sites of FLK Zinj and DS is encouraging, but caution in its interpretation is applied because of limited tooth enamel preservation and the resulting small sample size. The results shown here must be considered as a baseline for future and more extensive studies. Both microwear and mesowear analyses show that the most common bovid taxa in the Bed I sites exhibit mixed feeding signals. This reinforces the caution about interpretations of dietary niches of extinct ungulates based on their modern counterparts and emphasizes that for some taxa, the adoption of a browsing or grazing diet is context (time and locus) specific.

  • 9. Emmanouilidis, Alexandros
    et al.
    Katrantsiotis, Christos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Norström, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Risberg, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Kylander, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Sheik, Taariq Ali
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Iliopoulos, George
    Avramidis, Pavlos
    Middle to late Holocene palaeoenvironmental study of Gialova Lagoon, SW Peloponnese, Greece2018In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 476, p. 46-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coastal areas of Eastern Mediterranean have long been the subject of research, due to their rapid geomorphological changes, but also because of their archaeological interest. Our study is focused on a shallow coastal lagoon of Peloponnese, Gialova Lagoon, which for several years has attracted the scientific interest of archaeologists, geomorphologists as well as sedimentologists. Gialova lagoon is located near the ancient city of Pylos, the kingdom of king Nestor during the Mycenaean period (1600-1100 BC). The objectives of this study are: (a) to reconstruct the middle to late Holocene depositional environments of the lagoon and (b) to correlate our data to already existing publications, in order to shed new light on the Holocene evolution of the lagoon and the associated coastal palaeoenvironmental changes. An 8m deep vibracore was drilled and a multi proxy analysis was carried out on the sediment sequence, including sedimentological (grain size analysis and moment measures, total organic carbon - TOC, total nitrogen e TN and total phosphorus - TP), high resolution geochemical (XRF-scanning) and palaeontological (micro-and macro faunal) analysis. The chronological framework is based on five C-14 datings forming the basis for an age depth model, calculated using the OxCal software. The radiocarbon dates from previous studies (6 cores, similar to 20 dates) were also taken into account. The data synthesis and interpretation provided robust and coherent indications regarding the palaeoenvironment, shoreline changes and the rate of geomorphological changes of the coastal area of Gialova Lagoon, as well as useful information about the palaeonvironmental and palaeoclimatic conditions that prevailed during the Mycenaean period. The interpretation, reveal a transition from a shallow marine environment (65005800 yr B.P.) to a brackish/lagoonal (5800-3300 yr B.P.), followed by a shift towards a freshwater/marsh environment (3300 yr B.P. to present).

  • 10. Field, M. H.
    et al.
    Ntinou, M.
    Tsartsidou, G.
    Henegouwen, D. van Berge
    Risberg, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Tourloukis, V.
    Thompson, N.
    Karkanas, P.
    Panagopoulou, E.
    Harvati, K.
    A palaeoenvironmental reconstruction (based on palaeobotanical data and diatoms) of the Middle Pleistocene elephant (Palaeoloxodon antiquus) butchery site at Marathousa, Megalopolis, Greece2018In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 497, p. 108-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposures of Middle Pleistocene lacustrine sediments at the margins of an open-cast lignite mine at Marathousa near Megalopolis, western Arcadia, Greece yielded the partial remains of a Palaeoloxodon antiquus skeleton which exhibited signs of being butchered. Sedimentation occurred between ca. 400 and 480 ka. Lithic artefacts were found in close spatial and stratigraphic association with the elephant remains. A palaeobotanical investigation (involving carpological, phytolith and wood remains) as well as diatom analysis led to a detailed reconstruction of the local environment at the time of sediment deposition. The results of this study enabled the environmental context of the butchering of the Palaeoloxodon antiquus carcass to be established. Palaeobotanical data show that sediment deposition at the Palaeoloxodon antiquus site occurred in shallow water in front of a reed swamp with trees in the immediate surroundings (particularly Alnus and Salix) on a flat plain where the water table was at or just below the ground surface. Warm conditions prevailed at the time of sediment deposition allowing aquatic plants typically recorded in the climatic optima of European interglacial assemblages to occur (e.g. Brasenia schreberi) and palms (Palmae) to live close-by. This suggests that the organic-rich sediments that contain the archaeological finds represent a transition between the underlying clastic sediments deposited during colder conditions and the overlying lignite that was deposited during warm climatic conditions as reported in previous studies.

