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  • 1. Adyari, Bob
    et al.
    Shen, Dandan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Germany.
    Li, Shuang
    Zhang, Lanping
    Rashid, Azhar
    Sun, Qian
    Hu, Anyi
    Chen, Nengwang
    Yu, Chang-Ping
    Strong impact of micropollutants on prokaryotic communities at the horizontal but not vertical scales in a subtropical reservoir, China2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 721, article id 137767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Micropollutants have become of great concern, because of their disrupting effects on the structure and function of microbial communities. However, little is known about the relative importance of trace micropollutants on the aquatic prokaryotic communities as compared to the traditional physico-chemical characteristics, especially at different spatial dimensions. Here, we investigated free-living (FL) and particle-associated (PA) prokaryotic communities in a subtropical water reservoir, China, across seasons at horizontal (surface water) and vertical (depth-profile) scales by using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Our results showed that the shared variances of physico-chemicals and micropollutants explained majority of the spatial variations in prokaryotic communities, suggesting a strong joint effect of the two abiotic categories on reservoir prokaryotic communities. Micropollutants appeared to exert strong independent influence on the core sub-communities (i.e., abundant and wide-spread taxa) than on the satellite (i.e., less abundant and narrow-range taxa) counterparts. The pure effect of micropollutants on both core and satellite sub-communities from FL and PA fractions was similar to 1.5 folds greater than that of physico-chemical factors at the horizontal scale, whereas an opposite effect was observed at the vertical scale. Moreover, eight micropollutants including anti-fungal agents, antibiotics, bisphenol analogues, stimulant and UV-filter were identified as the major disrupting compounds with strong associations with core taxa of typical freshwater prokaryotes. Altogether, we concluded that the ecological disrupting effects of micropollutants on prokaryotic communities may vary along horizontal and vertical dimensions in freshwater ecosystems.

  • 2. Agerstrand, Marlene
    et al.
    Rudén, Christina
    Evaluation of the accuracy and consistency of the Swedish environmental classification and information system for pharmaceuticals.2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 11, p. 2327-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish environmental and classification system for pharmaceuticals is a voluntary, industry-owned system with the purpose to provide environmental information about active pharmaceutical ingredients in the Swedish market. In this paper we report the results from a detailed evaluation of the accuracy and consistency of the risk assessments conducted within this system. The evaluation focused on the following three aspects: 1) comparison of the companies' risk assessments with the classification system's own guidance document, 2) how the risk assessments are affected if additional effect data is used, and 3) the consistency of different risk assessments for the same pharmaceutical substance. The analyses show that the system's guidance gives no criteria for when to consider a study "long-term" or "short-term", and that this confusion affected the outcome of the risk assessments in some cases. Furthermore, when the system's guidance document is followed and the risk assessment was supplemented with effect data from the open scientific literature, then the risk classification for a substantial number of the evaluated substances was altered. Our analyses also revealed that in some cases risk assessors disagree on the outcome of the assessment for the same active pharmaceutical ingredient. Finally we list some recommendations to improve the classification system. The recommendations include clarifying concepts and instructions in the guidance document, introduction of a standardized way of reporting data to the website, and promotion of use of non-standard test data when considered the most relevant.

  • 3. Amato, F.
    et al.
    Querol, X.
    Johansson, C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Nagl, C.
    Alastuey, A.
    A review on the effectiveness of street sweeping, washing and dust suppressants as urban PM control methods2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 16, p. 3070-3084Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the absence of a definitive threshold for atmospheric particulate matter (PM)-induced adverse health effects and the evidence of road traffic as a main contributor to PM-urban levels, there is a general agreement in reducing PM-associated health risks by firstly focusing on vehicle traffic sector. Beside the reduction of primary exhaust emissions, recent potential measures are challenging to reduce emissions of particulate matter from abrasion and resuspension processes given the high potential health burden of heavy metals and metalloids sourced by vehicle-wear particles (brakes, tires, rotor, discs and catalysts) and of coarse particles (PM2.5-10). Some mitigating measures can be adopted in order to reduce road dust emissions from paved roads by removing or binding those particles already deposited and easy to be resuspended by traffic-generated turbulence. Sweeping, water flushing and use of chemical suppressants are usually more commonly employed to try to diminish emissions, but evaluating the effectiveness of preventive measures on improving air quality is a difficult task, consequently there is a general dearth of information about their effectiveness in reducing ambient PM concentrations. In particular, the scientific bibliography seems to be particularly scarce, whilst most of the information comes from local authorities committees. Consequently the existing reports are often aimed only to the municipalities and in the native language, with an objective difficulty for the international scientific community to access to them. For this review we have gathered contributions from some of major experts in this field, with the purpose of taking advantage of their background and personal awareness about any kind of related reports even not in English. Furthermore, the results we have gathered are often dissimilar, probably due to the different local conditions (weather, road pavement conditions etc.), therefore another objective of the review is to make a balance of actual knowledge and create a useful reference for future research studies and air quality management.

  • 4.
    Andersson, August
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    A systematic examination of a random sampling strategy for source apportionment calculations2011In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 412, p. 232-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimating the relative contributions from multiple potential sources of a specific component in a mixed environmental matrix is a general challenge in diverse fields such as atmospheric, environmental and earth sciences. Perhaps the most common strategy for tackling such problems is by setting up a system of linear equations for the fractional influence of different sources. Even though an algebraic solution of this approach is possible for the common situation with N + 1 sources and N source markers, such methodology introduces a bias, since it is implicitly assumed that the calculated fractions and the corresponding uncertainties are independent of the variability of the source distributions. Here, a random sampling (RS) strategy for accounting for such statistical bias is examined by investigating rationally designed synthetic data sets. This random sampling methodology is found to be robust and accurate with respect to reproducibility and predictability. This method is also compared to a numerical integration solution for a two-source situation where source variability also is included. A general observation from this examination is that the variability of the source profiles not only affects the calculated precision but also the mean/median source contributions.

  • 5.
    Andrén, Cecilia M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Response of Gammarus pulex and Baetis rhodani to springtime acid episodes in humic brooks2013In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 463, p. 690-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While chronic acidification of water bodies has been steadily decreasing, episodic acidification continues to affect stream biology by temporarily decreasing pH and mobilizing aluminum. These events are becoming more common as climate change renders more frequent and intense storms and flooding. Throughout Scandinavia, the effects of acidification have been mitigated by liming since the 1980s, but remediation efforts can now be reduced. While transient acidity may reduce fish populations, also other species in streams are affected. In this in-stream study, two macro-invertebrates (Gammarus pulex and Baetis rhodani), both known as salmonid prey organisms, were exposed to snowmelt in six humic brooks with a natural gradient of pH and inorganic monomeric Al (Al-i). We hypothesize that acid toxicity thresholds can be defined using lethal (mortality) and sublethal (changes in body elemental content) metrics. Periodic observations were made of mortality and whole body concentrations of base cations (BC: Ca, Mg, Na and K) and metals (Al, Fe, Zn and Mn). Mortality increased dramatically at pH < 6.0 and Al-i > 15 mu g/L for G. pulex and at pH < 5.7 and Al-i > 20 mu g/L for B. rhodani. No accumulation of Al was found. The invertebrate body Na concentration decreased when pH dropped, suggesting that osmoregulation in both species was affected. In contrast to general BC pattern, Ca concentration in G. pulex and Mg concentration in B. rhodani increased when pH decreased. Although Ali strongly correlates to pH, the Al composition of soil and bedrock also influences Al availability, potentially contributing to toxic Al; episodes. The estimated values calculated in this study can be used to improve water quality criteria and as thresholds to adjust doses of lime compared to old recommendations in ongoing liming programs. Such adjustments may be critical since both Ali and pH levels have to be balanced to mitigate damage to recovering stream ecosystems.

  • 6.
    Andrén, Cecilia M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Rydin, Emil
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik .
    Toxicity of inorganic aluminium at spring snowmelt—In-stream bioassays withbrown trout (Salmo trutta L.)2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 437, p. 422-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the acid load has decreased throughout Scandinavia, acidic soils still mobilise aluminium (Al) thatis harmful to brown trout. We hypothesise that there are thresholds for Al toxicity and that the toxicity can betraced from the water content to gill accumulation and the consequential physiological effects. During snowmelt,yearlings were exposed to a gradient of pH and inorganic monomeric Al (Ali) in humic streams to studythe toxic effects and mortality. Gill Al and physiological blood analyses [haemoglobin (Hb), plasma chloride(P-Cl) and glucose (Glu)] were measured. As the water quality deteriorated, Al accumulated on the gills; Hband Glu increased; P-Cl decreased, and mortality occurred. Moribund fish had significantly increased gill Aland Hb, suggesting that respiratory disturbances contributed to mortality. Decreased P-Cl and plasmaavailability indicated an ion regulatory disturbance and possibly circulatory collapse. Ali should be lessthan 20 μg/L, and pH higher than 5.0, to sustain healthy brown trout populations. These thresholds can beused to fine-tune lime dose, as both Ali and pH levels have to be balanced to prevent harm in the recoveringaquatic biota. Although Al is tightly linked to pH, local variation in Al availability in soil and bedrock affectsthe Al release and subsequent toxic Ali episodes in some catchment areas.

