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  • 1. Agerstrand, Marlene
    et al.
    Rudén, Christina
    Evaluation of the accuracy and consistency of the Swedish environmental classification and information system for pharmaceuticals.2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 11, p. 2327-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish environmental and classification system for pharmaceuticals is a voluntary, industry-owned system with the purpose to provide environmental information about active pharmaceutical ingredients in the Swedish market. In this paper we report the results from a detailed evaluation of the accuracy and consistency of the risk assessments conducted within this system. The evaluation focused on the following three aspects: 1) comparison of the companies' risk assessments with the classification system's own guidance document, 2) how the risk assessments are affected if additional effect data is used, and 3) the consistency of different risk assessments for the same pharmaceutical substance. The analyses show that the system's guidance gives no criteria for when to consider a study "long-term" or "short-term", and that this confusion affected the outcome of the risk assessments in some cases. Furthermore, when the system's guidance document is followed and the risk assessment was supplemented with effect data from the open scientific literature, then the risk classification for a substantial number of the evaluated substances was altered. Our analyses also revealed that in some cases risk assessors disagree on the outcome of the assessment for the same active pharmaceutical ingredient. Finally we list some recommendations to improve the classification system. The recommendations include clarifying concepts and instructions in the guidance document, introduction of a standardized way of reporting data to the website, and promotion of use of non-standard test data when considered the most relevant.

  • 2. Amato, F.
    et al.
    Querol, X.
    Johansson, C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Nagl, C.
    Alastuey, A.
    A review on the effectiveness of street sweeping, washing and dust suppressants as urban PM control methods2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 16, p. 3070-3084Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the absence of a definitive threshold for atmospheric particulate matter (PM)-induced adverse health effects and the evidence of road traffic as a main contributor to PM-urban levels, there is a general agreement in reducing PM-associated health risks by firstly focusing on vehicle traffic sector. Beside the reduction of primary exhaust emissions, recent potential measures are challenging to reduce emissions of particulate matter from abrasion and resuspension processes given the high potential health burden of heavy metals and metalloids sourced by vehicle-wear particles (brakes, tires, rotor, discs and catalysts) and of coarse particles (PM2.5-10). Some mitigating measures can be adopted in order to reduce road dust emissions from paved roads by removing or binding those particles already deposited and easy to be resuspended by traffic-generated turbulence. Sweeping, water flushing and use of chemical suppressants are usually more commonly employed to try to diminish emissions, but evaluating the effectiveness of preventive measures on improving air quality is a difficult task, consequently there is a general dearth of information about their effectiveness in reducing ambient PM concentrations. In particular, the scientific bibliography seems to be particularly scarce, whilst most of the information comes from local authorities committees. Consequently the existing reports are often aimed only to the municipalities and in the native language, with an objective difficulty for the international scientific community to access to them. For this review we have gathered contributions from some of major experts in this field, with the purpose of taking advantage of their background and personal awareness about any kind of related reports even not in English. Furthermore, the results we have gathered are often dissimilar, probably due to the different local conditions (weather, road pavement conditions etc.), therefore another objective of the review is to make a balance of actual knowledge and create a useful reference for future research studies and air quality management.

  • 3.
    Andersson, August
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    A systematic examination of a random sampling strategy for source apportionment calculations2011In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 412, p. 232-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimating the relative contributions from multiple potential sources of a specific component in a mixed environmental matrix is a general challenge in diverse fields such as atmospheric, environmental and earth sciences. Perhaps the most common strategy for tackling such problems is by setting up a system of linear equations for the fractional influence of different sources. Even though an algebraic solution of this approach is possible for the common situation with N + 1 sources and N source markers, such methodology introduces a bias, since it is implicitly assumed that the calculated fractions and the corresponding uncertainties are independent of the variability of the source distributions. Here, a random sampling (RS) strategy for accounting for such statistical bias is examined by investigating rationally designed synthetic data sets. This random sampling methodology is found to be robust and accurate with respect to reproducibility and predictability. This method is also compared to a numerical integration solution for a two-source situation where source variability also is included. A general observation from this examination is that the variability of the source profiles not only affects the calculated precision but also the mean/median source contributions.

  • 4.
    Andrén, Cecilia M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Response of Gammarus pulex and Baetis rhodani to springtime acid episodes in humic brooks2013In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 463, p. 690-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While chronic acidification of water bodies has been steadily decreasing, episodic acidification continues to affect stream biology by temporarily decreasing pH and mobilizing aluminum. These events are becoming more common as climate change renders more frequent and intense storms and flooding. Throughout Scandinavia, the effects of acidification have been mitigated by liming since the 1980s, but remediation efforts can now be reduced. While transient acidity may reduce fish populations, also other species in streams are affected. In this in-stream study, two macro-invertebrates (Gammarus pulex and Baetis rhodani), both known as salmonid prey organisms, were exposed to snowmelt in six humic brooks with a natural gradient of pH and inorganic monomeric Al (Al-i). We hypothesize that acid toxicity thresholds can be defined using lethal (mortality) and sublethal (changes in body elemental content) metrics. Periodic observations were made of mortality and whole body concentrations of base cations (BC: Ca, Mg, Na and K) and metals (Al, Fe, Zn and Mn). Mortality increased dramatically at pH < 6.0 and Al-i > 15 mu g/L for G. pulex and at pH < 5.7 and Al-i > 20 mu g/L for B. rhodani. No accumulation of Al was found. The invertebrate body Na concentration decreased when pH dropped, suggesting that osmoregulation in both species was affected. In contrast to general BC pattern, Ca concentration in G. pulex and Mg concentration in B. rhodani increased when pH decreased. Although Ali strongly correlates to pH, the Al composition of soil and bedrock also influences Al availability, potentially contributing to toxic Al; episodes. The estimated values calculated in this study can be used to improve water quality criteria and as thresholds to adjust doses of lime compared to old recommendations in ongoing liming programs. Such adjustments may be critical since both Ali and pH levels have to be balanced to mitigate damage to recovering stream ecosystems.

  • 5.
    Andrén, Cecilia M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Rydin, Emil
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik .
    Toxicity of inorganic aluminium at spring snowmelt—In-stream bioassays withbrown trout (Salmo trutta L.)2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 437, p. 422-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the acid load has decreased throughout Scandinavia, acidic soils still mobilise aluminium (Al) thatis harmful to brown trout. We hypothesise that there are thresholds for Al toxicity and that the toxicity can betraced from the water content to gill accumulation and the consequential physiological effects. During snowmelt,yearlings were exposed to a gradient of pH and inorganic monomeric Al (Ali) in humic streams to studythe toxic effects and mortality. Gill Al and physiological blood analyses [haemoglobin (Hb), plasma chloride(P-Cl) and glucose (Glu)] were measured. As the water quality deteriorated, Al accumulated on the gills; Hband Glu increased; P-Cl decreased, and mortality occurred. Moribund fish had significantly increased gill Aland Hb, suggesting that respiratory disturbances contributed to mortality. Decreased P-Cl and plasmaavailability indicated an ion regulatory disturbance and possibly circulatory collapse. Ali should be lessthan 20 μg/L, and pH higher than 5.0, to sustain healthy brown trout populations. These thresholds can beused to fine-tune lime dose, as both Ali and pH levels have to be balanced to prevent harm in the recoveringaquatic biota. Although Al is tightly linked to pH, local variation in Al availability in soil and bedrock affectsthe Al release and subsequent toxic Ali episodes in some catchment areas.

  • 6.
    Armitage, James M
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wiberg, Karin
    Jonsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    A model assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran sources and fate in the Baltic Sea.2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 12, p. 3784-3792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The contamination of the Baltic Sea with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) has resulted in restrictions on the marketing and consumption of Baltic Sea fish, making this a priority environmental issue in the European Union. To date there is no consensus on the relative importance of different sources of PCDD/Fs to the Baltic Sea, and hence no consensus on how to address this issue. In this work we synthesized the available information to create a PCDD/F budget for the Baltic Sea, focusing on the two largest basins, the Bothnian Sea and the Baltic Proper. The non-steady state multimedia fate and transport model POPCYCLING-Baltic was employed, using recent data for PCDD/F concentrations in air and sediment as boundary conditions. The PCDD/F concentrations in water predicted by the model were in good agreement with recent measurements. The budget demonstrated that atmospheric deposition was the dominant source of PCDD/Fs to the basins as a whole. This conclusion was supported by a statistical comparison of the PCDD/F congener patterns in surface sediments from accumulation bottoms with the patterns in ambient air, bulk atmospheric deposition, and a range of potential industrial sources. Prospective model simulations indicated that the PCDD/F concentrations in the water column will continue to decrease in the coming years due to the slow response of the Baltic Sea system to falling PCDD/F inputs in the last decades, but that the decrease would be more pronounced if ambient air concentrations were to drop further in the future, for instance as a result of reduced emissions. The study illustrates the usefulness of using monitoring data and multimedia models in an integrated fashion to address complex organic contaminant issues.

  • 7. Augustsson, A.
    et al.
    Söderberg, Uddh T.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Åström, M.
    Olofsson, B.
    Balfors, B.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    The risk of overestimating the risk-metal leaching to groundwater near contaminated glass waste deposits and exposure via drinking water2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 566, p. 1420-1431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates metal contamination patterns and exposure to Sb, As, Ba, Cd and Pb via intake of drinking water in a region in southeastern Sweden where the production of artistic glass has resulted in a large number of contaminated sites. Despite high total concentrations of metals in soil and groundwater at the glassworks sites properties, all drinking water samples from households with private wells, located at a 30-640 m distance from a glassworks site, were below drinking water criteria from the WHO for Sb, As, Ba and Cd. A few drinking water samples showed concentrations of Pb above the WHO guideline, but As was the only element found in concentrations that could result in human exposure near toxicological reference values. An efficient retention of metals in the natural soil close to the source areas, which results in a moderate impact on local drinking water, is implied. Firstly, by the lack of significant difference in metal concentrations when comparing households located upstream and downstream of the main waste deposits, and secondly, by the lack of correlation between the metal concentration in drinking water and distance to the nearest glassworks site. However, elevated Pb and Cd concentrations in drinking water around glassworks sites when compared to regional groundwater indicate that diffuse contamination of the soils found outside the glassworks properties, and not only the glass waste landfills, may have a significant impact on groundwater quality. We further demonstrate that different mobilization patterns apply to different metals. Regarding the need to use reliable data to assess drinking water contamination and human exposure, we finally show that the conservative modelling approaches that are frequently used in routine risk assessments may result in exposure estimates many times higher than those based on measured concentrations in the drinking water that is actually being used for consumption.