  • 11.
    Fredin, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Glacial inception and Quaternary mountain glaciations in Fennoscandia2002In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 95-96, p. 99-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this review is twofold. First, the role of the Fennoscandian mountains as a nucleation center for glacial inception is investigated. The second objective is to review glacial erosion by mountain glaciers throughout the Quaternary. All available field data and several modelling experiments show that the Fennoscandian mountains seeded the last glaciation. Since the mountains seem to be of key importance for ice-sheet inception, it is reasonable to assume a similar inception pattern throughout most of the major Pleistocene glaciations. This pattern also implies prolonged periods of glacial ice in the Fennoscandian mountains during late Cenozoic time. Mountain-based glaciers thus have had a long time to act on their substratum resulting in a profound geomorphological impact.

  • 12. Hoffmann, Gösta
    et al.
    Rupprechter, Magdalena
    Rahn, Mirjam
    Preusser, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Fluvio-lacustrine deposits reveal precipitation pattern in SE Arabia during early MIS 32015In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 382, p. 145-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On a global scale, Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 (ca. 55-30 ka) was characterised by frequent and abrupt changes in climate. At the same time, humans may have dispersed out of Africa and populated the planet. For the Arabian Peninsula, a key region in both contexts, the paucity of suitable terrestrial records leaves our knowledge of the environmental conditions during this important period enigmatic. Here, we elucidate the environmental history for part of the Oman Mountains by analysing luminescence-dated fine-grained playa-like sediments from Wadi Mistal that formed in a landslide-dammed ephemeral lake. We identified 112 individual fining-upward sequences in the distal facies of the lake that are interpreted to represent major precipitation events during early MIS 3. The nature of sedimentation together with the presence of desiccation cracks and the absence of any faunal remains imply that the lakes had a temporary nature. It appears that the time of deposition was characterised by strong short-lived precipitation events, rather than continuous rainfall under a monsoonal regime. This points towards a climatic situation during early MIS 3 that was not so different from that of the present, at least in this part of Arabia.

  • 13.
    Jansson, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Fredin, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Ice sheet growth under dirty conditions: implications of debris cover for early glaciation advances2002In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 95-96, p. 35-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Debris-covered glaciers respond differently to any given set of climatic conditions than clean glaciers. This difference stems from change in ablation rate caused by a debris cover, approaching zero ablation with sufficiently thick protective cover, a mechanism not yet considered in the context of ice sheet growth. Critical to applying the mechanism to ice sheets is supply of debris. We postulate that periods after major interglacials offer the best conditions for dirty advances. This is because the volume of debris, previously deposited and weathered in interglacial time, the latter a function of exposure length, should be at a maximum. Advances of dirty ice sheets generate landforms and in positions deviating from clean-ice advances under similar climatic conditions. Hence, inferences of both ice sheet properties inferred from such dirty ice advances and the climate conditions related to such advances must be cautious. Furthermore, modeling of past ice sheets must consider the effect of debris cover whenever indications exist for such a cover.