  • 7. Antacli, J. C.
    et al.
    Di Mauro, R.
    Rimondino, G. N.
    Alurralde, Gastón
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission HELCOM, Finland.
    Schloss, I. R.
    González, A.
    Morales, S.
    Ottero, A.
    Vodopivez, C.
    Microplastic pollution in waters of the Antarctic coastal environment of Potter Cove (25 de Mayo Island/King George Island, South Shetlands)2024In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 915, article id 170155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic pollution in the Southern Ocean around Antarctica is a growing concern, but many areas in this vast region remain unexplored. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of marine microplastic (MPs) concentrations in Potter Cove, located near the Argentinian Carlini research station on 25 de Mayo/King George Island, Antarctica. Water samples were collected at 14 sites within the cove, representing various influences from the station's activities. Two sampling methods were used: a 5 L Niskin bottle and an in-situ filtering device called Microfilter, allowing for large water volumes to be filtered. MPs were found in 100 % of the samples. Microfilter samples ranged from 0.02 to 2.14 MPs/L, with a mean concentration of 0.44 ± 0.44 MPs/L. Niskin bottle samples showed concentrations from 0.40 to 55.67 MPs/L, with a mean concentration of 19.03 ± 18.21 MPs/L. The dominant types of MPs were anthropogenic black, transparent, and pink microfibers (MFs) measuring between 0.11 and 3.6 mm (Microfilter) and 0.06 to 7.96 mm (Niskin bottle), with a median length of 0.01 mm for both methods. Transparent and black irregular microfragments (MFRs) with diameters from 0.10 to 5.08 mm and a median diameter of 0.49 mm were also prevalent. FTIR-spectroscopy revealed the presence of 14 types of polymers. Cellulose-based materials and polyethylene terephthalate were the most abundant in MFs, while polyurethanes and styrene-based copolymers dominated in MFRs. MPs were more abundant near the Carlini station. Compared to other coastal Antarctic areas, the MPs in the cove were relatively abundant and mostly smaller than 1 mm. Local activities on the island were identified as the primary source of MPs in the cove, and the cyclonic water circulation likely affects the distribution of small-sized particles. To protect the ecosystem, reducing plastic usage, improving waste management, regulating MPs debris, and enhancing wastewater practices are essential.

  • 8. Arabameri, Alireza
    et al.
    Rezaei, Khalil
    Cerdà, Artemi
    Conoscenti, Christian
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    A comparison of statistical methods and multi-criteria decision making to map flood hazard susceptibility in Northern Iran2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 660, p. 443-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In north of Iran, flood is one of the most important natural hazards that annually inflict great economic damages on humankind infrastructures and natural ecosystems. The Kiasar watershed is known as one of the critical areas in north of Iran, due to numerous floods and waste of water and soil resources, as well as related economic and ecological losses. However, a comprehensive and systematic research to identify flood-prone areas, which may help to establish management and conservation measures, has not been carried out yet. Therefore, this study tested four methods: evidential belief function (EBF), frequency ratio (FR), Technique for Order Preference by Similarity To ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and Vlse Kriterijumsk Optimizacija Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR) for flood hazard susceptibility mapping (FHSM) in this area. These were combined in two methodological frameworks involving statistical and multi-criteria decision making approaches. The efficiency of statistical and multi-criteria methods in FHSM were compared by using area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve, seed cell area index and frequency ratio. A database containing flood inventory maps and flood-related conditioning factors was established for this watershed. The flood inventory maps produced included 132 flood conditions, which were randomly classified into two groups, for training (70%) and validation (30%). Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) indicated that slope, distance to stream and land use/land cover are of key importance in flood occurrence in the study catchment. In validation results, the EBF model had a better prediction rate (0.987) and success rate (0.946) than FR, TOPSIS and VIKOR (prediction rate 0.917, 0.888, and 0.810; success rate 0.939, 0.904, and 0.735, respectively). Based on their frequency ratio and seed cell area index values, all models except VIKOR showed acceptable accuracy of classification.

  • 9.
    Armitage, James M
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wiberg, Karin
    Jonsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    A model assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran sources and fate in the Baltic Sea.2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 12, p. 3784-3792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The contamination of the Baltic Sea with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) has resulted in restrictions on the marketing and consumption of Baltic Sea fish, making this a priority environmental issue in the European Union. To date there is no consensus on the relative importance of different sources of PCDD/Fs to the Baltic Sea, and hence no consensus on how to address this issue. In this work we synthesized the available information to create a PCDD/F budget for the Baltic Sea, focusing on the two largest basins, the Bothnian Sea and the Baltic Proper. The non-steady state multimedia fate and transport model POPCYCLING-Baltic was employed, using recent data for PCDD/F concentrations in air and sediment as boundary conditions. The PCDD/F concentrations in water predicted by the model were in good agreement with recent measurements. The budget demonstrated that atmospheric deposition was the dominant source of PCDD/Fs to the basins as a whole. This conclusion was supported by a statistical comparison of the PCDD/F congener patterns in surface sediments from accumulation bottoms with the patterns in ambient air, bulk atmospheric deposition, and a range of potential industrial sources. Prospective model simulations indicated that the PCDD/F concentrations in the water column will continue to decrease in the coming years due to the slow response of the Baltic Sea system to falling PCDD/F inputs in the last decades, but that the decrease would be more pronounced if ambient air concentrations were to drop further in the future, for instance as a result of reduced emissions. The study illustrates the usefulness of using monitoring data and multimedia models in an integrated fashion to address complex organic contaminant issues.

  • 10.
    Audusseau, Hélène
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology. Univ. Paris Est Creteil, Sorbonne Université, France; UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, UK.
    Vandenbulcke, Franck
    Dume, Cassandre
    Deschins, Valentin
    Pauwels, Maxime
    Gigon, Agnès
    Bagard, Matthieu
    Dupont, Lise
    Impacts of metallic trace elements on an earthworm community in an urban wasteland: Emphasis on the bioaccumulation and genetic characteristics in Lumbricus castaneus2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 718, article id 137259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metallic trace elements (MTEs) soil pollution has become a worldwide concern, particularly regarding its impact on earthworms. Earthworms, which constitute the dominant taxon of soil macrofauna in temperate regions and are crucial ecosystem engineers, are in direct contact with MTEs. The impacts of MTE exposure on earthworms, however, vary by species, with some able to cope with high levels of contamination. We combined different approaches to study the effects of MTEs at different levels of biological organisation of an earthworm community, in a contaminated urban wasteland. Our work is based on field collection of soil and earthworm samples, with a total of 891 adult earthworms from 8 species collected, over 87 quadrats across the study plot. We found that MTE concentrations are highly structured at the plot scale and that some elements, such as Pb, Zn, and Cu, are highly correlated. Comparing species assemblage to MTE concentrations, we found that the juvenile and adult abundances, and community composition, were significantly affected by pollution. Along the pollution gradient, as species richness decreased, Lumbricus castaneus became more dominant. We thus investigated the physiological response of this species to a set of specific elements (Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd) and studied the impacts of MTE concentrations at the plot scale on its population genetic. These analyses revealed that L. castaneus is able to bioaccumulate high quantities of Cd and Zn, but not of Cu and Pb. The population genetic analysis, based on the genotyping of 175 individuals using 8 microsatellite markers, provided no evidence of the role of the heterogeneity in MTE concentrations as a barrier to gene flow. The multidisciplinary approach we used enabled us to reveal the comparatively high tolerance of L. castaneus to MTE concentrations, suggesting that this is a promising model to study the molecular bases of MTE tolerance.

  • 11. Augustsson, A.
    et al.
    Söderberg, Uddh T.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Åström, M.
    Olofsson, B.
    Balfors, B.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    The risk of overestimating the risk-metal leaching to groundwater near contaminated glass waste deposits and exposure via drinking water2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 566, p. 1420-1431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates metal contamination patterns and exposure to Sb, As, Ba, Cd and Pb via intake of drinking water in a region in southeastern Sweden where the production of artistic glass has resulted in a large number of contaminated sites. Despite high total concentrations of metals in soil and groundwater at the glassworks sites properties, all drinking water samples from households with private wells, located at a 30-640 m distance from a glassworks site, were below drinking water criteria from the WHO for Sb, As, Ba and Cd. A few drinking water samples showed concentrations of Pb above the WHO guideline, but As was the only element found in concentrations that could result in human exposure near toxicological reference values. An efficient retention of metals in the natural soil close to the source areas, which results in a moderate impact on local drinking water, is implied. Firstly, by the lack of significant difference in metal concentrations when comparing households located upstream and downstream of the main waste deposits, and secondly, by the lack of correlation between the metal concentration in drinking water and distance to the nearest glassworks site. However, elevated Pb and Cd concentrations in drinking water around glassworks sites when compared to regional groundwater indicate that diffuse contamination of the soils found outside the glassworks properties, and not only the glass waste landfills, may have a significant impact on groundwater quality. We further demonstrate that different mobilization patterns apply to different metals. Regarding the need to use reliable data to assess drinking water contamination and human exposure, we finally show that the conservative modelling approaches that are frequently used in routine risk assessments may result in exposure estimates many times higher than those based on measured concentrations in the drinking water that is actually being used for consumption.