  • 8.
    Berg, Håkan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Tam, Nguyen Thanh
    Decreased use of pesticides for increased yields of rice and fish-options for sustainable food production in the Mekong Delta2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 619-620, p. 319-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assesses the use of pesticides and the attitude to pest management strategies among rice and rice-fish farmers in the Can Tho and Tien Giang provinces in Vietnam. Interviews were made with 80 farmers. The farmers were divided in to farmers cultivating only rice with a high use (RHP) and low use (RLP) of pesticides, and farmers cultivating rice and fish with a high use (RFHP) and low use (RFLP) of pesticides. 80% of the HP farmers relied mainly on pesticides to control pests, while >80% of the LP farmers also applied IPM strategies. Insecticides were the most commonly used pesticides. 85% of all farmers experienced health effects from using pesticides. 80% of the farmers felt that the yield of fish had decreased over the last three years, and that this mainly was caused by pesticides. The RFHP farmers had lower fish survival and fish yields as compared to the RFLP farmers. The RFHP farmers also had significant lower rice yields than the RFLP farmers, and there were significant correlations between both decreased fish yields and rice yields with increased use of pesticides among rice-fish farmers. Increased rice yields were positively correlated with increased fish survival, indicating the synergistic effects between rice and fish production. Overall, the RFLP farmers had the highest income of the four farmers´ groups, while RFHP farmers had the lowest income. This shows that rice-fish farming provides a competitive and sustainable alternative to intensive rice-farming, but only if the farmer restricts the use of pesticides. This would not only help to reduce the production costs, but also to decrease environmental and health effects, and it is proposed that rice-fish farming with a low use of pesticides provides an attractive alternative to rice-monocropping for a sustainable and diversified food production in the Mekong Delta.

  • 9. Bisht, D. S.
    et al.
    Tiwari, S.
    Dumka, U. C.
    Srivastava, A. K.
    Safai, P. D.
    Ghude, S. D.
    Chate, D. M.
    Rao, P. S. P.
    Ali, K.
    Prabhakaran, T.
    Panickar, A. S.
    Soni, V. K.
    Attri, S. D.
    Tunved, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Chakrabarty, R. K.
    Hopke, P. K.
    Tethered balloon-born and ground-based measurements. of black carbon and particulate profiles within the lower troposphere during the foggy period in Delhi, India2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 573, p. 894-905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ground and vertical profiles of particulate matter (PM) were mapped as part of a pilot study using a Tethered balloon within the lower troposphere (1000 m) during the foggy episodes in the winter season of 2015-16 in New Delhi, India. Measurements of black carbon (BC) aerosol and PM <2.5 and 10 mu m (PM2.5 &PM-10 respectively) concentrations and their associated particulate optical properties along with meteorological parameters were made. The mean concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, BC370 (nm), and BC880 nm were observed to be 146.8 +/- 42.1, 245.4 +/- 65.4, 30.3 +/- 122, and 24.1 +/- 103 mu g m(-3), respectively. The mean value of PM2.5 was similar to 12 times higher than the annual US-EPA air quality standard. The fraction of BC in PM2.5 that contributed to absorption in the shorter visible wavelengths (BC370 nm) was-21%. Compared to clear days, the ground level mass concentrations of PM2.5 and BC370 nm particles were substantially increased (59% and 24%, respectively) during the foggy episode. The aerosol light extinction coefficient (sigma(ext)) value was much higher (mean: 610 Mm(-1)) during the lower visibility (foggy) condition. Higher concentrations of PM2.5 (89 mu g m(-3)) and longer visible wavelength absorbing BC880 am (25.7 mu g m(-3)) particles were observed up to 200 m. The BC880 nm and PM2.5 aerosol concentrations near boundary layer (1 km) were significantly higher (similar to 1.9 and 12 mu g m(-3)), respectively. The BC (i.e BCtot) aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) values were estimated at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), surface (SFC), and atmosphere (ATM) and its resultant forcing were- 75.5 Wm(-2) at SFC indicating the cooling effect at the surface. A positive value (20.9 Wm(-2)) of BC aerosol DRF at TOA indicated the warming effect at the top of the atmosphere over the study region. The net DRF value due to BC aerosol was positive (96.4 Wm(-2)) indicating a net warming effect in the atmosphere. The contribution of fossil and biomass fuels to the observed BC aerosol DRF values was -78% and-22%, respectively. The higher mean atmospheric heating rate (2.71 K clay(-1)) by BC aerosol in the winter season would probably strengthen the temperature inversion leading to poor dispersion and affecting the formation of clouds. Serious detrimental impacts on regional climate due to the high concentrations of BC and PM (especially PM2.5) aerosol are likely based on this study and suggest the need for immediate, stringent measures to improve the regional air quality in the northern India.

  • 10. Biswas, Ashis
    et al.
    Nath, Bibhash
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    Haider, Dipti
    Kundu, Amit K.
    Mandal, Ujjal
    Mukherjee, Abhijit
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Morth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    Hydrogeochemical contrast between brown and grey sand aquifers in shallow depth of Bengal Basin: consequences for sustainable drinking water supply2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 431, p. 402-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Delineation of safe aquifer(s) that can be targeted by cheap drilling technology for tubewell (TW) installation becomes highly imperative to ensure access to safe and sustainable drinking water sources for the arsenic (As) affected population in Bengal Basin. This study investigates the potentiality of brown sand aquifers (BSA) as a safe drinking water source by characterizing its hydrogeochemical contrast to grey sand aquifers (GSA) within shallow depth (<70 m) over an area of 100 km(2) in Chakdaha Block of Nadia district, West Bengal, India. The results indicate that despite close similarity in major ion composition, the redox condition is markedly different in groundwater of the two studied aquifers. The redox condition in the BSA is delineated to be Mn oxy-hydroxide reducing, not sufficiently lowered for As mobilization into groundwater. In contrast, the enrichments of NH4+, PO43-, Fe and As along with lower Eh in groundwater of GSA reflect reductive dis-solution of Fe oxy-hydroxide coupled to microbially mediated oxidation of organic matter as the prevailing redox process causing As mobilization into groundwater of this aquifer type. In some portions of GSA the redox status even has reached to the stage of SO42- reduction, which to some extent might sequester dissolved As from groundwater by co-precipitation with authigenic pyrite. Despite having low concentration of As in groundwater of the BSA the concentration of Mn often exceeds the drinking water guidelines, which warrants rigorous assessment of attendant health risk for Mn prior to considering mass scale exploitation of the BSA for possible sustainable drinking water supply.

  • 11.
    Bohlin, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology and Geochemistry.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Holm, Nils G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Point source influences on the carbon and nitrogen geochemistry of sediments in the Stockholm inner archipelago, Sweden2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 366, no 1, p. 337-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports analyses of carbon and nitrogen content, and δ15N and δ13C in sediments of the Höggarnsfjärden Bay near Stockholm. Samples have been taken upstream, near, and downstream of a point source of processed leach water from a garbage dump. The surface sediment at the upstream and downstream sites has δ15N and δ13C close to the expected background of the area, even though a contribution from the leach water can be observed downstream of the point source. The sediment close to the outflow is strongly influenced by the carbon and nitrogen in the leach water.

  • 12. Brack, Werner
    et al.
    Altenburger, Rolf
    Schueuermann, Gerrit
    Krauss, Martin
    Herraez, David Lopez
    van Gils, Jos
    Slobodnik, Jaroslav
    Munthe, John
    Gawlik, Bernd Manfred
    van Wezel, Annemarie
    Schriks, Merijn
    Hollender, Juliane
    Tollefsen, Knut Erik
    Mekenyan, Ovanes
    Dimitrov, Saby
    Bunke, Dirk
    Cousins, Ian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Posthuma, Leo
    van den Brink, Paul J.
    Lopez de Alda, Miren
    Barcelo, Damia
    Faust, Michael
    Kortenkamp, Andreas
    Scrimshaw, Mark
    Ignatova, Svetlana
    Engelen, Guy
    Massmann, Gudrun
    Lemkine, Gregory
    Teodorovic, Ivana
    Walz, Karl-Heinz
    Dulio, Valeria
    Jonker, Michiel T. O.
    Jaeger, Felix
    Chipman, Kevin
    Falciani, Francesco
    Liska, Igor
    Rooke, David
    Zhang, Xiaowei
    Hollert, Henner
    Vrana, Branislav
    Hilscherova, Klara
    Kramer, Kees
    Neumann, Steffen
    Hammerbacher, Ruth
    Backhaus, Thomas
    Mack, Juliane
    Segner, Helmut
    Escher, Beate
    Umbuzeiro, Gisela de Aragao
    The SOLUTIONS project: Challenges and responses for present and future emerging pollutants in land and water resources management2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 503, p. 22-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SOLUTIONS (2013 to 2018) is a European Union Seventh Framework Programme Project (EU-FP7). The project aims to deliver a conceptual framework to support the evidence-based development of environmental policies with regard to water quality. SOLUTIONS will develop the tools for the identification, prioritisation and assessment of those water contaminants that may pose a risk to ecosystems and human health. To this end, a new generation of chemical and effect-based monitoring tools is developed and integrated with a full set of exposure, effect and risk assessment models. SOLUTIONS attempts to address legacy, present and future contamination by integrating monitoring and modelling based approaches with scenarios on future developments in society, economy and technology and thus in contamination. The project follows a solutions-oriented approach by addressing major problems of water and chemicals management and by assessing abatement options. SOLUTIONS takes advantage of the access to the infrastructure necessary to investigate the large basins of the Danube and Rhine as well as relevant Mediterranean basins as case studies, and puts major efforts on stakeholder dialogue and support. Particularly, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) Common Implementation Strategy (CIS) working groups, International River Commissions, and water works associations are directly supported. with consistent guidance for the early detection, identification, prioritisation, and abatement of chemicals in the water cycle. SOLUTIONS will give a specific emphasis on concepts and tools for the impact and risk assessment of complex mixtures of emerging pollutants, their metabolites and transformation products. Analytical and effect-based screening tools will be applied together with ecological assessment tools for the identification of toxicants and their impacts. The SOLUTIONS approach is expected to provide transparent and evidence-based candidates or River Basin Specific Pollutants in the case study basins and to assist future review of priority pollutants under the WFD as well as potential abatement options.