  • 14. Kaboth-Bahr, Stefanie
    et al.
    Denis, Vianney
    Su, Chih-Chieh
    O'Regan, Matt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Gyllencreutz, Richard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Löwemark, Ludvig
    Deciphering similar to 45.000 years of Arctic Ocean lithostratigraphic variability through multivariate statistical analysis2019In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 514, p. 141-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our understanding of past climate conditions in the Arctic Ocean has been hampered by poor age control caused in part by low sedimentation rates (< 1 cm/kyr), hiatuses during glacial intervals as well as the scarcity and poor preservation of calcareous nanno-and microfossils in the sediments. Although recent advances using variations in single element (e.g. Mn) content or physical sediment properties (e.g. bulk density, grain size, colour) of the recovered sediments have aided Arctic core-to-core correlations, unique depositional events and post-depositional changes can complicate stratigraphic interpretations based on individual or even multiple, physical or chemical parameters. Furthermore, clear correlations between cores using physical and chemical parameters are not always possible to establish. To tackle this issue, we developed an algorithm that combines clustering and multivariate ordination to test the interrelation of multiple input parameters (e.g. an array of individual XRF elemental contents), and subsequently identifies statistically significant stratigraphic units on centimetre to decimetre scales. Our preliminary results show that a distinct sedimentological pattern during the past 45,000 years characterizes cores from the region of the Morris Jesup Rise and the Greenland side of the Lomonosov Ridge. Stratigraphic patterns of the Siberian Side of the Lomonosov Ridge yield distinct differences, thus allowing for novel insights into sedimentary processes shaping the different regions within the Arctic Ocean. We also argue that our approach can compensate for some of the weakness of single element or proxy applications, and hence aid the construction of a robust stratigraphic framework for a wide geographical range of Arctic Ocean sediments.

  • 15. Lascu, Ioan
    et al.
    Wohlfarth, Barbara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Onac, Bogdan P.
    Björck, Svante
    Kromer, Bernd
    A Late Glacial paleolake record from an up-dammed river valley in northern Transylvania, Romania2015In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 388, p. 87-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lake sediments from the Magherus, Valley in the lowlands of northern Transylvania provide new evidence of paleoenvironmental development in Romania during the Late Glacial. The studied sediments were deposited as a result of the damming of a small river valley following a series of mass wasting events that occurred during the deglaciation period. A continuous sedimentary sequence belonging to the former lake is preserved in the banks of the stream, and contains evidence of paleoenvironmental changes associated with the Late Glacial Interstadial (Bolling-Allerod or Greenland Interstadial 1, GI-1) and the Late Glacial Stadial (Younger Dryas or Greenland Stadial 1, GS-1), implying that the hallmark climatic episodes of northwestern Europe are also expressed in Eastern Europe. We employ a multiproxy approach based on the analysis of sediment composition and texture, mineral magnetism, organic macrofossils, and radiocarbon dating. The reconstructed paleoenvironmental evolution at the site captures the warm and humid conditions associated with GI-1, as well as the subsequent cooling concomitant with the onset of GS-1. These climatic events are paralleled by vegetation shifts in the region, as deduced from comparisons with pollen sequences from Magherus, and neighboring locations in Transylvania and the Carpathians. The Late Glacial Interstadial was warmer and wetter, as evidenced by increased organic matter content in the lake, decreased erosion in the catchment, development of palustrine plant communities in the proximity of the lake, and expansion of spruce during the Allerod (GI-1c-a). The Late Glacial Stadial was colder and dryer, as indicated by low sedimentary organic matter content, an increase in erosion markers, and the decline of spruce and its replacement by birch. The landscape was more open, as herbs and grasses also expanded during this time. These fluctuations imply that Late Glacial climatic events are well expressed not only in upland areas of Romania, but also in lowland regions such as the Transylvanian Basin, where climatic effects are expected to be more muted.