  • 12. Aullón Alcaine, Anna
    et al.
    Schulz, Carlos
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    Jacks, Gunnar
    Thunvik, Roger
    Gustafsson, Jon-Petter
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology and Geochemistry.
    Sracek, Ondra
    Ahmad, Arslan
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    Hydrogeochemical controls on the mobility of arsenic, fluoride and other geogenic co-contaminants in the shallow aquifers of northeastern La Pampa Province in Argentina2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 715, article id 136671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elevated Arsenic (As) and Fluoride (F) concentrations in groundwater have been studied in the shallow aquifers of northeastern of La Pampa province, in the Chaco-Pampean plain, Argentina. The source of As and co-contaminants is mainly geogenic, from the weathering of volcanic ash and loess (rhyolitic glass) that erupted from the Andean volcanic range. In this study we have assessed the groundwater quality in two semi-arid areas of La Pampa. We have also identified the spatial distribution of As and co-contaminants in groundwater and determined the major factors controlling the mobilization of As in the shallow aquifers. The groundwater samples were circum-neutral to alkaline (7.4 to 92), oxidizing (Eh similar to 0.24 V) and characterized by high salinity (EC = 456-11,400 mu S/cm) and Na+-HCO3- water types in recharge areas. Carbonate concretions (tosca) were abundant in the upper layers of the shallow aquifer. The concentration of total As (5.6 to 535 mu g/L) and F (0.5 to 14.2 mg/L) were heterogeneous and exceeded the recommended WHO Guidelines and the Argentine Standards for drinking water. The predominant As species were arsenate As(V) oxyanions, determined by thermodynamic calculations. Arsenic was positively correlated with bicarbonate (HCO3-), fluoride (F), boron (B) and vanadium (V), but negatively correlated with iron (Fe), aluminium (Al), and manganese (Mn), which were present in low concentrations. The highest amount of As in sediments was from the surface of the dry lake. The mechanisms for As mobilization are associated with multiple factors: geochemical reactions, hydrogeological characteristics of the local aquifer and climatic factors. Desorption of As(V) at high pH, and ion competition for adsorption sites are considered the principal mechanisms for As mobilization in the shallow aquifers. In addition, the long-term consumption of the groundwater could pose a threat for the health of the local community and low cost remediation techniques are required to improve the drinking water quality.

  • 13. Baho, Didier L.
    et al.
    Pomati, Francesco
    Leu, Eva
    Hessen, Dag O.
    Moe, S. Jannicke
    Norberg, Jon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nizzetto, Luca
    A single pulse of diffuse contaminants alters the size distribution of natural phytoplankton communities2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 683, p. 578-588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of a multitude of bioactive organic pollutants collectively classified as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in freshwaters is of concern, considering that ecological assessments of their potential impacts on natural systems are still scarce. In this field experiment we tested whether a single pulse exposure to a mixture of 12 pharmaceuticals and personal care products, which are commonly found in European inland waters, can influence the size distributions of natural lake phytoplankton communities. Size is one of the most influential determinants of community structure and functioning, particularly in planktonic communities and food webs. Using an in-situ microcosm approach, phytoplankton communities in two lakes with different nutrient levels (mesotrophic and eutrophic) were exposed to a concentration gradient of the PPCPs mixture at five levels. We tested whether sub-lethal PPCPs doses affect the scaling of organisms' abundances with their size, and the slope of these size spectra, which describe changes in the abundances of small relative to large phytoplankton. Our results showed that a large proportion (approximately 80%) of the dataset followed a power-law distribution, thus suggesting evidence of scale invariance of abundances, as expected in steady state ecosystems. PPCPs were however found to induce significant changes in the size spectra and community structure of natural phytoplankton assemblages. The two highest treatment levels of PPCPs were associated with decreased abundance of the most dominant size class (nano-phytoplankton: 2-5 mu m), leading to a flattening of the size spectra slope. These results suggest that a pulse exposure to PPCPs induce changes that potentially lead to unsteady ecosystem states and cascading effects in the aquatic food webs, by favoring larger non-edible algae at the expense of small edible species. We propose higher susceptibility due to higher surface to volume ratio in small species as the likely cause of these structural changes.

  • 14. Barbieri, Maurizio
    et al.
    Franchini, Stefania
    Barberio, Marino Domenico
    Billi, Andrea
    Boschetti, Tiziano
    Giansante, Livio
    Gori, Francesca
    Jónsson, Sigurjón
    Petitta, Marco
    Skelton, Alasdair
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Stockmann, Gabrielle
    Changes in groundwater trace element concentrations before seismic and volcanic activities in Iceland during 2010-20182021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 793, article id 148635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analysed temporal variations of trace element concentrations in groundwater from a 101 m-deep borehole (HA01) in northern Iceland during 2010–2018 and compared them with seismic and volcanic events that occurred in the same period to identify potential hydrogeochemical precursors. An increase of B, Al, V, Li and Mo concentrations started from eight months to one month before the 2014 Bárðarbunga eruption (~115 km from HA01), a major rifting event in central Iceland, while Ga and V concentrations began to increase one day and one month after the onset of the event, respectively. We also found that concentrations of some trace elements (Li, B, Ga, Mo, Sr, Rb and Fe) significantly increased before an Mw 5.0 earthquake that occurred ~80 km from the borehole in 2018. However, other notable hydrogeochemical changes were detected during the monitoring period without apparent correlation with the seismic and volcanic events in the region. This study shows that the systematic long-term hydrogeochemical monitoring in seismic and volcanic areas is critical to advance the science of seismic and eruptive precursors. Furthermore, the use of statistical tools, such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Change Point (CP) detection can help identify the most useful chemical elements and validate the trend variability of those elements in the time series, reducing arbitrary choices of pre-seismic and pre-volcanic hydrogeochemical anomalies as potential precursors.

  • 15.
    Bennich, Therese
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Weitz, Nina
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Carlsen, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Deciphering the scientific literature on SDG interactions: A review and reading guide2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 728, article id 138405Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2030 Agenda includes 17 overarching Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). These are integrated in nature, and a principle of indivisibility should guide their implementation. Yet, the 2030 Agenda itself does not provide guidance on what indivisibility means in practice, how the SDGs interact, or on how to assess these interactions. The fast-emerging field of what could be referred to as SDG interaction studies seeks to provide such guidance, but as of yet there is no general agreement on what it means to take an integrated approach to the SDGs. Hence, navigating the diverse research landscape on SDG interactions might prove challenging. This paper aims to decipher the literature on SDG interactions by providing an overview of the current research, based on a sample of 70 peer-reviewed articles. The review explores four themes in SDG interaction research by mapping: (i) policy challenges typically addressed, (ii) ways in which SDG ‘interactions’ have been conceptualized, (iii) data sources used, and (iv) methods of analysis frequently employed. Research gaps are identified, where perspectives largely missing include policy innovation, and integrated monitoring and evaluation. Further, few studies consider actor interactions, account for geographic spill-overs, analyze SDG indicator interactions, employ participatory methods, or take a whole-systems approach to the 2030 Agenda. Failing to address these gaps could lead to inefficient SDG implementation and delay goal attainment. Another contribution of the paper is a reading guide, proposing a way to decipher the literature along the themes emerging from the review, and offering a structure to code future papers.

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  • 16.
    Berg, Håkan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Tam, Nguyen Thanh
    Decreased use of pesticides for increased yields of rice and fish-options for sustainable food production in the Mekong Delta2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 619-620, p. 319-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assesses the use of pesticides and the attitude to pest management strategies among rice and rice-fish farmers in the Can Tho and Tien Giang provinces in Vietnam. Interviews were made with 80 farmers. The farmers were divided in to farmers cultivating only rice with a high use (RHP) and low use (RLP) of pesticides, and farmers cultivating rice and fish with a high use (RFHP) and low use (RFLP) of pesticides. 80% of the HP farmers relied mainly on pesticides to control pests, while >80% of the LP farmers also applied IPM strategies. Insecticides were the most commonly used pesticides. 85% of all farmers experienced health effects from using pesticides. 80% of the farmers felt that the yield of fish had decreased over the last three years, and that this mainly was caused by pesticides. The RFHP farmers had lower fish survival and fish yields as compared to the RFLP farmers. The RFHP farmers also had significant lower rice yields than the RFLP farmers, and there were significant correlations between both decreased fish yields and rice yields with increased use of pesticides among rice-fish farmers. Increased rice yields were positively correlated with increased fish survival, indicating the synergistic effects between rice and fish production. Overall, the RFLP farmers had the highest income of the four farmers´ groups, while RFHP farmers had the lowest income. This shows that rice-fish farming provides a competitive and sustainable alternative to intensive rice-farming, but only if the farmer restricts the use of pesticides. This would not only help to reduce the production costs, but also to decrease environmental and health effects, and it is proposed that rice-fish farming with a low use of pesticides provides an attractive alternative to rice-monocropping for a sustainable and diversified food production in the Mekong Delta.