  • 13. Brack, Werner
    et al.
    Dulio, Valeria
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Allan, Ian
    Altenburger, Rolf
    Brinkmann, Markus
    Bunke, Dirk
    Burgess, Robert M.
    Cousins, Ian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Escher, Beate I.
    Hernandez, Felix J.
    Hewitt, L. Mark
    Hilscherova, Klara
    Hollender, Juliane
    Hollert, Henner
    Kase, Robert
    Klauer, Bernd
    Lindim, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Herraez, David Lopez
    Miege, Cecil
    Munthe, John
    O'Toole, Simon
    Posthuma, Leo
    Ruedel, Heinz
    Schaefer, Ralf B.
    Sengl, Manfred
    Smedes, Foppe
    van de Meent, Dik
    van den Brink, Paul J.
    van Gils, Jos
    van Wezel, Annemarie P.
    Vethaak, A. Dick
    Vermeirssen, Etienne
    von der Ohe, Peter C.
    Vrana, Branislav
    Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework Directive: Recommendations for more efficient assessment and management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 576, p. 720-737Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protecting it from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of legislation for the protection and sustainable use of European freshwater resources. The practical implementation of the WFD with regard to chemical pollution has faced some challenges. In support of the upcoming WFD review in 2019 the research project SOLUTIONS and the European monitoring network NORMAN has analyzed these challenges, evaluated the state-of-the-art of the science and suggested possible solutions. We give 10 recommendations to improve monitoring and to strengthen comprehensive prioritization, to foster consistent assessment and to support solution-oriented management of surface waters. The integration of effect-based tools, the application of passive sampling for bioaccumulative chemicals and an integrated strategy for prioritization of contaminants, accounting for knowledge gaps, are seen as important approaches to advance monitoring. Including all relevant chemical contaminants in more holistic chemical status assessment, using effect-based trigger values to address priority mixtures of chemicals, to better consider historical burdens accumulated in sediments and to use models to fill data gaps are recommended for a consistent assessment of contamination. Solution-oriented management should apply a tiered approach in investigative monitoring, to identify toxicity drivers, strengthen consistent legislative frameworks and apply solutions-oriented approaches that explore risk reduction scenarios before and along with risk assessment.

  • 14. Budhavant, Krishnakant
    et al.
    Andersson, August
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bosch, Carme
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Kruså, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Murthaza, Ahmed
    Zahid,
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Apportioned contributions of PM2.5 fine aerosol particles over the Maldives (northern Indian Ocean) from local sources vs long-range transport2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 536, p. 72-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban-like plumes of gases and particulate matter originating from the South Asian region are frequently observed over the Indian Ocean, especially during the dry winter period. However, in addition to the strong sources on main-land South Asia, there are also local Maldivian emissions. The local contributions to the load of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the Maldivian capital Male was assessed using the well-established Maldives Climate Observatory at Hanimaadhoo (MCOH) to represent local background, recording the long-range transported component for a full-year synoptic campaign at both sites in 2013. The year-round levels in both Male and MCOH are strongly influenced by the seasonality of the monsoon cycle, including precipitation patterns and air-mass transport pathways, with lower levels during the wet summer season. The annual-average PM2.5 levels in Male are higher (avg. 19 mu g/m(3)) than at MCOH (avg. 13 mu g/m(3)) with the difference being the largest during the summer, when local emissions play a larger role. The 24-hWorld Health Organization (WHO) PM2.5 health guideline was surpassed for the week-long collections in 71% of the cases in Male and in 74% of the cases for Hanimaadhoo. This study shows that in the dry/winter season 90 +/- 11% of PM2.5 levels in Male could be from long-range transport with only 8 +/- 11% from local emissions while in the wet/monsoon season the relative contributions are about equal. The concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) showed similar seasonal patterns as bulk mass PM2.5. The relative contribution of total carbonaceous matter to bulk mass PM2.5 was 17% in Male and 13% at MCOH, suggesting larger contributions from incomplete combustion practices in the Male local region.

  • 15.
    Bui, Thuy T.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    Magnér, Jörgen
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Human exposure, hazard and risk of alternative plasticizers to phthalate esters2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 541, p. 451-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alternative plasticizers to phthalate esters have been used for over a decade, but data regarding emissions, human exposure and health effects are limited. Here we review 20 alternative plasticizers in current use and their human exposure, hazard and risk. Physicochemical properties are collated for these diverse alternatives and log K-OW values range over 15 orders of magnitude and log K-AW and log K-OA values over about 9 orders of magnitude. Most substances are hydrophobic with low volatility and are produced in high volumes for use in multiple applications. There is an increasing trend in the total use of alternative plasticizers in Sweden compared to common phthalate esters in the last 10 years, especially for DINCH. Evaluative indoor fate modeling reveals that most alternatives are distributed to vertical surfaces (e.g. walls or ceilings). Only TXIB and GTA are predicted to be predominantly distributed to indoor air. Human exposure data are lacking and clear evidence for human exposure only exists for DEHT and DINCH, which show increasing trends in body burdens. Human intake rates are collected and compared with limit values with resulting risk ratios below 1 except for infant's exposure to ESBO. PBT properties of the alternatives indicate mostly no reasons for concern, except that TEHPA is estimated to be persistent and TCP toxic. A caveat is that non-standard toxicological endpoint results are not available and, similar to phthalate esters, the alternatives are likely pseudo-persistent. Keydata gaps for more comprehensive risk assessment are identified and include: analytical methods to measure metabolites in biological fluids and tissues, toxicological information regarding non-standard endpoints such as endocrine disruption and a further refined exposure assessment in order to consider high risk groups such as infants, toddlers and children.

  • 16. Butt, Craig M.
    et al.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bossi, Rossana
    Tomy, Gregg T.
    Levels and trends of poly- and perfluorinated compounds in the arctic environment2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 15, p. 2936-2965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly- and perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) are ubiquitous in the Arctic environment. Several modeling studies have been conducted in attempt to resolve the dominant transport pathway of PFCs to the arctic-atmospheric transport of precursors versus direct transport via ocean currents. These studies are generally limited by their focus on perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) fluxes to arctic seawater and thus far have only used fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and sulfonamide alcohols as inputs for volatile precursors. There have been many monitoring studies from the North American and European Arctic, however, almost nothing is known about PFC levels from the Russian Arctic. In general, there are very few measurements of PFCs from the abiotic environment. Atmospheric measurements show the widespread occurrence of PFC precursors, FTOHs and perfluorinated sulfonamide alcohols. Further, PFCAs and PFSAs have been detected on atmospheric particles. The detection of PFCAs and PFSAs in snow deposition is consistent with the volatile precursor transport hypothesis. There are very limited measurements of PFCs in seawater. PFOA is generally detected in the greatest concentrations. Additional seawater measurements are needed to validate existing model predications. The bulk of the monitoring efforts in biological samples have focused on the perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) and sulfonates (PFSAs), although there are very few measurements of PFC precursors. The marine food web has been well studied, particularly the top predators. In contrast, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems have been poorly studied. Studies show that in wildlife perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is generally measured in the highest concentration, followed by either perfluorononanoate (PFNA) or perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnA). However, some whale species show relatively high levels of perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) and seabirds are typically characterized by high proportions of the C-11-C-15 PFCAs. PFOA is generally infrequently detected and is present in low concentrations in arctic biota. Food web studies show high bioaccumulation in the upper trophic-level animals, although the mechanism of PFC biomagnification is not understood. Spatial trend studies show some differences between populations, although there are inconsistencies between PFC trends. The majority of temporal trend studies are from the Northern American Arctic and Greenland. Studies show generally increasing levels of PFCs from the 1970s, although some studies from the Canadian Arctic show recent declines in PFOS levels. In contrast, ringed seals and polar bears from Greenland continue to show increasing PFOS concentrations. The inconsistent temporal trends between regions may be representative of differences in emissions from source regions.

  • 17. Choudhary, Preetam
    et al.
    Routh, Joyanto
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology and Geochemistry.
    Chakrapani, Govind J.
    An environmental record of changes in sedimentary organic matter from Lake Sattal in Kumaun Himalayas, India2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 8, p. 2783-2795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sattal a small mountainous lake in the Kumaun Himalayas has been impacted by various cultural activities in recent years. We explored the effects of human-induced changes in this lake by using various geochemical proxies. Shifts in TOC and N flux, C/N ratio, stable isotopes (delta C-13 and delta N-15), n-alkane, and pigment concentrations in sediments indicate a steady increase in primary productivity over the last few decades. The trophic status of the lake has changed from mesotrophic to eutrophic condition. The C/N, CPI, and TAR based ratios in sediments indicate accumulation of algal matter derived primarily from in situ production, with limited input of terrestrial organic matter from the watershed. The low (between 0.1 and 1 parts per thousand) delta N-15 values imply N-2-fixation by cyanobacteria, and the decrease in delta C-13 values up-core represent the effect of sewage input and land based runoff, or possible contribution from microbial biomass. The pigments change from non-N-2 fixing cyanobacterial species to the N-2-fixing community, and are consistent with the proxy-based productivity shifts inferred in the lake. The deeper sediments are affected by post-diagenetic changes causing an increase in delta C-13 (and possibly delta N-15) due to mineralization of organic C and N. 