  • 16.
    Lind, Ewa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Wastegård, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Tephra horizons contemporary with short early Holocene climate fluctuations: New results from the Faroe Islands2011In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 246, p. 157-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate of the North Atlantic region was relatively unstable after the last Termination.At least three cold events superimposed upon a general warming took place during the earliest part of the Holocene: the Preboreal oscillation (11,300-11,100 cal. yr BP), the Erdalen event (10,300-10,200 cal. yr BP) and the 9.3 ka BP event. New results from the Faroe Islands could give the opportunity to test hypothesis regarding synchronous or non-synchronous response to climate forcing in the North Atlantic area. Seven tephra layers have been identified in a palaeo-lake core from the island of Sandoy on the Faroe Islands, dated to 11,700-9750 cal. yr BP. Three tephras were found below the visible Saksunarvatn Ash (ca. 10,300 cal. yr BP) and three above it. The rhyolitic Hässeldalen Tephra dated to ca. 11,350 cal. yr BP and previously only found in Sweden, a double-peaked basaltic tephra from the Veidivötn-Bárdarbunga volcanic system at the same depth and another rhyolitic tephra from the Askja volcanic system dated to ca. 10,400 cal. yr BP, tentatively correlated with the Askja-S/10 ka Tephra. Askja-S has earlier been found in large parts of the terrestrial North Atlantic region but not on the Faroe Islands. The three tephra layers above the Saksunarvatn Ash are all unreported tephras. A rhyolitic tephra with an age of ca. 10,200 cal. yr BP, that is still unidentified, one silicic layer from the Katla volcano (SILK) and a tephra correlated with the Torfajökull volcanic system, both with an estimated age of ca. 9700 cal. yr BP. These tephra horizons provide a unique potential to link not only the terrestrial records from NW Europe but alsotocorrelate them to ice-cores from Greenland. The findings of the Hässeldalen Tephra, the Askja-S Tephra and the new tephra correlating toTorfajökullvolcanic systemcould become important time-markers for correlating the Preboreal Oscillation and the Erdalen event around the North Atlantic region.

  • 17. Lomax, Johanna
    et al.
    Fuchs, Markus
    Preusser, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Fiebig, Markus
    Luminescence based loess chronostratigraphy of the Upper Palaeolithic site Krems-Wachtberg, Austria2014In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 351, p. 88-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The loess section Krems-Wachtberg (Lower Austria) is well known for its Upper Palaeolithic find layer, which contains a double and a single infant burial. The layer containing the grave (archaeological horizon AH 4.4) was dated to 26,580 +/- 160 C-14 BP (Einwogerer et al., 2006), corresponding to ca. 31 ka cal BP and is embedded in an 8 m thick loess sequence. In order to provide a chronostratigraphy of the entire section, 38 samples for luminescence dating were taken at high resolution from below and above the find layer. The samples were dated using the quartz coarse grain fraction, the quartz fine grain fraction and/or the polymineral fine grain fraction. The resulting ages are in correct chronostratigraphic order and, in case samples were measured with different protocols, agree within errors with each other and with the radiocarbon age of the find layer. The polymineral fine grain ages are systematically slightly lower than the quartz ages, although no fading could be detected in laboratory experiments. Loess deposition at the site commenced ca. 40 ka ago and reaches up to ca. 22 ka. The ages indicate nearly continuous loess sedimentation throughout this time span. Short breaks in sedimentation probably exist but cannot be resolved due to the uncertainties of luminescence ages.

  • 18. Löwemark, Ludvig
    et al.
    Bloemsma, Menno
    Croudace, Ian
    Daly, J. Stephen
    Edwards, Robin J.
    Francus, Pierre
    Galloway, Jennifer M.
    Gregory, Braden R. B.
    Huang, Jyh-Jaan Steven
    Jones, Anna F.
    Kylander, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Luo, Yangbing
    Maclachlan, Suzanne
    Ohlendorf, Christian
    Patterson, R. Timothy
    Pearce, Christof
    Profe, Jorn
    Reinhardt, Eduard G.
    Stranne, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Tjallingii, Rik
    Turner, Jonathan N.
    Practical guidelines and recent advances in the Itrax XRF core-scanning procedure2019In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 514, p. 16-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    XRF core scanning has evolved to become a standard analytical technique for the rapid assessment of elemental, density and textural variations in a wide range of sediments and other materials, with applications ranging from palaeoceanography, paleoclimatology, geology, and environmental forensics to environmental protection. In general, scanning provides rapid, non-destructive acquisition of elemental and textural variations at sub-millimetre resolution for a wide range of materials. Numerous procedural adaptations have been developed for the growing number of applications, such as analyses of unconsolidated, water-rich sediments, powdered soil samples, or resin bags. Here, practical expertise and guidance from the Itrax community, gained over 15 years, is presented that should provide insights for new and experienced users.