  • 17. Bisht, D. S.
    et al.
    Tiwari, S.
    Dumka, U. C.
    Srivastava, A. K.
    Safai, P. D.
    Ghude, S. D.
    Chate, D. M.
    Rao, P. S. P.
    Ali, K.
    Prabhakaran, T.
    Panickar, A. S.
    Soni, V. K.
    Attri, S. D.
    Tunved, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Chakrabarty, R. K.
    Hopke, P. K.
    Tethered balloon-born and ground-based measurements. of black carbon and particulate profiles within the lower troposphere during the foggy period in Delhi, India2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 573, p. 894-905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ground and vertical profiles of particulate matter (PM) were mapped as part of a pilot study using a Tethered balloon within the lower troposphere (1000 m) during the foggy episodes in the winter season of 2015-16 in New Delhi, India. Measurements of black carbon (BC) aerosol and PM <2.5 and 10 mu m (PM2.5 &PM-10 respectively) concentrations and their associated particulate optical properties along with meteorological parameters were made. The mean concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, BC370 (nm), and BC880 nm were observed to be 146.8 +/- 42.1, 245.4 +/- 65.4, 30.3 +/- 122, and 24.1 +/- 103 mu g m(-3), respectively. The mean value of PM2.5 was similar to 12 times higher than the annual US-EPA air quality standard. The fraction of BC in PM2.5 that contributed to absorption in the shorter visible wavelengths (BC370 nm) was-21%. Compared to clear days, the ground level mass concentrations of PM2.5 and BC370 nm particles were substantially increased (59% and 24%, respectively) during the foggy episode. The aerosol light extinction coefficient (sigma(ext)) value was much higher (mean: 610 Mm(-1)) during the lower visibility (foggy) condition. Higher concentrations of PM2.5 (89 mu g m(-3)) and longer visible wavelength absorbing BC880 am (25.7 mu g m(-3)) particles were observed up to 200 m. The BC880 nm and PM2.5 aerosol concentrations near boundary layer (1 km) were significantly higher (similar to 1.9 and 12 mu g m(-3)), respectively. The BC (i.e BCtot) aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) values were estimated at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), surface (SFC), and atmosphere (ATM) and its resultant forcing were- 75.5 Wm(-2) at SFC indicating the cooling effect at the surface. A positive value (20.9 Wm(-2)) of BC aerosol DRF at TOA indicated the warming effect at the top of the atmosphere over the study region. The net DRF value due to BC aerosol was positive (96.4 Wm(-2)) indicating a net warming effect in the atmosphere. The contribution of fossil and biomass fuels to the observed BC aerosol DRF values was -78% and-22%, respectively. The higher mean atmospheric heating rate (2.71 K clay(-1)) by BC aerosol in the winter season would probably strengthen the temperature inversion leading to poor dispersion and affecting the formation of clouds. Serious detrimental impacts on regional climate due to the high concentrations of BC and PM (especially PM2.5) aerosol are likely based on this study and suggest the need for immediate, stringent measures to improve the regional air quality in the northern India.

  • 18. Biswas, Ashis
    et al.
    Nath, Bibhash
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    Haider, Dipti
    Kundu, Amit K.
    Mandal, Ujjal
    Mukherjee, Abhijit
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Morth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    Hydrogeochemical contrast between brown and grey sand aquifers in shallow depth of Bengal Basin: consequences for sustainable drinking water supply2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 431, p. 402-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Delineation of safe aquifer(s) that can be targeted by cheap drilling technology for tubewell (TW) installation becomes highly imperative to ensure access to safe and sustainable drinking water sources for the arsenic (As) affected population in Bengal Basin. This study investigates the potentiality of brown sand aquifers (BSA) as a safe drinking water source by characterizing its hydrogeochemical contrast to grey sand aquifers (GSA) within shallow depth (<70 m) over an area of 100 km(2) in Chakdaha Block of Nadia district, West Bengal, India. The results indicate that despite close similarity in major ion composition, the redox condition is markedly different in groundwater of the two studied aquifers. The redox condition in the BSA is delineated to be Mn oxy-hydroxide reducing, not sufficiently lowered for As mobilization into groundwater. In contrast, the enrichments of NH4+, PO43-, Fe and As along with lower Eh in groundwater of GSA reflect reductive dis-solution of Fe oxy-hydroxide coupled to microbially mediated oxidation of organic matter as the prevailing redox process causing As mobilization into groundwater of this aquifer type. In some portions of GSA the redox status even has reached to the stage of SO42- reduction, which to some extent might sequester dissolved As from groundwater by co-precipitation with authigenic pyrite. Despite having low concentration of As in groundwater of the BSA the concentration of Mn often exceeds the drinking water guidelines, which warrants rigorous assessment of attendant health risk for Mn prior to considering mass scale exploitation of the BSA for possible sustainable drinking water supply.

  • 19. Bjørn, Anders
    et al.
    Sim, Sarah
    King, Henry
    Keys, Patrick
    Wang-Erlandsson, Lan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Japan.
    Cornell, Sarah E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Margni, Manuele
    Bulle, Cécile
    Challenges and opportunities towards improved application of the planetary boundary for land-system change in life cycle assessment of products2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 696, article id 133964Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be used to translate the planetary boundaries (PBs) concept to the scale of decisions related to products. Existing PB-LCA methods convert quantified resource use and emissions to changes in the values of PB control variables. However, the control variable for the Land-system change PB, “area of forested land remaining”, is not suitable for use in LCA, since it is expressed at the beginning of an impact pathway and only covers forest biomes. At the same time, LCA approaches for modelling the biogeophysical impacts of land use and land-use change are immature and any interactions with other types of environmental impacts are lagging.

    Here, we propose how the assessment of Land-system change in PB-LCA can be improved. First, we introduce two control variables for application in LCA; surface air temperature and precipitation, and we identify corresponding provisional threshold values associated with state shifts in four comprehensive biome categories. Second, we propose simplified approaches suitable for modelling the impact of land use and land-use change in product life cycles on the values of these two control variables. Third, we propose how to quantify interactions between the PBs for Land-system change, Climate change and Freshwater use for a PB-LCA method. Finally, we identify several research needs to facilitate full implementation of our proposed approach.

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  • 20.
    Bohlin, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology and Geochemistry.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Holm, Nils G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Point source influences on the carbon and nitrogen geochemistry of sediments in the Stockholm inner archipelago, Sweden2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 366, no 1, p. 337-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports analyses of carbon and nitrogen content, and δ15N and δ13C in sediments of the Höggarnsfjärden Bay near Stockholm. Samples have been taken upstream, near, and downstream of a point source of processed leach water from a garbage dump. The surface sediment at the upstream and downstream sites has δ15N and δ13C close to the expected background of the area, even though a contribution from the leach water can be observed downstream of the point source. The sediment close to the outflow is strongly influenced by the carbon and nitrogen in the leach water.