  • 18.
    Cousins, Anna Palm
    IVL Swedish Envrionmental Research Institute.
    The effect of the indoor environment on the fate of organic chemicals in theurban landscape2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 438, p. 233-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To assess the effect of the indoor environment on the urban fate of organic chemicals, an 8-compartment indoor-inclusive steady state multimedia chemical fate model was developed. The model includes typical urban compartments (air, soil, water, sediment, and urban film) and a novel module representing a generic indoor environment. The model was parameterized to the municipality of Stockholm, Sweden and applied to four organic chemicals with different physical–chemical characteristics and use patterns: formaldehyde, 2,4,6-tribromophenol, di-ethylhexylphthalate and decabromodiphenyl ether. The results show that emissions to indoor air may increase the steady state mass and residence time in the urban environment by a factor of 1.1 to 22 for the four chemicals, compared to if emissions are assigned to outdoor air. This is due to the nested nature of the indoor environment, which creates a physical barrier that prevents chemicals from leaving the urban system with outflowing air. For DEHP and BDE 209, the additional partitioning to indoor surfaces results in a greater importance of the indoor removal pathways from surfaces. The outdoor environmental concentrations of these chemicals are predicted to be lower if emitted to indoor air than if emitted to outdoor air because of the additional indoor removal pathways of dust and indoor film, leading to loss of chemical from the system. For formaldehyde and 2,4,6-TBP outdoor environmental concentrations are not affected by whether the release occurs indoors or outdoors because of the limited partitioning to indoor surfaces. A sensitivity analysis revealed that there appears to be a relationship between logKOA and the impact of the ventilation rate on the urban fate of organic chemicals.

  • 19. Cui, Xinjuan
    et al.
    Wang, Xinfeng
    Yang, Lingxiao
    Chen, Bing
    Chen, Jianmin
    Andersson, August
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Radiative absorption enhancement from coatings on black carbon aerosols2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 551, p. 51-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The radiative absorption enhancement of ambient black carbon (BC), by light-refractive coatings of atmospheric aerosols, constitutes a large uncertainty in estimates of climate forcing. The direct measurements of radiative absorption enhancement require the experimentally-removing the coating materials in ambient BC-containing aerosols, which remains a challenge. Here, the absorption enhancement of the BC core by non-absorbing aerosol coatings was quantified using a two-step removal of both inorganic and organic matter coatings of ambient aerosols. The mass absorption cross-section (MAC) of decoated/pure atmospheric BC aerosols of 4.4 +/- 0.8 m(2)g(-1) was enhanced to 9.6 +/- 1.8 m(2)g(-1) at 678-nm wavelength for ambiently-coated BC aerosols at a rural Northern China site. The enhancement of MAC (E-MAC) rises from 1.4 +/- 0.3 in fresh combustion emissions to similar to 3 for aged ambient China aerosols. The three-week high-intensity campaign observed an average E-MAC of 2.25 +/- 0.55, and sulfates were primary drivers of the enhanced BC absorption.

  • 20.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Muir, Derek
    Levels and trends of new contaminants, temporal trends of legacy contaminants and effects of contaminants in the Arctic: Preface2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 15, p. 2852-2853Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. Dickin, Sarah
    et al.
    Dagerskog, Linus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Jimenez, Alejandro
    Andersson, Kim
    Savadogo, Karim
    Understanding sustained use of ecological sanitation in rural Burkina Faso2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 613, p. 140-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to safe sanitation services is fundamental for healthy and productive lives, but in rural Burkina Faso only around 7% of the population uses improved sanitation. Ecological sanitation (ecosan) systems that allow safe agricultural reuse of nutrients in human waste have been promoted in these areas, as a way to meet sanitation needs while contributing to food security. However, little is known about the success of these interventions in terms of both sustained use of the toilet and safe excreta reuse practices. We assessed the use of ecosan systems in 44 rural communities where such interventions had taken place. Structured interviews and observations conducted at 520 randomly selected concessions (residential properties), suggested a large-scale shift from open defecation to ecosan toilet use. However, only 58% of surveyed concessions reported ever emptying the ecosan toilet vault, which is required for optimal long-term functioning. Concessions that received ecosan training programmes with a greater emphasis on agricultural reuse were more strongly associated with toilet use and emptying than those that whose training focused more on sanitation access and health benefits. The findings suggest that the safe agricultural reuse of nutrients can provide a strong motivation for long-term adoption of improved sanitation among rural smallholders.

  • 22. Dile, Yihun Taddele
    et al.
    Karlberg, Louise
    Daggupati, Prasad
    Srinivasan, Raghavan
    Wiberg, David
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Assessing the implications of water harvesting intensification on upstream-downstream ecosystem services: A case study in the Lake Tana basin2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 542, p. 22-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water harvesting systems have improved productivity in various regions in sub-Saharan Africa. Similarly, they can help retain water in landscapes, build resilience against droughts and dry spells, and thereby contribute to sustainable agricultural intensification. However, there is no strong empirical evidence that shows the effects of intensification of water harvesting on upstream-downstream social-ecological systems at a landscape scale. In this paper we develop a decision support system (DSS) for locating and sizing water harvesting ponds in a hydrological model, which enables assessments of water harvesting intensification on upstream-downstream ecosystem services in meso-scale watersheds. The DSS was used with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for a case-study area located in the Lake Tana basin, Ethiopia. We found that supplementary irrigation in combination with nutrient application increased simulated teff (Eragrostis tef, staple crop in Ethiopia) production up to three times, compared to the current practice. Moreover, after supplemental irrigation of teff, the excess water was used for dry season onion production of 7.66 t/ha (median). Water harvesting, therefore, can play an important role in increasing local-to regional-scale food security through increased and more stable food production and generation of extra income from the sale of cash crops. The annual total irrigation water consumption was similar to 4%-30% of the annual water yield from the entire watershed. In general, water harvesting resulted in a reduction in peak flows and an increase in low flows. Water harvesting substantially reduced sediment yield leaving the watershed. The beneficiaries of water harvesting ponds may benefit from increases in agricultural production. The downstream social-ecological systems may benefit from reduced food prices, reduced flooding damages, and reduced sediment influxes, as well as enhancements in low flows and water quality. The benefits of water harvesting warrant economic feasibility studies and detailed analyses of its ecological impacts.

  • 23. Ekstrom, Julia A.
    et al.
    Crona, Beatrice I.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Institutional misfit and environmental change: A systems approach to address ocean acidification2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 576, p. 599-608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging environmental threats often lack sufficient governance to address the full extent of the problem. An example is ocean acidification which is a growing concern in fishing and aquaculture economies worldwide, but has remained a footnote in environmental policy at all governance levels. However, existing legal jurisdictions do account for some aspects of the system relating to ocean acidification and these may be leveraged to support adapting to and mitigating ocean acidification. We refine and apply a methodological framework that helps objectively evaluate governance, from a social-ecological systems perspective. We assess how well a set of extant US institutions fits with the social-ecological interactions pertinent to ocean acidification. The assessment points to measured legal gaps, for which we evaluate the government authorities most appropriate to help fill these gaps. The analysis is conducted on United State federal statutes and regulations. Results show quantitative improvement of institutional fit over time (2006 to 2013); but a substantial number of measured legal gaps persist especially around acknowledging local sources of acidification and adaptation strategies to deal with or avoid impacts. We demonstrate the utility of this framework to evaluate the governance surrounding any emerging environmental threat as a first step to guiding the development of jurisdictionally realistic solutions.

  • 24. Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah
    et al.
    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Qamar, Sehrish
    Shah, Syed Tahir Abbas
    Sohail, Muhammad
    Mulla, Sikandar I.
    Fasola, Mauro
    Shen, Heqing
    Mercury contamination in deposited dust and its bioaccumulation patterns throughout Pakistan2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 569, p. 585-593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of environment is a major threat to human health in developing countries like Pakistan. Human populations, particularly children, are continuously exposed to Hg contamination via dust particles due to the arid and semi-arid climate. However, a country wide Hg contamination data for dust particles is lacking for Pakistan and hence, human populations potentially at risk is largely unknown. We provide the first baseline data for total mercury (THg) contamination into dust particles and its bioaccumulation trends, using scalp human hair samples as biomarker, at 22 sites across five altitudinal zones of Pakistan. The human health risk of THg exposure via dust particles as well as the proportion of human population that are potentially at risk from Hg contamination were calculated. Our results indicated higher concentration of THg in dust particles and its bioaccumulation in the lower Indus-plain agricultural and industrial areas than the other areas of Pakistan. The highest THg contamination of dust particles (3000 ppb) and its bioaccumulation (2480 ppb) were observed for the Lahore district, while the highest proportion (>40%) of human population was identified to be potentially at risk from Hg contamination from these areas. In general, children were at higher risk of Hg exposure via dust particles than adults. Regression analysis identified the anthropogenic activities, such as industrial and hospital discharges, as the major source of Hg contamination of dust particles. Our results inform environmental management for Hg control and remediation as well as the disease mitigation on potential hotspots.