  • 19. Matter, Albert
    et al.
    Neubert, Eike
    Preusser, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Rosenberg, Thomas
    Al-Wagdani, Khalid
    Palaeo-environmental implications derived from lake and sabkha deposits of the southern Rub' al-Khali, Saudi Arabia and Oman2015In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 382, p. 120-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shallow lakes and sabkha deposits are evidence of past periods of higher groundwater table than today, and hence reflect increased humidity in the Rub' al-Khali, the large desert in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula. Reported here are the observations made during four expeditions into this remote area in combination with luminescence dating constraining the age of the deposits. The results presented extend the spatial coverage of evidence and show that most of the deposits correlate to MIS 5 (ca. 130-70 ka) and the Early/Mid Holocene (ca. 11-5.5 ka). A single sample points towards potentially more humid conditions during the transition MIS 4/3 (ca. 65-55 ka). The presence of the mussel Unio in some of the deposits attributed to MIS 5 is indirect evidence for the presence of fish in the lakes, which must have supported a rich and diverse fauna (and probably also flora). Together with other evidence, this demonstrates that a number of small persistent lakes were spread across the Rub' al-Khali for at least some of the time. These lakes would not only have been a potential source of freshwater but could also have provided an additional and easy accessible food source via the fish for humans migrating through the area. The presented palaeoenvironmental data underlines that parts of MIS 5 represent a time window of opportunity for a potential expansion of modern humans across Arabia.

  • 20.
    Norström, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Risberg, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Gröndahl, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Holmgren, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Snowball, Ian
    Mugabe, João Alberto
    Raúl Sitoe, Sandra
    University of Eduardo Mondlane, Mozambique.
    Coastal paleo-environment and sea-level change at Macassa Bay, southern Mozambique, since c. 6600 cal BP2012In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 260, p. 153-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in Holocene coastal paleo-environment and sea-level variations have been recorded in estuary sediments from Macassa Bay, southern Mozambique. Methods include analysis of fossil diatoms, sediment stratigraphy, mineral magnetic properties, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition and carbon and nitrogen content. The chronology, based on six AMS 14C dates, suggests a basal age of the sediment core of c 6600 cal BP (calibrated years Before Present). The multi-proxy dataset implies two phases when the site was experiencing marine conditions and tentative sea-level high-stands: 1) between c 6600–6300 cal BP which is contemporary with the last phase of the global transgression and the Holocene climatic optimum, and 2) between c 4700–1000 cal BP, a period when sea level curves from the region suggest occasional minor sea level high-stands. Between these phases (c 6300–4700 cal BP), the environment within the Macassa Bay estuary was less influenced by marine processes, and studied proxies indicate a freshwater phase associated with relatively low sea levels. After c 1000 cal BP, a terrestrial environment prevailed at the site, probably as a result of a combined effect of sea level lowering and high accumulation of organic peat within the estuary.

  • 21.
    O'Regan, Matthew
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology and Geochemistry.
    St John, Kristen
    James Madison University.
    Moran, Kathryn
    University of Rhode Island.
    Backman, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology and Geochemistry.
    King, John
    University of Rhode Island.
    Haley, Brian A.
    IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology and Geochemistry.
    Frank, Martin
    IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences.
    Röhl, Ursula
    Bremen University.
    Plio-Pleistocene trends in ice rafted debris on the Lomonosov Ridge2010In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 19, no 1-2, p. 168-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although more than 700 sediment cores exist from the Arctic Ocean, the Plio-Pleistocene evolution of the basin and its marginal seas remains virtually unknown. This is largely due the shallow penetration of most of these records, and difficulties associated with deriving chronologies for the recovered material. The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program's (IODP) Expedition 302 (Arctic Coring Expedition, ACEX) recovered 197 m of Neogene/Quaternary sediment from the circumpolar regions of the Lomonosov Ridge. As detailed analyses of this material emerge, research is beginning to formulate a long-term picture of paleoceanographic changes in the central Arctic Ocean. This paper reviews the ACEX Plio-Pleistocene age model, identifies uncertainties, and addresses ways in which these may be eliminated. Within the established stratigraphic framework, a notable reduction in the abundance of ice rafted debris (IRD) occurs in the early part of the Pleistocene and persists until Marine Isotope Stage 6 (MIS 6). Therefore, while global oceanographic proxies indicate the gradual growth of terrestrial ice-sheets during this time, IRD delivery to the central Arctic Ocean remained comparatively low and stable. Within the resolution of existing data, the Pleistocene reduction in IRD is synchronous with predicted changes in both the inflow of North Atlantic and Pacific waters, which in modern times are known to exert a strong influence on sea ice stability.