  • 21. Brack, Werner
    et al.
    Altenburger, Rolf
    Schueuermann, Gerrit
    Krauss, Martin
    Herraez, David Lopez
    van Gils, Jos
    Slobodnik, Jaroslav
    Munthe, John
    Gawlik, Bernd Manfred
    van Wezel, Annemarie
    Schriks, Merijn
    Hollender, Juliane
    Tollefsen, Knut Erik
    Mekenyan, Ovanes
    Dimitrov, Saby
    Bunke, Dirk
    Cousins, Ian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Posthuma, Leo
    van den Brink, Paul J.
    Lopez de Alda, Miren
    Barcelo, Damia
    Faust, Michael
    Kortenkamp, Andreas
    Scrimshaw, Mark
    Ignatova, Svetlana
    Engelen, Guy
    Massmann, Gudrun
    Lemkine, Gregory
    Teodorovic, Ivana
    Walz, Karl-Heinz
    Dulio, Valeria
    Jonker, Michiel T. O.
    Jaeger, Felix
    Chipman, Kevin
    Falciani, Francesco
    Liska, Igor
    Rooke, David
    Zhang, Xiaowei
    Hollert, Henner
    Vrana, Branislav
    Hilscherova, Klara
    Kramer, Kees
    Neumann, Steffen
    Hammerbacher, Ruth
    Backhaus, Thomas
    Mack, Juliane
    Segner, Helmut
    Escher, Beate
    Umbuzeiro, Gisela de Aragao
    The SOLUTIONS project: Challenges and responses for present and future emerging pollutants in land and water resources management2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 503, p. 22-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SOLUTIONS (2013 to 2018) is a European Union Seventh Framework Programme Project (EU-FP7). The project aims to deliver a conceptual framework to support the evidence-based development of environmental policies with regard to water quality. SOLUTIONS will develop the tools for the identification, prioritisation and assessment of those water contaminants that may pose a risk to ecosystems and human health. To this end, a new generation of chemical and effect-based monitoring tools is developed and integrated with a full set of exposure, effect and risk assessment models. SOLUTIONS attempts to address legacy, present and future contamination by integrating monitoring and modelling based approaches with scenarios on future developments in society, economy and technology and thus in contamination. The project follows a solutions-oriented approach by addressing major problems of water and chemicals management and by assessing abatement options. SOLUTIONS takes advantage of the access to the infrastructure necessary to investigate the large basins of the Danube and Rhine as well as relevant Mediterranean basins as case studies, and puts major efforts on stakeholder dialogue and support. Particularly, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) Common Implementation Strategy (CIS) working groups, International River Commissions, and water works associations are directly supported. with consistent guidance for the early detection, identification, prioritisation, and abatement of chemicals in the water cycle. SOLUTIONS will give a specific emphasis on concepts and tools for the impact and risk assessment of complex mixtures of emerging pollutants, their metabolites and transformation products. Analytical and effect-based screening tools will be applied together with ecological assessment tools for the identification of toxicants and their impacts. The SOLUTIONS approach is expected to provide transparent and evidence-based candidates or River Basin Specific Pollutants in the case study basins and to assist future review of priority pollutants under the WFD as well as potential abatement options.

  • 22. Brack, Werner
    et al.
    Dulio, Valeria
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Allan, Ian
    Altenburger, Rolf
    Brinkmann, Markus
    Bunke, Dirk
    Burgess, Robert M.
    Cousins, Ian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Escher, Beate I.
    Hernandez, Felix J.
    Hewitt, L. Mark
    Hilscherova, Klara
    Hollender, Juliane
    Hollert, Henner
    Kase, Robert
    Klauer, Bernd
    Lindim, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Herraez, David Lopez
    Miege, Cecil
    Munthe, John
    O'Toole, Simon
    Posthuma, Leo
    Ruedel, Heinz
    Schaefer, Ralf B.
    Sengl, Manfred
    Smedes, Foppe
    van de Meent, Dik
    van den Brink, Paul J.
    van Gils, Jos
    van Wezel, Annemarie P.
    Vethaak, A. Dick
    Vermeirssen, Etienne
    von der Ohe, Peter C.
    Vrana, Branislav
    Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework Directive: Recommendations for more efficient assessment and management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 576, p. 720-737Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protecting it from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of legislation for the protection and sustainable use of European freshwater resources. The practical implementation of the WFD with regard to chemical pollution has faced some challenges. In support of the upcoming WFD review in 2019 the research project SOLUTIONS and the European monitoring network NORMAN has analyzed these challenges, evaluated the state-of-the-art of the science and suggested possible solutions. We give 10 recommendations to improve monitoring and to strengthen comprehensive prioritization, to foster consistent assessment and to support solution-oriented management of surface waters. The integration of effect-based tools, the application of passive sampling for bioaccumulative chemicals and an integrated strategy for prioritization of contaminants, accounting for knowledge gaps, are seen as important approaches to advance monitoring. Including all relevant chemical contaminants in more holistic chemical status assessment, using effect-based trigger values to address priority mixtures of chemicals, to better consider historical burdens accumulated in sediments and to use models to fill data gaps are recommended for a consistent assessment of contamination. Solution-oriented management should apply a tiered approach in investigative monitoring, to identify toxicity drivers, strengthen consistent legislative frameworks and apply solutions-oriented approaches that explore risk reduction scenarios before and along with risk assessment.

  • 23.
    Bradshaw, Clare
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Iburg, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Morys, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Sköld, Mattias
    Pusceddu, Antonio
    Ennas, Claudia
    Jonsson, Patrik
    Nascimento, Francisco J. A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Effects of bottom trawling and environmental factors on benthic bacteria, meiofauna and macrofauna communities and benthic ecosystem processes2024In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 921, article id 171076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soft sediment marine benthic ecosystems comprise a diverse community of bacteria, meiofauna and macrofauna, which together support a range of ecosystem processes such as biogeochemical cycling. These ecosystems are also fishing grounds for demersal species that are often caught using bottom trawling. This fishing method can have deleterious effects on benthic communities by causing injury or mortality, and through alteration of sediment properties that in turn influence community structure. Although the impacts of bottom trawling on macrofauna are relatively well studied, less is known about the responses of meiofauna and bacteria to such disturbances, or how bottom trawling impacts benthic ecosystem processes. Quantifying trawling impacts against a background of natural environmental variability is also a challenge. To address these questions, we examined effects of bottom trawling and a range of environmental variables (e. g. water chemistry and physical and biochemical surface sediment properties) on a) bacterial, meiofaunal and macrofaunal community structure and b) benthic ecosystem processes (nutrient fluxes, extracellular enzyme activities and carbon turnover and degradation rates). We also investigated the link between the benthic macrofauna community and the same ecosystem processes. While there was a significant effect of bottom trawling intensity on macrofaunal community structure, the same was not seen for bacterial or meiofaunal community composition, which were more affected by environmental factors, such as surface sediment properties. The labile component of the surface sediment carbon pool was higher at highly trawled sites. Carbon degradation rates, extracellular enzyme activities, oxygen fluxes and some nutrient fluxes were significantly affected by trawling, but ecosystem processes were also strongly linked to the abundance of key bioturbators (Macoma balthica, Halicryptus spinulosus, Scoloplos armiger and Pontoporeia femorata). Although benthic ecosystems were affected by a combination of trawling and natural variability, disentangling these showed that the anthropogenic effects were clearest on the larger component of the community, i.e. macrofauna composition, and on ecosystem processes related to sedimentary carbon.

  • 24. Budhavant, Krishnakant
    et al.
    Andersson, August
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bosch, Carme
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Kruså, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Murthaza, Ahmed
    Zahid,
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Apportioned contributions of PM2.5 fine aerosol particles over the Maldives (northern Indian Ocean) from local sources vs long-range transport2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 536, p. 72-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban-like plumes of gases and particulate matter originating from the South Asian region are frequently observed over the Indian Ocean, especially during the dry winter period. However, in addition to the strong sources on main-land South Asia, there are also local Maldivian emissions. The local contributions to the load of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the Maldivian capital Male was assessed using the well-established Maldives Climate Observatory at Hanimaadhoo (MCOH) to represent local background, recording the long-range transported component for a full-year synoptic campaign at both sites in 2013. The year-round levels in both Male and MCOH are strongly influenced by the seasonality of the monsoon cycle, including precipitation patterns and air-mass transport pathways, with lower levels during the wet summer season. The annual-average PM2.5 levels in Male are higher (avg. 19 mu g/m(3)) than at MCOH (avg. 13 mu g/m(3)) with the difference being the largest during the summer, when local emissions play a larger role. The 24-hWorld Health Organization (WHO) PM2.5 health guideline was surpassed for the week-long collections in 71% of the cases in Male and in 74% of the cases for Hanimaadhoo. This study shows that in the dry/winter season 90 +/- 11% of PM2.5 levels in Male could be from long-range transport with only 8 +/- 11% from local emissions while in the wet/monsoon season the relative contributions are about equal. The concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) showed similar seasonal patterns as bulk mass PM2.5. The relative contribution of total carbonaceous matter to bulk mass PM2.5 was 17% in Male and 13% at MCOH, suggesting larger contributions from incomplete combustion practices in the Male local region.

  • 25.
    Bui, Thuy T.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    Magnér, Jörgen
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Human exposure, hazard and risk of alternative plasticizers to phthalate esters2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 541, p. 451-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alternative plasticizers to phthalate esters have been used for over a decade, but data regarding emissions, human exposure and health effects are limited. Here we review 20 alternative plasticizers in current use and their human exposure, hazard and risk. Physicochemical properties are collated for these diverse alternatives and log K-OW values range over 15 orders of magnitude and log K-AW and log K-OA values over about 9 orders of magnitude. Most substances are hydrophobic with low volatility and are produced in high volumes for use in multiple applications. There is an increasing trend in the total use of alternative plasticizers in Sweden compared to common phthalate esters in the last 10 years, especially for DINCH. Evaluative indoor fate modeling reveals that most alternatives are distributed to vertical surfaces (e.g. walls or ceilings). Only TXIB and GTA are predicted to be predominantly distributed to indoor air. Human exposure data are lacking and clear evidence for human exposure only exists for DEHT and DINCH, which show increasing trends in body burdens. Human intake rates are collected and compared with limit values with resulting risk ratios below 1 except for infant's exposure to ESBO. PBT properties of the alternatives indicate mostly no reasons for concern, except that TEHPA is estimated to be persistent and TCP toxic. A caveat is that non-standard toxicological endpoint results are not available and, similar to phthalate esters, the alternatives are likely pseudo-persistent. Keydata gaps for more comprehensive risk assessment are identified and include: analytical methods to measure metabolites in biological fluids and tissues, toxicological information regarding non-standard endpoints such as endocrine disruption and a further refined exposure assessment in order to consider high risk groups such as infants, toddlers and children.