  • 25. Glaser, Karin
    et al.
    Kuppardt, Anke
    Boenigk, Jens
    Harms, Hauke
    Fetzer, Ingo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Chatzinotas, Antonis
    The influence of environmental factors on protistan microorganisms in grassland soils along a land-use gradient2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 537, p. 33-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigated the effect of land use intensity, soil parameters and vegetation on protistan communities in grassland soils. We performed qualitative (T-RFLP) and quantitative (qPCR) analyses using primers specifically targeting the 18S rRNA gene for all Eukarya and for two common flagellate groups, i.e. the Chrysophyceae and the Kinetoplastea. Both approaches were applied to extracted soil DNA and RNA, in order to distinguish between the potentially active protists (i.e. RNA pool) and the total protistan communities, including potentially inactive and encysted cells (i.e. DNA pool). Several environmental determinants such as site, soil parameters and vegetation had an impact on the T-RFLP community profiles and the abundance of the quantified 18S rRNA genes. Correlating factors often differed between quantitative (qPCR) and qualitative (T-RFLP) approaches. For instance the Chrysophyceae/Eukarya 18S rDNA ratio as determined by qPCR correlated with the C/N ratio, whereas the community composition based on T-RLFP analysis was not affected indicating that both methods taken together provide a more complete picture of the parameters driving protist diversity. Moreover, distinct T-RFs were obtained, which could serve as potential indicators for either active organisms or environmental conditions like water content. While site was the main determinant across all investigated exploratories, land use seemed to be of minor importance for structuring protist communities. The impact of other parameters differed between the target groups, e.g. Kinetoplastea reacted on changes to water content on all sites, whereas Chrysophyceae were only affected in the Schorfheide. Finally, in most cases different responses were observed on RNA- and DNA-level, respectively. Vegetation for instance influenced the two flagellate groups only at the DNA-level across all sites. Future studies should thus include different protistan groups and also distinguish between active and inactive cells, in order to reveal causal shifts in community composition and abundance in agriculturally used systems.

  • 26.
    Goldenberg, Romain
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    Deal, Brian
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Distinction, quantification and mapping of potential and realized supply-demand of flow-dependent ecosystem services2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 593, p. 599-609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses and conceptualizes the possible dependence of ecosystem services on prevailing air and/or water flow processes and conditions, and particularly on the trajectories and associated spatial reach of these flows in carrying services from supply to demand areas in the landscape. The present conceptualization considers and accounts for such flow-dependence in terms of potential and actually realized service supply and demand, which may generally differ and must therefore be distinguished due to and accounting for the prevailing conditions of service carrier flows. We here concretize and quantify such flow-dependence for a specific landscape case (the Stockholm region, Sweden) and for two examples of regulating ecosystem services: local climate regulation and storm water regulation. For these service and landscape examples, we identify, quantify and map key areas of potential and realized service supply and demand, based for the former (potential) on prevailing relatively static types of landscape conditions (such as land-cover/use, soil type and demographics), and for the latter (realized) on relevant carrier air and water flows. These first-order quantification examples constitute first steps towards further development of generally needed such flow-dependence assessments for various types of ecosystem services in different landscapes over the world.

  • 27.
    Gomis, Melissa Ines
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wang, Zhanyun
    Scheringer, Martin
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    A modeling assessment of the physicochemical properties and environmental fate of emerging and novel per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 505, p. 981-991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic contaminants that are globally present in the environment, wildlife and humans. Phase-out actions and use restrictions to reduce the environmental release of long-chain PFCAs, PFSAs and their precursors have been taken since 2000. In particular, long-chain poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are being replaced with shorter-chain homologues or other fluorinated or non-fluorinated alternatives. A key question is: are these alternatives, particularly the structurally similar fluorinated alternatives, less hazardous to humans and the environment than the substances they replace? Several fluorinated alternatives including perfluoroether carboxylic acids (PFECAs) and perfluoroether sulfonic adds (PFESAs) have beet recently identified. However, the scarcity of experimental data prevents hazard and risk assessments for these substances. In this study, we use state-of-the-art in silico tools to estimate key properties of these newly identified fluorinated alternatives. [i] COSMOtherm and SPARC ate used to estimate physicochemical properties. The US EPA EPISuite software package is used to predict degradation half-lives in air, water and soil. [ii] In combination with estimated chemical properties, a fugacity-based multimedia mass-balance unit-world model the OECD Overall Persistence (Pov) and Long-Range Transport Potential (LRTP) Screening Tool is used to assess the likely environmental fate of these alternatives. Even though the fluorinated alternatives contain some structural differences, their physicochemical properties are not significantly different from those of their predecessors. Furthermore, most of the alternatives are estimated to be similarly persistent and mobile in the environment as the long-chain PFASs. The models therefore predict that the fluorinated alternatives will become globally distributed in the environment similar to their predecessors. Although such in silico methods are coupled with uncertainties, this preliminary assessment provides enough cause for concern to warrant experimental work to better determine the properties of these fluorinated alternatives.

  • 28. Gunnarsson, L.
    et al.
    Adolfsson-Erici, M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bjorlenius, B.
    Rutgersson, C.
    Forlin, L.
    Larsson, D.G.J.
    Comparison of six different sewage treatment processes-Reduction of estrogenic substances and effects on gene expression in exposed male fish2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 19, p. 5235-5242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Treated sewage effluents often contain a mixture of estrogenic compounds in low concentrations. The total combined activity of these, however, may be sufficiently high to affect the reproduction of aquatic vertebrates. The introduction of advanced treatment technologies has been suggested as a way to remove micro-contaminants, including estrogenic substances. In this study, one municipal influent was treated with six different processes in parallel on a semi-large scale in order to assess their potential to reduce substances that could contribute to estrogenic effects in male fish. The effluent from a conventional, activated sludge treatment line was compared to a similarly treated effluent with a final sand-filtering step. The addition of ozonation (15 g O-3/m(3)). a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) or both in combination was also evaluated. There was also a separate treatment line that was based on a membrane bioreactor. A small battery of hepatic estrogen-responsive genes was measured in the exposed fish using quantitative PCR. Concentrations of steroid estrogens and estrogenic phenols in the effluents were measured by GC-ECNI-MS. The ozonated effluents were the only tested effluents for which all measured biological effects in exposed fish were removed. Chemical data suggested that the MBBR technology was equally effective in removing the analyzed estrogens; however, elevated expression of estrogen-responsive genes suggested that some estrogenic substances were still present in the effluent. The membrane bioreactor removed most of the measured estrogens and it reduced the induction of the estrogen-responsive genes. However, fish exposed to this effluent had significantly enlarged livers. Given that the same influent was treated in parallel with a broad set of technologies and that the chemical analyses were combined with an in vivo assessment of estrogenic responses, this study provides valuable input into the assessment of advanced treatment processes for removing estrogenic substances.

  • 29. Hanson, M. L.
    et al.
    Wolff, B. A.
    Green, J. W.
    Kivi, M.
    Panter, G. H.
    Warne, M. St J.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Sumpter, J. P.
    How we can make ecotoxicology more valuable to environmental protection2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 578, p. 228-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing awareness that the value of peer-reviewed scientific literature is not consistent, resulting in a growing desire to improve the practice and reporting of studies. This is especially important in the field of ecotoxicology, where regulatory decisions can be partly based on data from the peer-reviewed literature, with wide-reaching implications for environmental protection. Our objective is to improve the reporting of ecotoxicology studies so that they can be appropriately utilized in a fair and transparent fashion, based on their reliability and relevance. We propose a series of nine reporting requirements, followed by a set of recommendations for adoption by the ecotoxicology community. These reporting requirements will provide clarity on the the test chemical, experimental design and conditions, chemical identification, test organisms, exposure confirmation, measurable endpoints, how data are presented, data availability and statistical analysis. Providing these specific details will allow for a fuller assessment of the reliability and relevance of the studies, including limitations. Recommendations for the implementation of these reporting requirements are provided herein for practitioners, journals, reviewers, regulators, stakeholders, funders, and professional societies. If applied, our recommendations will improve the quality of ecotoxicology studies and their value to environmental protection.

  • 30. Heintzenberg, Jost
    et al.
    Cereceda-Balic, Francisco
    Vidal, Victor
    Leck, Caroline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Scavenging of black carbon in Chilean coastal fogs2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 541, p. 341-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In November/December 2013 a pilot experiment on aerosol/fog interaction was conducted on a coastal hill in the suburbs of Valparaiso, Chile. Passages of garua fog were monitored with continuous recordings of a soot photometer and an optical aerosol spectrometer. An optical fog sensor and an automatic weather station provided meteorological data with which the aerosol could be classified. High-resolution back trajectories added meteorological information. From filter samples, optical and chemical aerosol information was derived. Scavenging coefficients of black carbon (BC) and measured particulate mass below 1 mu m diameter (PM1) were estimated with three approaches. Averaging over all fog periods of the campaign yielded a scavenging coefficient of only 6% for BC and 40% for PM1. Dividing the data into four 90 degrees-wind sectors gave scavenging factors for BC ranging from 13% over the Valparaiso, Vina del Mar conurbation to 50% in the marine sector (180 degrees-270 degrees). The third, and independent approach was achieved with two pairs of chemical aerosol samples taken inside and outside fogs, which yielded a scavenging coefficient of 25% for BC and 70% for nonseasalt sulfate. Whereas fogs occurred rather infrequently in the beginning of the campaign highly regular daily fog cycles appeared towards the end of the experiment, which allowed the calculation of typical diurnal cycles of the aerosol in relation to a fog passage.