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  • 22.
    Organista, Elia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Osteoarchaeological Research Laboratory. Institute of Evolution in Africa (IDEA), Spain.
    Arriaza, MCarmen
    Barba, Rebeca
    Gidna, Agness
    Ortega, M. Cruz
    Uribelarrea, David
    Mabulla, Audax
    Baquedano, Enrique
    Dominguez-Rodrigo, Manuel
    Taphonomic analysis of the level 3b fauna at BK, Olduvai Gorge2019In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 526, p. 116-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The association of stone tools and modified bones at archaeological African Plio-Pleistocene sites is essential to understanding the socio-economics of early hominin behavior. Previous research at BK suggests the site was repeatedly visited by hominins for short time periods. During these occupations, the hominins had a primary role in the exploitation of small, medium, and large size carcasses. The present study analyzes the faunal material recovered from level 3b at BK (BK3b). The results indicate that BK3b operated as a place consciously selected by hominins to carry out specific activities, which resulted in a large accumulation of lithic materials and bone remains. The high frequency of cut-marked specimens, even more than is documented at FLK Zinj, supports the idea that hominins at BK3b butchered and demarrowed the bones from animals of all sizes.

  • 23.
    Pearce, Christof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Aarhus University, Denmark.
    The timing of the Gold Cove glacial event: A comment on "Signature of the Gold Cove event (10.2 ka) in the Labrador Sea"2015In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 377, p. 157-159Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent paper in Quaternary International, Rashid et al. (2014) €œSignature of the Gold Cove event (10.2 ka) in the Labrador Sea” attributes sediment layers rich in detrital carbonate (DC) in several marine sediment cores in the Labrador Sea to the so-called Gold Cove (GC) glacial advance of the early Holocene. The age estimate for the GC event as well as the correlations between sediment cores in this study are based on radiocarbon dates, mostly from previously published studies. Although this work provides a good overview of an apparently widespread DC layer in the early Holocene, the reported age of 10.2 cal. ka BP for the actual Gold Cove event is too young, due to a mistake made during re-calibration of the original radiocarbon dates used to describe the event. The 14C dates have been corrected to compensate for the marine reservoir effect two times, leading to an unrealistically large total reservoir age of more than thousand years. By applying such a large marine reservoir offset, the final calibrated age becomes too young. Originally the GC event was described to consist of an advance and retreat phase, in total spanning several centuries. The Gold Cove event should therefore more accurately be reported as an age range, and it occurred most likely ca. 500 years earlier than 10.2 ka BP, the age reported by Rashid et al. (2014).