  • 26. Butt, Craig M.
    et al.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bossi, Rossana
    Tomy, Gregg T.
    Levels and trends of poly- and perfluorinated compounds in the arctic environment2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 15, p. 2936-2965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly- and perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) are ubiquitous in the Arctic environment. Several modeling studies have been conducted in attempt to resolve the dominant transport pathway of PFCs to the arctic-atmospheric transport of precursors versus direct transport via ocean currents. These studies are generally limited by their focus on perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) fluxes to arctic seawater and thus far have only used fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and sulfonamide alcohols as inputs for volatile precursors. There have been many monitoring studies from the North American and European Arctic, however, almost nothing is known about PFC levels from the Russian Arctic. In general, there are very few measurements of PFCs from the abiotic environment. Atmospheric measurements show the widespread occurrence of PFC precursors, FTOHs and perfluorinated sulfonamide alcohols. Further, PFCAs and PFSAs have been detected on atmospheric particles. The detection of PFCAs and PFSAs in snow deposition is consistent with the volatile precursor transport hypothesis. There are very limited measurements of PFCs in seawater. PFOA is generally detected in the greatest concentrations. Additional seawater measurements are needed to validate existing model predications. The bulk of the monitoring efforts in biological samples have focused on the perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) and sulfonates (PFSAs), although there are very few measurements of PFC precursors. The marine food web has been well studied, particularly the top predators. In contrast, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems have been poorly studied. Studies show that in wildlife perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is generally measured in the highest concentration, followed by either perfluorononanoate (PFNA) or perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnA). However, some whale species show relatively high levels of perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) and seabirds are typically characterized by high proportions of the C-11-C-15 PFCAs. PFOA is generally infrequently detected and is present in low concentrations in arctic biota. Food web studies show high bioaccumulation in the upper trophic-level animals, although the mechanism of PFC biomagnification is not understood. Spatial trend studies show some differences between populations, although there are inconsistencies between PFC trends. The majority of temporal trend studies are from the Northern American Arctic and Greenland. Studies show generally increasing levels of PFCs from the 1970s, although some studies from the Canadian Arctic show recent declines in PFOS levels. In contrast, ringed seals and polar bears from Greenland continue to show increasing PFOS concentrations. The inconsistent temporal trends between regions may be representative of differences in emissions from source regions.

  • 27.
    Cantoni, Jacopo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Legacy contributions to diffuse water pollution: Data-driven multi-catchment quantification for nutrients and carbon2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 879, article id 163092Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Legacy pollutants are increasingly proposed as possible reasons for widespread failures to improve water quality, despite the implementation of stricter regulations and mitigation measures. This study investigates this possibility, using multi-catchment data and relatively simple, yet mechanistically-based, source distinction relationships between water discharges and chemical concentrations and loads. The relationships are tested and supported by the available catchment data. They show dominant legacy contributions for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and total organic carbon (TOC) across catchment locations and scales, from local to country-wide around Sweden. Consistently across the study catchments, close relationships are found between the legacy concentrations of TN and TOC and the land shares of agriculture and of the sum of agriculture and forests, respectively. The legacy distinction and quantification capabilities provided by the data-driven approach of this study could guide more effective pollution mitigation and should be tested in further research for other chemicals and various sites around the world.

  • 28.
    Cao, Feifei
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Kleja, Dan B.
    Tiberg, Charlotta
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Large-scale arsenic mobilization from legacy sources in anoxic aquifers: Multiple methods and multi-decadal perspectives2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 892, article id 164565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While geogenic arsenic (As) contamination of aquifers have been intensively investigated across the world, the mobilization and transport of As from anthropogenic sources have received less scientific attention, despite emerging evidence of poor performance of widely used risk assessment models. In this study we hypothesize that such poor model performance is largely due to insufficient attention to heterogeneous subsurface properties, including the hydraulic conductivity K and the solid-liquid partition (Kd), as well as neglect of laboratory-to-field scaling effects. Our multi-method investigation includes i) inverse transport modelling, ii) in-situ measurements of As concentrations in paired samples of soil and groundwater, and iii) batch equilibrium experiments combined with (iv) geochemical modelling. As case study we use a unique 20-year series of spatially distributed monitoring data, capturing an expanding As plume in a Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA)-contaminated anoxic aquifer in southern Sweden. The in-situ results showed a high variability in local Kd values of As (1 to 107 L kg−1), implying that over-reliance of data from only one or few locations can lead to interpretations that are inconsistent with field-scale As transport. However, the geometric mean of the local Kd values (14.4 L kg−1) showed high consistency with the independently estimated field-scale “effective Kd” derived from inverse transport modelling (13.6 L kg−1). This provides empirical evidence for the relevance of using geometric averaging when estimating large-scale “effective Kd” values from local measurements within highly heterogenous, isotropic aquifers. Overall, the considered As plume is prolonged by about 0.7 m year−1, now starting to extend beyond the borders of the industrial source area, a problem likely shared with many of the world's As-polluted sites. In this context, geochemical modelling assessments, as presented here, provided a unique understanding of the processes governing As retention, including local variability in, e.g., Fe/Al-(hydr)oxides contents, redox potential and pH.

  • 29. Carrasco, Nathalie
    et al.
    McGovern, Maeve
    Evenset, Anita
    Soreide, Janne E.
    Arts, Michael T.
    Jonsson, Sofi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Poste, Amanda E.
    Seasonal riverine inputs may affect diet and mercury bioaccumulation in Arctic coastal zooplankton2024In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 906, article id 167643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change driven increases in permafrost thaw and terrestrial runoff are expected to facilitate the mobilization and transport of mercury (Hg) from catchment soils to coastal areas in the Arctic, potentially increasing Hg exposure of marine food webs. The main aim of this study was to determine the impacts of seasonal riverine inputs on land -ocean Hg transport, zooplankton diet and Hg bioaccumulation in an Arctic estuary (Adventfjorden, Svalbard). The Adventelva River was a source of dissolved and particulate Hg to Adventfjorden, especially in June and July during the river's main discharge period. Stable isotope and fatty acid analyses suggest that zooplankton diet varied seasonally with diatoms dominating during the spring phytoplankton bloom in May and with increasing contributions of dinoflagellates in the summer months. In addition, there was evidence of increased terrestrial carbon utilization by zooplankton in June and July, when terrestrial particles contributed substantially to the particulate organic matter pool. Total (TotHg) and methyl Hg (MeHg) concentrations in zooplankton increased from April to August related to increased exposure to riverine inputs, and to shifts in zooplankton diet and community structure. Longer and warmer summer seasons will probably increase riverine runoff and thus Hg exposure to Arctic zooplankton.

  • 30. Choudhary, Preetam
    et al.
    Routh, Joyanto
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology and Geochemistry.
    Chakrapani, Govind J.
    An environmental record of changes in sedimentary organic matter from Lake Sattal in Kumaun Himalayas, India2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 8, p. 2783-2795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sattal a small mountainous lake in the Kumaun Himalayas has been impacted by various cultural activities in recent years. We explored the effects of human-induced changes in this lake by using various geochemical proxies. Shifts in TOC and N flux, C/N ratio, stable isotopes (delta C-13 and delta N-15), n-alkane, and pigment concentrations in sediments indicate a steady increase in primary productivity over the last few decades. The trophic status of the lake has changed from mesotrophic to eutrophic condition. The C/N, CPI, and TAR based ratios in sediments indicate accumulation of algal matter derived primarily from in situ production, with limited input of terrestrial organic matter from the watershed. The low (between 0.1 and 1 parts per thousand) delta N-15 values imply N-2-fixation by cyanobacteria, and the decrease in delta C-13 values up-core represent the effect of sewage input and land based runoff, or possible contribution from microbial biomass. The pigments change from non-N-2 fixing cyanobacterial species to the N-2-fixing community, and are consistent with the proxy-based productivity shifts inferred in the lake. The deeper sediments are affected by post-diagenetic changes causing an increase in delta C-13 (and possibly delta N-15) due to mineralization of organic C and N. 