  • 31. Helander, B.
    et al.
    Axelsson, J.
    Borg, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Holm, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bignert, A.
    Ingestion of lead from ammunition and lead concentrations in white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 21, p. 5555-5563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we show for the first time that lead poisoning from ammunition is a significant mortality factor for white-tailed sea eagle (WSE) (Holiaeetus albicilla) in Sweden. We analyzed 118 WSEs collected between 1981 and 2004 from which both liver and kidney samples could be taken. A total of 22% of all eagles examined had elevated (>6 mu g/g d.w.) lead concentrations, indicating exposure to leaded ammunition. and 14% of the individuals had either liver or kidney lead concentrations diagnostic of lethal lead poisoning (>20 mu g/g d.w.). Lead concentrations in liver and kidney were significantly correlated. In individuals with lead levels <6 mu g/g, concentrations were significantly higher in kidney than in liver; in individuals with lead levels >20 mu g/g, concentrations were significantly higher in liver. The lead isotope ratios indicate that the source of lead in individuals with lethal concentrations is different from that of individuals exhibiting background concentrations of lead (<6 mu g/g d.w.) There were no significant sex or age differences in lead concentrations. A study from the Baltic reported in principle no biomagnification of lead, but background lead concentrations in WSE liver in this study were still four to >10 times higher than concentrations reported for Baltic fish from the same time period. in contrast to other biota there was no decrease in lead concentrations in WSE over the study period. The proportion of lead poisoned WSE remained unchanged over the study period, including two years after a partial ban of lead shot was enforced in 2002 for shallow wetlands. The use of lead in ammunition poses a threat to all raptors potentially feeding on shot game or offal. The removal of offal from shot game and alternatives to leaded ammunition needs to be implemented in order to prevent mortality from lead in raptors and scavengers.

  • 32. Herzke, D.
    et al.
    Nygard, T.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Huber, S.
    Rov, N.
    Perfluorinated and other persistent halogenated organic compounds in European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) and common eider (Somateria mollissima) from Norway: A suburban to remote pollutant gradient2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 2, p. 340-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Samples of two marine bird species, European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) and common eider (Somateria mollissima) sampled at a remote coastal site in Norway were analysed for POPs and PFCs. Additionally samples of common eider were analysed from two other locations in Norway, representing a gradient from "densely populated" to "remote". The variety, concentration and distribution of lipophilic POPs in comparison to PFCs were investigated. PCBs were the dominating group of contaminants in the analysed egg samples. Shag eggs had median sum PCBs levels of 4580 ng/g l.w. in 2004. Six different PBDE congeners could be detected in the shag eggs. BDE 47 and 100 were the main contributors with 24 and 27 ng/g l.w. respectively, sum PBDEs was 90 ng/g l.w. Relatively high concentrations of chlordanes were found witha total sum of 903 ng/g l.w. Of other OCs, toxaphene 26 and 52 together (sum 657 ng/g l.w.) and HCB (165 ng/g l.w.) were contributing majorly to the egg burden. Sum HCHs were low; only 54 ng/g l.w. PFOS was the main PFC in egg, plasma and liver samples. Similar median levels of 29,32 and 27 ng/g w.w. were observed. PFOSA, PFHxS, and PFDcA were observed additionally in all shag samples at minor concentrations with the exception of elevated levels observed in liver for PFOSA and PFDcA with median levels of 7.6 and 7.9 ng/g w.w., respectively. In common eider eggs, the POP concentrations decreased up to 1/8th along the sampled spatial gradient from suburban to remote. of the 9 detected PFCs, PFOS dominated all samples by one order of magnitude, followed by PFOA. Sum PFC concentrations were twice as high at the two fjord sites compared to the remote site. Shorter chained PFCAs like PFOA and PFNA could be detected in the eider eggs whilst being absent in shag eggs.

  • 33.
    Jaeschke, Benedict C.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Norway.
    Lind, O. C.
    Bradshaw, Clare
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Salbu, B.
    Retention of radioactive particles and associated effects in the filter-feeding marine mollusc Mytilus edulis2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 502, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radioactive particles are aggregates of radioactive atoms that may contain significant activity concentrations. They have been released into the environment from nuclear weapons tests, and from accidents and effluents associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. Aquatic filter-feeders can capture and potentially retain radioactive particles, which could then provide concentrated doses to nearby tissues. This study experimentally investigated the retention and effects of radioactive particles in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Spent fuel particles originating from the Dounreay nuclear establishment and collected in the field, comprised a U and Al alloy containing fission products such as Cs-137 and Sr-90/Y-90. Particles were introduced into mussels in suspension with plankton-food or through implantation in the extrapallial cavity. Of the particles introduced with food, 37% were retained for 70 h, and were found on the siphon or gills, with the notable exception of one particle that was ingested and found in the stomach. Particles not retained seemed to have been actively rejected and expelled by the mussels. The largest and most radioactive particle (estimated dose rate 3.18 +/- 0.06 Gy h(-1)) induced a significant increase in Comet tail-DNA %. In one case this particle caused a large white mark (suggesting necrosis) in the mantle tissue with a simultaneous increase in micronucleus frequency observed in the haemolymph collected from the muscle, implying that non-targeted effects of radiation were induced by radiation from the retained particle. White marks found in the tissue were attributed to ionising radiation and physical irritation. The results indicate that current methods used for risk assessment, based upon the absorbed dose equivalent limit and estimating the no-effect dose are inadequate for radioactive particle exposures. Knowledge is lacking about the ecological implications of radioactive particles released into the environment, for example potential recycling within a population, or trophic transfer in the food chain.

  • 34.
    Jantze, Elin J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Dahlke, Helen E.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    The state of dissolved carbon export across boreal and tundra environments in ScandinaviaIn: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Johansson, Christer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Environment and Health Administration, SLB, Sweden.
    Lövenheim, Boel
    Schantz, Peter
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Almström, Peter
    Markstedt, Anders
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    Impacts on air pollution and health by changing commuting from car to bicycle2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 584, p. 55-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our study is based on individual data on people's home and work addresses, as well as their age, sex and physical capacity, in order to establish realistic bicycle-travel distances. A transport model is used to single out data on commuting preferences in the County Stockholm. Our analysis shows there is a very large potential for reducing emissions and exposure if all car drivers living within a distance corresponding to a maximum of a 30 min bicycle ride to work would change to commuting by bicycle. It would result in >111,000 new cyclists, corresponding to an increase of 209% compared to the current situation. Mean population exposure would be reduced by about 7% for both NOx and black carbon (BC) in the most densely populated area of the inner city of Stockholm. Applying a relative risk for NOx of 8% decrease in all-cause mortality associated with a 10 mu g m(-3) decrease in NOx, this corresponds to >449 (95% CI: 340-558) years of life saved annually for the Stockholm county area with 2.1 million inhabitants. This is more than double the effect of the reduced mortality estimated for the introduction of congestion charge in Stockholm in 2006. Using NO2 or BC as indicator of health impacts, we obtain 395 (95% CI: 172-617) and 185 (95% CI: 158-209) years of life saved for the population, respectively. The calculated exposure of BC and its corresponding impacts on mortality are likely underestimated. With this in mind the estimates using NOx, NO2 and BC show quite similar health impacts considering the 95% confidence intervals.

  • 36.
    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bignert, Anders
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Svavarsson, Jörundur
    Nygård, Torgeir
    Weihe, Pál
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Assessment of emerging and traditional halogenated contaminants in guillemot (Uria aalge) egg from Nort-Western Europe and the Baltic Sea2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 13, p. 4174-4183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are readily detected in biological samples at remote sites in the Arctic and sub-Arctic due to long-range transport from source areas. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of POPs, polybrominated contaminants and their metabolites in guillemot (Uria aalge) eggs from Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Norway and Sweden to assess spatial trends of these compounds in the Arctic and sub-Arctic areas of Europe. Egg samples were extracted, and cleaned for chemical analysis. Concentrations of PCBs, 4,4′-DDE and β-HCH were an order of magnitude higher in eggs from the Baltic Proper compared to eggs from the North Atlantic. Concentrations of HCB were of the same magnitude at all sites, ranging from 160 to 520 ng/g fat. Concentration of BCPS was 100 times higher in eggs from the Baltic compared to eggs from the North Atlantic and seems therefore to be special regional problem. Concentrations of PBDEs were lower in eggs from the North Atlantic compared to eggs from the Baltic Proper but the difference was not as large as for PCBs and 4,4′-DDE. HBCDD showed the same spatial trend as PCBs, where the concentrations in eggs from the Baltic Proper were an order of magnitude higher than in eggs from the North Atlantic. OH-PCB and MeSO2-PCB metabolites of PCBs, showed the same trend as the parent compounds while spatial trends of MeSO2-DDE and OH-PBDEs, metabolites of 4,4′-DDE and PBDEs, respectively, differed from the trend of the parent compounds. This may be due to two factors; firstly, the limited ability of birds to metabolise DDT, and secondly, to natural production of OH-PBDE, respectively. Guillemot is suggested as a monitoring species for circumpolar monitoring.

  • 37. Kalantari, Zahra
    et al.
    Briel, Annemarie
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Olofsson, Bo
    Folkeson, Lennart
    On the utilization of hydrological modelling for road drainage design under climate and land use change2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 475, p. 97-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road drainage structures are often designed using methods that do not consider process-based representations of a landscape's hydrological response. This may create inadequately sized structures as coupled land cover and climate changes can lead to an amplified hydrological response. This study aims to quantify potential increases of runoff in response to future extreme rain events in a 61 km(2) catchment (40% forested) in southwest Sweden using a physically-based hydrological modelling approach. We simulate peak discharge and water level (stage) at two types of pipe bridges and one culvert, both of which are commonly used at Swedish road/stream intersections, under combined forest clear-cutting and future climate scenarios for 2050 and 2100. The frequency of changes in peak flow and water level varies with time (seasonality) and storm size. These changes indicate that the magnitude of peak flow and the runoff response are highly correlated to season rather than storm size. In all scenarios considered, the dimensions of the current culvert are insufficient to handle the increase in water level estimated using a physically-based modelling approach. It also appears that the water level at the pipe bridges changes differently depending on the size and timing of the storm events. The findings of the present study and the approach put forward should be considered when planning investigations on and maintenance for areas at risk of high water flows. In addition, the research highlights the utility of physically-based hydrological models to identify the appropriateness of road drainage structure dimensioning.