  • 24. Stancikaite, Migle
    et al.
    Sinkunas, Petras
    Risberg, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Seiriene, Vaida
    Blazauskas, Nerijus
    Jarockis, Romas
    Karlsson, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Miller, Urve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Human activity and the environment during the Late Iron Age and Middle Ages at the Impiltis archaeological site, NW Lithuania2009In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 203, p. 74-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research carried out at the Impiltis hill fort and settlement area in NW Lithuania indicates the occurrence of environmental changes caused by climatic alterations and human impact during the Late Iron Age and the Middle Ages. Both the archaeological and palaeoenvironmental data confirm that intensive human activity began in the area shortly before 900 AD, generally coinciding with the onset of the “Medieval Warm Period”. The first appearance of rye (Secale cereale) and flax (Linum usitatissimum) pollen grains is the earliest in the region, which indicates the development of permanent agriculture using some field rotation system. Increasing pressure on the environment is seen in the reconstruction of the hill fort, the development of an agricultural system, and the introduction of new cultivated plants. According to the palaeoenvironmental data, farming persisted as the main activity of the Impiltis population during the period of prosperity dated back to about 1050–1260 AD. Afterwards, Impiltis existed as a typical agrarian settlement which may have been positively influenced by the mild climatic conditions of the “Medieval Warm Period”. A clearly marked regression of human activity coincides with the destruction of the Impiltis castle and settlement during the German Order conquest in 1263 AD. The subsequent resurgence of human activity in the area was influenced by the ensuing climatic deterioration known as the “Little Ice Age”.

  • 25. Watt, Sebastian F. L.
    et al.
    Pyle, David M.
    Naranjo, Jose A.
    Rosqvist, Gunhild
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Mella, Mauricio
    Mather, Tamsin A.
    Moreno, Hugo
    Holocene tephrochronology of the Hualaihue region (Andean southern volcanic zone, similar to 42 degrees S), southern Chile2011In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 246, p. 324-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Late Glacial and Holocene soils and sediments in southern Chile contain an important record of explosive volcanic activity since the end of the last glaciation, and have considerable potential for the development of a regional tephrostratigraphical framework. This paper reports the discovery of several new tephra deposits from the Hualaihue region (similar to 42 degrees S) of southern Chile. Eruption sizes, constrained from field observations, and ages, constrained by 25 new radiocarbon dates, show that the volcanoes of the Hualaihue peninsula have had relatively few explosive, tephra-generating eruptions during the Holocene. An eruption of Apagado deposited similar to 1 km(3) of bedded basaltic scoria at similar to 2.6 calibrated (cal) ka BP, and Hornopiren produced a similar, but volumetrically-smaller unit at similar to 5.7 cal ka BR Activity at Yate over the same time period has been predominantly characterised by lava production, although small explosive eruptions, the products of which span a range of compositions, have also occurred, including one at similar to 0.9 cal ka BR The northern part of the regional tephra sequence is dominated by andesitic pumice fall deposits derived from Calbuco volcano. These include deposits from several eruptions during a 3500-year-long period at the start of the Holocene, as well as two large explosive eruptions in the past 2000 years. A distinctive rhyolitic tephra layer that is interbedded with the locally derived tephra sequence is the Cha1 unit, from Chaiten volcano, 108 km south of Hornopiren. This rhyolitic pumice deposit, dated at similar to 9.75 cal ka BP, is the largest volumetrically of those described here, with a volume of 3.5 km(3). This new tephrostratigraphy covers a region whose volcanic history was previously very little known, and contributes to a regional record of large explosive eruptions that now spans a 500 km-long segment of the southern Andean arc, between Calbuco and Hudson volcanoes.

  • 26.
    Widgren, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Landscape research in a world of domesticated landscapes: The role of values, theory, and concepts2012In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 251, p. 117-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review takes as its starting point the relationship between landscape history and environmentalpolicy. Landscape historians now face the same problem that social scientists have long faced, i.e., how torelate to values and to the political use of scientific results, which demands greater conceptual andtheoretical rigour from integrative landscape studies. The concept of socialeecological systems is criticisedfor its reduction of the complexity and human agency involved in land use; in contrast, ClarkErickson’s concept of domesticated landscapes offers an approach that can incorporate humanist as wellas scientific considerations. The roles of surplus production and labour allocation in early societies areseen as crucial for understanding early domesticated landscapes. Different social formations result indifferent landscapes, but landscapes also have an earthly inertia. Investments in land govern, steer,impede, or inspire land use in subsequent social formations. This specific understanding of time andplace is shared by Quaternary geology, landscape archaeology, and historical geography, and distinguishesthem from both history and physics.

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