  • 31.
    Cousins, Anna Palm
    IVL Swedish Envrionmental Research Institute.
    The effect of the indoor environment on the fate of organic chemicals in theurban landscape2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 438, p. 233-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To assess the effect of the indoor environment on the urban fate of organic chemicals, an 8-compartment indoor-inclusive steady state multimedia chemical fate model was developed. The model includes typical urban compartments (air, soil, water, sediment, and urban film) and a novel module representing a generic indoor environment. The model was parameterized to the municipality of Stockholm, Sweden and applied to four organic chemicals with different physical–chemical characteristics and use patterns: formaldehyde, 2,4,6-tribromophenol, di-ethylhexylphthalate and decabromodiphenyl ether. The results show that emissions to indoor air may increase the steady state mass and residence time in the urban environment by a factor of 1.1 to 22 for the four chemicals, compared to if emissions are assigned to outdoor air. This is due to the nested nature of the indoor environment, which creates a physical barrier that prevents chemicals from leaving the urban system with outflowing air. For DEHP and BDE 209, the additional partitioning to indoor surfaces results in a greater importance of the indoor removal pathways from surfaces. The outdoor environmental concentrations of these chemicals are predicted to be lower if emitted to indoor air than if emitted to outdoor air because of the additional indoor removal pathways of dust and indoor film, leading to loss of chemical from the system. For formaldehyde and 2,4,6-TBP outdoor environmental concentrations are not affected by whether the release occurs indoors or outdoors because of the limited partitioning to indoor surfaces. A sensitivity analysis revealed that there appears to be a relationship between logKOA and the impact of the ventilation rate on the urban fate of organic chemicals.

  • 32. Cui, Xinjuan
    et al.
    Wang, Xinfeng
    Yang, Lingxiao
    Chen, Bing
    Chen, Jianmin
    Andersson, August
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Radiative absorption enhancement from coatings on black carbon aerosols2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 551, p. 51-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The radiative absorption enhancement of ambient black carbon (BC), by light-refractive coatings of atmospheric aerosols, constitutes a large uncertainty in estimates of climate forcing. The direct measurements of radiative absorption enhancement require the experimentally-removing the coating materials in ambient BC-containing aerosols, which remains a challenge. Here, the absorption enhancement of the BC core by non-absorbing aerosol coatings was quantified using a two-step removal of both inorganic and organic matter coatings of ambient aerosols. The mass absorption cross-section (MAC) of decoated/pure atmospheric BC aerosols of 4.4 +/- 0.8 m(2)g(-1) was enhanced to 9.6 +/- 1.8 m(2)g(-1) at 678-nm wavelength for ambiently-coated BC aerosols at a rural Northern China site. The enhancement of MAC (E-MAC) rises from 1.4 +/- 0.3 in fresh combustion emissions to similar to 3 for aged ambient China aerosols. The three-week high-intensity campaign observed an average E-MAC of 2.25 +/- 0.55, and sulfates were primary drivers of the enhanced BC absorption.

  • 33. Czajkowski, Mikołaj
    et al.
    Andersen, Hans E.
    Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte
    Budziński, Wiktor
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Hagemejer, Jan
    Hasler, Berit
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Smart, James C. R.
    Smedberg, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Thodsen, Hans
    Wąs, Adam
    Wilamowski, Maciej
    Żylicz, Tomasz
    Hanley, Nick
    Increasing the cost-effectiveness of nutrient reduction targets using different spatial scales2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 790, article id 147824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate the potential gains in cost-effectiveness from changing the spatial scale at which nutrient reduction targets are set for the Baltic Sea, with particular focus on nutrient loadings from agriculture. The costs of achieving loading reductions are compared across five levels of spatial scale, namely the entire Baltic Sea; the marine basin level; the country level; the watershed level; and the grid square level. A novel highly-disaggregated model, which represents decreases in agricultural profits, changes in root zone N concentrations and transport to the Baltic Sea is used. The model includes 14 Baltic Sea marine basins, 14 countries, 117 watersheds and 19,023 10-by-10 km grid squares. The main result which emerges is that there is a large variation in the total cost of the program depending on the spatial scale of targeting: for example, for a 40% reduction in loads, the costs of a Baltic Sea-wide target is nearly three times lower than targets set at the smallest level of spatial scale (grid square). These results have important implications for both domestic and international policy design for achieving water quality improvements where non-point pollution is a key stressor of water quality.

  • 34. De Lombaerde, Emiel
    et al.
    Vangansbeke, Pieter
    Lenoir, Jonathan
    Van Meerbeek, Koenraad
    Lembrechts, Jonas
    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Francisco
    Luoto, Miska
    Scheffers, Brett
    Haesen, Stef
    Aalto, Juha
    Christiansen, Ditte Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    De Pauw, Karen
    Depauw, Leen
    Govaert, Sanne
    Greiser, Caroline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hampe, Arndt
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Klinges, David
    Koelemeijer, Irena
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Meeussen, Camille
    Ogée, Jerome
    Sanczuk, Pieter
    Vanneste, Thomas
    Zellweger, Florian
    Baeten, Lander
    De Frenne, Pieter
    Maintaining forest cover to enhance temperature buffering under future climate change2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 810, article id 151338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest canopies buffer macroclimatic temperature fluctuations. However, we do not know if and how the capacity of canopies to buffer understorey temperature will change with accelerating climate change. Here we map the difference (offset) between temperatures inside and outside forests in the recent past and project these into the future in boreal, temperate and tropical forests. Using linear mixed-effect models, we combined a global database of 714 paired time series of temperatures (mean, minimum and maximum) measured inside forests vs. in nearby open habitats with maps of macroclimate, topography and forest cover to hindcast past (1970–2000) and to project future (2060–2080) temperature differences between free-air temperatures and sub-canopy microclimates. For all tested future climate scenarios, we project that the difference between maximum temperatures inside and outside forests across the globe will increase (i.e. result in stronger cooling in forests), on average during 2060–2080, by 0.27 ± 0.16 °C (RCP2.6) and 0.60 ± 0.14 °C (RCP8.5) due to macroclimate changes. This suggests that extremely hot temperatures under forest canopies will, on average, warm less than outside forests as macroclimate warms. This knowledge is of utmost importance as it suggests that forest microclimates will warm at a slower rate than non-forested areas, assuming that forest cover is maintained. Species adapted to colder growing conditions may thus find shelter and survive longer than anticipated at a given forest site. This highlights the potential role of forests as a whole as microrefugia for biodiversity under future climate change.

  • 35.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Muir, Derek
    Levels and trends of new contaminants, temporal trends of legacy contaminants and effects of contaminants in the Arctic: Preface2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 15, p. 2852-2853Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36. Devaprasad, M.
    et al.
    Rastogi, N.
    Satish, R.
    Patel, Anilbhai
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. Physical Research Laboratory, India.
    Singh, A.
    Dabhi, A.
    Shivam, A.
    Bhushan, R.
    Meena, R.
    Characterization of paddy-residue burning derived carbonaceous aerosols using dual carbon isotopes2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 864, article id 161044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large scale paddy-residue burning (PRB) happens every year in the northwest Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) during the post-monsoon season, and winds transport pollutants from the source region up to the northern Indian Ocean affecting air quality of the IGP and marine region. In this study, day-night pairs of fine aerosol samples (n = 69) were collected during October–November over Patiala (30.2°N, 76.3°E, 250 m amsl), a site located in the source region of PRB. Carbonaceous aerosols (CA) were characterised using chemical species and dual carbon isotopes (13C and 14C) to estimate bio vs non-bio contributions and understand their characteristics. Percentage of bio fraction (fbio, estimated using 14C) in CA varied from 74 % to 87 % (avg: 80 ± 3) during days and 71 % to 96 % (avg: 85 ± 7 %) during nights. Further, the fbio was found to be better correlated with aerosol mass spectrometer derived f60 compare to levoglucosan (LG) or nssK+, suggesting f60 a useful proxy for PRB. The δ13C varied from −27.7 ‰ to −26.0 ‰ (avg: −27.0 ± 0.4 ‰) and − 28.7 ‰ to −26.4 ‰ (avg: −27.5 ± 0.7 ‰) during day and night, respectively. Measured δ13C of the samples was found to be more enriched than expected by 0.3 to 2.0 ‰, indicating the presence of aged CA also in Patiala even during PRB period. From fbio versus δ13C correlation, and from Miller-Trans plot, δ13C of PRB is found to be −28.9 ± 1.1 ‰, which also infers that Miller-Trans plot can be used to understand source isotopic signature in the absence of radiocarbon measurements in aerosols. Further, the characteristics ratios of organic carbon (OC) to elemental carbon (EC) (11.9 ± 4.1), LG to potassium (K+) (0.84 ± 0.15), OC/LG (19.7 ± 2.0) and K+/EC (0.75 ± 0.27) were calculated by considering samples with fbio higher than 0.90, which can be used for source apportionment studies. Such studies are crucial in assessing the effects of PRB on regional air quality and climate.