  • 38.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Cavalli, Marco
    Cantone, Carolina
    Crema, Stefano
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Flood probability quantification for road infrastructure: Data-driven spatial-statistical approach and case study applications2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 581, p. 386-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate-driven increase in the frequency of extreme hydrological events is expected to impose greater strain on the built environment and major transport infrastructure, such as roads and railways. This study develops a data-driven spatial-statistical approach to quantifying and mapping the probability of flooding at critical road-stream intersection locations, where water flow and sediment transport may accumulate and cause serious road damage. The approach is based on novel integration of key watershed and road characteristics, including also measures of sediment connectivity. The approach is concretely applied to and quantified for two specific study case examples in southwest Sweden, with documented road flooding effects of recorded extreme rainfall. The novel contributions of this study in combining a sediment connectivity account with that of soil type, land use, spatial precipitation-runoff variability and road drainage in catchments, and in extending the connectivity measure use for different types of catchments, improve the accuracy of model results for road flood probability.

  • 39. Kalantari, Zahra
    et al.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    French, Helen K.
    Stolte, Jannes
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    Sassner, Mona
    Quantifying the hydrological impact of simulated changes in land use on peak discharge in a small catchment2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 466, p. 741-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A physically-based, distributed hydrological model (MIKE SHE) was used to quantify overland runoff in response to four extreme rain events and four types of simulated land use measure in a catchment in Norway. The current land use in the catchment comprises arable lands, forest, urban areas and a stream that passes under a motorway at the catchment outlet. This model simulation study demonstrates how the composition and configuration of land use measures affect discharge at the catchment outlet differently in response to storms of different sizes. For example, clear-cutting on 30% of the catchment area produced a 60% increase in peak discharge and a 10% increase in total runoff resulting from a 50-year storm event in summer, but the effects on peak discharge were less pronounced during smaller storms. Reforestation of 60% of the catchment area was the most effective measure in reducing peak flows for smaller (2-, 5- and 10-year) storms. Introducing grassed waterways reduced water velocity in the stream and resulted in a 28% reduction in peak flow at the catchment outlet for the 50-year storm event. Overall, the results indicate that the specific effect of land use measures on catchment discharge depends on their spatial distribution and on the size and timing of storm events.

  • 40.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    Stolte, Jannes
    French, Helen K.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Sassner, Mona
    Modeller subjectivity and calibration impacts on hydrological model applications: An event-based comparison for a road-adjacent catchment in south-east Norway2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 502, p. 315-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying a 'best' performing hydrologic model in a practical sense is difficult due to the potential influences of modeller subjectivity on, for example, calibration procedure and parameter selection. This is especially true for model applications at the event scale where the prevailing catchment conditions can have a strong impact on apparent model performance and suitability. In this study, two lumped models (CoupModel and HBV) and two physically-based distributed models (LISEM and MIKE SHE) were applied to a small catchment upstream of a road in south-eastern Norway. All models were calibrated to a single event representing typical winter conditions in the region and then applied to various other winter events to investigate the potential impact of calibration period and methodology on model performance. Peak flow and event-based hydrographs were simulated differently by all models leading to differences in apparent model performance under this application. In this case study, the lumped models appeared to be better suited for hydrological events that differed from the calibration event (i.e., events when runoff was generated from rain on non-frozen soils rather than from rain and snowmelt on frozen soil) while the more physical-based approaches appeared better suited during snowmelt and frozen soil conditions more consistent with the event-specific calibration. This was due to the combination of variations in subsurface conditions over the eight events considered, the subsequent ability of the models to represent the impact of the conditions (particularly when subsurface conditions varied greatly from the calibration event), and the different approaches adopted to calibrate the models. These results indicate that hydrologic models may not only need to be selected on a case-by-case basis but also have their performance evaluated on an application-by-application basis since how a model is applied can be equally important as inherent model structure.

  • 41. Keesstra, Saskia
    et al.
    Nunes, Joao
    Novara, Agata
    Finger, David
    Avelar, David
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Cerda, Artemi
    The superior effect of nature based solutions in land management for enhancing ecosystem services2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 610, p. 997-1009Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rehabilitation and restoration of land is a key strategy to recover services - goods and resources-ecosystems offer to the humankind. This paper reviews key examples to understand the superior effect of nature based solutions to enhance the sustainability of catchment systems by promoting desirable soil and landscape functions. The use of concepts such as connectivity and the theory of system thinking framework allowed to review coastal and river management as a guide to evaluate other strategies to achieve sustainability. In land management NBSs are not mainstream management. Through a set of case studies: organic farming in Spain; rewilding in Slovenia; land restoration in Iceland, sediment trapping in Ethiopia and wetland construction in Sweden, we show the potential of Nature based solutions (NBSs) as a cost-effective long term solution for hydrological risks and land degradation. NBSs can be divided into two main groups of strategies: soil solutions and landscape solutions. Soil solutions aim to enhance the soil health and soil functions through which local eco-system services will bemaintained or restored. Landscape solutions mainly focus on the concept of connectivity. Making the landscape less connected, facilitating less rainfall to be transformed into runoff and therefore reducing flood risk, increasing soilmoisture and reducing droughts and soil erosionwe can achieve the sustainability. The enhanced eco-system services directly feed into the realization of the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations.

  • 42.
    Kylander, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology and Geochemistry.
    Weiss, Dominik
    Kober, Bernd
    Two high resolution terrestrial records of atmospheric Pb deposition from New Brunswick, Canada, and Loch Laxford, Scotland2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 5, p. 1644-1657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental archives like peat deposits allow for the reconstruction of both naturally and anthropogenically forced changes in the biogeochemical cycle of Pb and the quantification of past and present atmospheric Pb pollution. Records of atmospheric Pb deposition from pre-industrial times however, are lacking.

                    In a publication by Weiss et al. (2002) Pb isotope data measured by Q-ICP-MS and TIMS, concentration and enrichment data was presented for sites in eastern Canada (PeW1) and northwestern Scotland (LL7c), dating to 1586 A.D and 715 A.D., respectively. Here we re-analyse these same cores for Pb isotopes by MC-ICP-MS thereby acquiring 204Pb data and improving on the original data in terms of resolution and temporal coverage. Significant differences were found between the Q-ICP-MS/TIMS and MC-ICP-MS measurements, particularly at PeW1. These discrepancies are attributed to the problematic presence of organic matter during sample preparation and analysis compounded by the heterogeneity of the organic compounds that survived sample preparation steps. The precision and accuracy of Pb isotopes in complex matrices like peat is not always well estimated by industrial standards like NIST-SRM 981 Pb.

                    Lead pollution histories at each site were constructed using the MC-ICP-MS data. The entire LL7c record is likely subject to some amount of anthropogenic pollution. Contributions from local mining were detected in Medieval times. Later, coal use and mining in Scotland, Wales and England became important. After industrialization (ca. 1885 A.D.) contributions from Broken Hill type ores and hence, leaded petrol, dominate atmospheric Pb signatures right up to modern times. At PeW1 anthropogenic impacts are first distinguishable in the late 17th century with the mining and use of local coal. After industrialization (ca. 1810 A.D.), coal and petrol are the main Pb sources. A comprehensive estimate of the natural atmospheric background 206Pb/207Pb signature in eastern Canadian aerosols is made with a value of ~1.19.

  • 43.
    Levi, Lea
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden; University of Split, Croatia.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Data-driven analysis of nutrient inputs and transfers through nested catchments2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 610, p. 482-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A data-driven screening methodology is developed for estimating nutrient input and retention-delivery in catchments with measured water discharges and nutrient concentrations along the river network. The methodology is applied to the Sava River Catchment (SRC), a major transboundary catchment in southeast Europe, with seven monitoring stations along the main river, defining seven nested catchments and seven incremental subcatchments that are analysed and compared in this study. For the relatively large nested catchments (>40,000 km(2)), characteristic regional values emerge for nutrient input per unit area of around 30 T/yr/km(2) for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and 2 T/yr/km(2) for total phosphorus (TP). For the smaller nested catchments and incremental subcatchments, corresponding values fluctuate and indicate hotspot areas with total nutrient inputs of 158 T/yr/km(2) for DIN and 13 T/yr/km(2) for TP. The delivered fraction of total nutrient input mass (termed delivery factor) and associated nutrient loads per area are scale-dependent, exhibiting power-law decay with increasing catchment area, with exponents of around 0.2-0.3 for DIN and 0.3-0.5 for TP. For the largest of the nested catchments in the SRC, the delivery factor is around 0.08 for DIN and 0.03 for TP. Overall, the nutrient data for nested catchments within the SRC show consistency with previously reported data for multiple nested catchments within the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin, identifying close nutrient relationships to driving hydroclimatic conditions (runoff for nutrient loads) and socio-economic conditions (population density and farmland share for nutrient concentrations).

  • 44.
    Liagkouridis, Ioannis
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    Emissions and fate of brominated flame retardants in the indoor environment: A critical review of modelling approaches2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 491, p. 87-99Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review explores the existing understanding and the available approaches to estimating the emissions and fate of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and in particular focuses on the brominated flame retardants (BFRs). Volatilisation, an important emission mechanism for the more volatile compounds can be well described using current emission models. More research is needed, however, to better characterise alternative release mechanisms such as direct material-particle partitioning and material abrasion. These two particle-mediated emissions are likely to result in an increased chemical release from the source than can be accounted for by volatilisation, especially for low volatile compounds, and emission models need to be updated in order to account for these. Air-surface partitioning is an important fate process for SVOCs such as BFRs however it is still not well characterised indoors. In addition, the assumption of an instantaneous air-particle equilibrium adopted by current indoor fate models might not be valid for high-molecular weight, strongly sorbing compounds. A better description of indoor particle dynamics is required to assess the effect of particle-associated transport as this will control the fate of low volatile BFRs. We suggest further research steps that will improve modelling Precision and increase our understanding of the factors that govern the indoor fate of a wide range of SVOCs. It is also considered that the appropriateness of the selected model for a given study relies on the individual characteristics of the study environment and scope of the study.

  • 45.
    Liagkouridis, Ioannis
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Physical-chemical properties and evaluative fate modelling of 'emerging' and 'novel' brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants in the indoor and outdoor environment2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 524, p. 416-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several groups of flame retardants (FRs) have entered the market in recent years as replacements for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), but little is known about their physical-chemical properties or their environmental transport and fate. Here we make best estimates of the physical-chemical properties and undertake evaluative modelling assessments (indoors and outdoors) for 35 so-called 'novel' and 'emerging' brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and 22 organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs). A QSPR (Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship) based technique is used to reduce uncertainty in physical-chemical properties and to aid property selection for modelling, but it is evident that more, high quality property data are required for improving future assessments. Evaluative modelling results show that many of the alternative FRs, mainly alternative BFRs and some of the halogenated OPFRs, behave similarly to the PBDEs both indoors and outdoors. These alternative FRs exhibit high overall persistence (Pov), long-range transport potential (LRTP) and POP-like behaviour and on that basis cannot be regarded as suitable replacements to PBDEs. A group of low molecular weight alternative BFRs and non-halogenated OPFRs show a potentially better environmental performance based on Pov and LRTP metrics. Results must be interpreted with caution though since there are significant uncertainties and limited data to allow for thorough model evaluation. Additional environmental parameters such as toxicity and bioaccumulative potential as well as functionality issues should be considered in an industrial substitution strategy.

  • 46.
    Linderoth, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Norman, Anna
    Noaksson, Erik
    Zebühr, Yngve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Norrgren, Leif
    Balk, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Steroid biosynthetic enzyme activities in leachate-exposed female perch (Perca fluviatilis) as biomarkers for endocrine disruption2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 366, no 2-6, p. 638-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that adult female perch in a freshwater lake, Molnbyggen, Sweden, have a reproductive disorder caused by unidentified endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) leaching from a local refuse dump. The adverse effects include shallow open sores, low ratio of sexually mature individuals, low gonadosomatic index and low circulating levels of androgens. We hypothesised that the low androgen levels could be a result of impaired production and/or stimulated excretion of androgens by EDCs.

    From October 2000 to November 2001, at time-points important in the perch reproductive cycle, adult female perch were collected in Molnbyggen and in the reference lake, Djursjön. The activities of three key enzymes in androgen biosynthesis: 17α-hydroxylase (17OHlase), 17,20-lyase (lyase) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17βHSD) were determined in head kidney or ovary. The relationship between enzyme activities and plasma steroid concentrations was examined. Ovarian histopathology and the determination of brain aromatase activity were also included in the study.

    Similar 17OHlase, 17βHSD and aromatase activities were found in Molnbyggen females and reference fish throughout the year. Head kidney 17OHlase showed a positive correlation to cortisol levels (r = 0.754; p < 0.001) but not to androgen levels. Molnbyggen females exhibited lower ovarian lyase activity during vitellogenesis than reference fish. Atretic oocytes were on most occasions more frequent in sexually immature than in sexually mature females. The results suggest that neither 17OHlase, 17βHSD nor aromatase is the target for EDCs disrupting the androgen homeostasis of exposed female perch. Further investigation is needed to establish the role of decreased ovarian lyase activity in endocrine homeostasis, but the possibility of increased excretion of androgens should also be examined.

  • 47.
    Lindim, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    van Gils, J.
    Georgieva, D.
    Mekenyan, O.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Evaluation of human pharmaceutical emissions and concentrations in Swedish river basins2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 572, p. 508-519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An emissions inventory for top consumed human pharmaceuticals in Sweden was done based on national consumption data, human metabolic rates and wastewater treatment removal rates. Concentrations of pharmaceuticals in surface waters in Swedish river basins were predicted using estimated emissions from the inventory and river discharges. Our findings indicate that the top ten emitted pharmaceuticals in our study set of 54 substances are all emitted in amounts above 0.5 ton/y to both surface waters and soils. The highest emissions to water were in decreasing order for Metformin, Furosemide, Gabapentin, Atenolol and Tramadol. Predicted emissions to soils calculated with the knowledge that in Sweden sludge is mostly disposed to soil, point to the highest emissions among the studied drugs coming from, in decreasing order, Metformin, Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, Gabapentin and Atenolol. Surface water concentrations in Sweden's largest rivers, all located in low density population zones, were found to be below 10 ng/L for all substances studied. In contrast, concentrations in surface waters in Stockholm's metropolitan area, the most populous in Sweden, surpassed 100 ng/L for four substances: Atenolol, Metformin, Furosemide and Gabapentin.

  • 48. Martinez Cortizas, Antonio
    et al.
    Lopez-Merino, Lourdes
    Bindler, Richard
    Mighall, Tim
    Kylander, Malin E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Early atmospheric metal pollution provides evidence for Chalcolithic/Bronze Age mining and metallurgy in Southwestern Europe2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 545, p. 398-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although archaeological research suggests that mining/metallurgy already started in the Chalcolithic (3rd millennium BC), the earliest atmospheric metal pollution in SW Europe has thus far been dated to similar to 3500-3200 cal. yr. BP in paleo-environmental archives. A low intensity, non-extensive mining/metallurgy and the lack of appropriately located archives may be responsible for this mismatch. We have analysed the older section (>2100 cal. yr. BP) of a peat record from La Molina (Asturias, Spain), a mire located in the proximity (35-100 km) of mines which were exploited in the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age, with the aim of assessing evidence of this early mining/metallurgy. Analyses included the determination of C as a proxy for organic matter content, lithogenic elements (Si, Al, Ti) as markers of mineral matter, and trace metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb) and stable Pb isotopes as tracers of atmospheric metal pollution. From similar to 8000 to similar to 4980 cal. yr. BP the Pb composition is similar to that of the underlying sediments (Pb 15 +/- 4 mu g g(-1); Pb-206/Pb-207 1.204 +/- 0.002). A sustained period of low Pb-206/Pb-207 ratios occurred from similar to 4980 to similar to 2470 cal. yr. BP, which can be divided into four phases: Chalcolithic (similar to 4980-3700 cal. yr. BP), Pb-206/Pb-207 ratios decline to 1.175 and Pb/Al ratios increase; Early Bronze Age (similar to 3700-3500 cal. yr. BP), Pb-206/Pb-207 increase to 1.192 and metal/Al ratios remain stable; Late Bronze Age (similar to 3500-2800 cal. yr. BP), Pb-206/Pb-207 decline to their lowest values (1.167) while Pb/Al and Zn/Al increase; and Early Iron Age (similar to 2800-2470 cal. yr. BP), Pb-206/Pb-207 increase to 1.186, most metal/Al ratios decrease but Zn/Al shows a peak. At the beginning of the Late Iron Age, Pb-206/Pb-207 ratios and metal enrichments show a rapid return to pre-anthropogenic values. These results provide evidence of regional/local atmospheric metal pollution triggered by the earliest phases of mining/metallurgy in the area, and reconcile paleo-environmental and archaeological records.

  • 49.
    Masala, Silvia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Bergvall, Christoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Westerholm, Roger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Determination of benzo(a)pyrene and dibenzopyrenes in a Chinese coal fly ash Certified Reference Material2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 432, p. 97-102Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Air pollution from coal combustion is of great concern in China because coal is the country's principal source of energy and it has been estimated that coal combustion is one of the main sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions in the nation. This study reports the concentrations of 15 PAHs including benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene in a coal fly ash certified reference material (CRM) from China. To the best of our knowledge, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene concentrations in coal fly ash particles have not previously been reported. Benzo[a]pyrene is the only one of the studied hydrocarbons whose concentration in the coal fly ash CRM had previously been certified. The concentration of this species measured in this present work was twice the certified value. This is probably because of the exhaustive accelerated solvent extraction method employed. Consecutive extractions indicated an extraction recovery in excess of 95% for benzo[a]pyrene. For the other determined PAHs, repeat extractions indicated recoveries above 90%.

  • 50. Megaritis, Athanasios G.
    et al.
    Murphy, Benjamin N.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Racherla, Pavan N.
    Adams, Peter J.
    Pandis, Spyros N.
    Impact of climate change on mercury concentrations and deposition in the eastern United States2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 487, p. 299-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global-regional climate-air pollution modeling system (GRE-CAPS) was applied over the eastern United States to study the impact of climate change on the concentration and deposition of atmospheric mercury. Summer and winter periods (300 days for each) were simulated, and the present-day model predictions (2000s) were compared to the future ones (2050s) assuming constant emissions. Climate change affects He concentrations in both periods. On average, atmospheric Hg2+ levels are predicted to increase in the future by 3% in summer and 5% in winter respectively due to enhanced oxidation of Hg-0 under higher temperatures. The predicted concentration change of Hg2+ was found to vary significantly in space due to regional-scale changes in precipitation, ranging from -30% to 30% during summer and -20% to 40% during winter. Particulate mercury, Hg(p) has a similar spatial response to climate change as Hg2+, while Hg levels are not predicted to change significantly. In both periods, the response of mercury deposition to climate change varies spatially with an average predicted increase of 6% during summer and 4% during winter. During summer, deposition increases are predicted mostly in the western parts of the domain while mercury deposition is predicted to decrease in the Northeast and also in many areas in the Midwest and Southeast. During winter mercury deposition is predicted to change from 30% to 50% mainly due to the changes in rainfall and the corresponding changes in wet deposition.

12 1 - 50 of 99
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