  • 37. Dickin, Sarah
    et al.
    Dagerskog, Linus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Jimenez, Alejandro
    Andersson, Kim
    Savadogo, Karim
    Understanding sustained use of ecological sanitation in rural Burkina Faso2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 613, p. 140-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to safe sanitation services is fundamental for healthy and productive lives, but in rural Burkina Faso only around 7% of the population uses improved sanitation. Ecological sanitation (ecosan) systems that allow safe agricultural reuse of nutrients in human waste have been promoted in these areas, as a way to meet sanitation needs while contributing to food security. However, little is known about the success of these interventions in terms of both sustained use of the toilet and safe excreta reuse practices. We assessed the use of ecosan systems in 44 rural communities where such interventions had taken place. Structured interviews and observations conducted at 520 randomly selected concessions (residential properties), suggested a large-scale shift from open defecation to ecosan toilet use. However, only 58% of surveyed concessions reported ever emptying the ecosan toilet vault, which is required for optimal long-term functioning. Concessions that received ecosan training programmes with a greater emphasis on agricultural reuse were more strongly associated with toilet use and emptying than those that whose training focused more on sanitation access and health benefits. The findings suggest that the safe agricultural reuse of nutrients can provide a strong motivation for long-term adoption of improved sanitation among rural smallholders.

  • 38. Dile, Yihun Taddele
    et al.
    Karlberg, Louise
    Daggupati, Prasad
    Srinivasan, Raghavan
    Wiberg, David
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Assessing the implications of water harvesting intensification on upstream-downstream ecosystem services: A case study in the Lake Tana basin2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 542, p. 22-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water harvesting systems have improved productivity in various regions in sub-Saharan Africa. Similarly, they can help retain water in landscapes, build resilience against droughts and dry spells, and thereby contribute to sustainable agricultural intensification. However, there is no strong empirical evidence that shows the effects of intensification of water harvesting on upstream-downstream social-ecological systems at a landscape scale. In this paper we develop a decision support system (DSS) for locating and sizing water harvesting ponds in a hydrological model, which enables assessments of water harvesting intensification on upstream-downstream ecosystem services in meso-scale watersheds. The DSS was used with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for a case-study area located in the Lake Tana basin, Ethiopia. We found that supplementary irrigation in combination with nutrient application increased simulated teff (Eragrostis tef, staple crop in Ethiopia) production up to three times, compared to the current practice. Moreover, after supplemental irrigation of teff, the excess water was used for dry season onion production of 7.66 t/ha (median). Water harvesting, therefore, can play an important role in increasing local-to regional-scale food security through increased and more stable food production and generation of extra income from the sale of cash crops. The annual total irrigation water consumption was similar to 4%-30% of the annual water yield from the entire watershed. In general, water harvesting resulted in a reduction in peak flows and an increase in low flows. Water harvesting substantially reduced sediment yield leaving the watershed. The beneficiaries of water harvesting ponds may benefit from increases in agricultural production. The downstream social-ecological systems may benefit from reduced food prices, reduced flooding damages, and reduced sediment influxes, as well as enhancements in low flows and water quality. The benefits of water harvesting warrant economic feasibility studies and detailed analyses of its ecological impacts.

  • 39. Ecke, Frauke
    et al.
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Berglund, Åsa M. M.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Engström, Emma
    Plassmann, Merle M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Sörlin, Dieke
    Hörnfeldt, Birger
    Spatio-temporal variation of metals and organic contaminants in bank voles (Myodes glareolus)2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 713, article id 136353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental contamination with metals and organic compounds is of increasing concern for ecosystem and human health. Still, our knowledge about spatial distribution, temporal changes and ecotoxicological fate of metals and organic contaminants in wildlife is limited. We studied concentrations of 69 elements and 50 organic compounds in 300 bank voles (Myodes glareolus), Europe's most common mammal, sampled in spring and autumn 2017-2018 in five monitoring areas, representing three biogeographic regions. In addition, we compared measured concentrations with previous results from bank voles sampled within the same areas in 1995-1997 and 2001. In general, our results show regional differences, but no consistent patterns among contaminants and study areas. The exception was for the lowest concentrations of organic contaminants (e.g. perfluorooctane sulfonate, PFOS), which were generally found in the northern Swedish mountain area Concentrations of metals and organic contaminants in adults varied seasonally with most organic contaminants being higher in spring; likely induced by diet shifts but potentially also related to age differences. In addition, metal concentrations varied between organs (liver vs. kidney), age classes (juveniles vs. adults; generally higher in adults) as well as between males and females. Concentrations of chromium and nickel in kidney and liver in the northernmost mountain area were lower in 2017-2018 than in 1995-1997 and in three of four areas, lead concentrations were lower in 2017-2018 than in 2001. Current metal concentrations (except mercury) are not expected to negatively affect the voles. Concentrations of hexachlorobenzene displayed highest concentrations in 2001 in the mountains, while it was close to detection limit in 2017-2018. Likewise, PFOS concentrations decreased in the mountains and in south-central lowland forests between 2001 and 2017-2018. Our results suggest that season, age class and sex need to be considered when designing and interpreting results from monitoring programs targeting inorganic and organic contaminants in wildlife.

  • 40. Ehnvall, Betty
    et al.
    agren, Anneli M.
    Nilsson, Mats B.
    Ratcliffe, Joshua L.
    Noumonvi, Kof fi Dodji
    Peichl, Matthias
    Lidberg, William
    Giesler, Reiner
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Oquist, Mats G.
    Catchment characteristics control boreal mire nutrient regime and vegetation patterns over  ∼5000 years of landscape development2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 895, article id 165132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vegetation holds the key to many properties that make natural mires unique, such as surface microtopography, high biodiversity values, effective carbon sequestration and regulation of water and nutrient fluxes across the landscape. Despite this, landscape controls behind mire vegetation patterns have previously been poorly described at large spatial scales, which limits the understanding of basic drivers underpinning mire ecosystem services. We studied catchment controls on mire nutrient regimes and vegetation patterns using a geographically constrained natural mire chronosequence along the isostatically rising coastline in Northern Sweden. By comparing mires of different ages, we can partition vegetation patterns caused by long-term mire succession (<5000 years) and present-day vegetation responses to catchment eco-hydrological settings. We used the remote sensing based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to describe mire vegetation and combined peat physicochemical measures with catchment properties to identify the most important factors that determine mire NDVI. We found strong evidence that mire NDVI depends on nutrient inputs from the catchment area or underlying mineral soil, especially concerning phosphorus and potassium concentrations. Steep mire and catchment slopes, dry conditions and large catchment areas relative to mire areas were associated with higher NDVI. We also found long-term successional patterns, with lower NDVI in older mires. Importantly, the NDVI should be used to describe mire vegetation patterns in open mires if the focus is on surface vegetation, since the canopy cover in tree-covered mires completely dominated the NDVI signal. With our study approach, we can quantitatively describe the connection between landscape properties and mire nutrient regime. Our results confirm that mire vegetation responds to the upslope catchment area, but importantly, also suggest that mire and catchment aging can override the role of catchment influence. This effect was clear across mires of all ages, but was strongest in younger mires.

  • 41.
    Ek, Caroline
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Faxneld, Suzanne
    Nyberg, Elisabeth
    Rolff, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Karlson, Agnes M. L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    The importance of adjusting contaminant concentrations using environmental data: A retrospective study of 25 years data in Baltic blue mussels2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 762, article id 143913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve the statistical power of detecting changes in contaminant concentrations over time, it is critical to reduce both the within- and between-year variability by adjusting the data for relevant confounding variables. In this study, we present a method for handling multiple confounding variables in contaminant monitoring. We evaluate the highly variable temporal trends of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in blue mussels from the central Baltic Sea during the period 1987-2016 (data from 25 years during this period) using various regression analyses. As potential explanatory variables related to PAH exposure, we use mussel size and retrospective analyses of mussel delta N-15 and delta C-13 (representing large scale biogeochemical changes as a result of e.g. eutrophication and terrestrial inputs). Environmental data from concurrent monitoring programmes (seasonal data on Chlorophyll-a, salinity and temperature in the water column, bioturbation of sediment dwelling fauna) were included as variables related to feeding conditions. The concentrations of high-molecular-weight and low-molecular-weight PAHs in blue mussel were statistically linked to different combinations of environmental variables. Adjustment using these predictors decreased the coefficient of variation in all 15 PAHs tested and improved the statistical power to detect changes. Moreover, the adjustment also resulted in a significant downward trend for fluoranthene that could not be detected initially. For another PAH, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, adjustment which reduced variation resulted in the loss of an apparent downward trend over time. Hence, our study highlights the importance of using auxilliary data to reduce variability caused by environmental factors with general effects on physiology when assessing contaminant time trends. Furthermore, it illustrates the importance of extensive and well designed monitoring programmes to provide relevant data.

  • 42. Ekstrom, Julia A.
    et al.
    Crona, Beatrice I.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Institutional misfit and environmental change: A systems approach to address ocean acidification2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 576, p. 599-608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging environmental threats often lack sufficient governance to address the full extent of the problem. An example is ocean acidification which is a growing concern in fishing and aquaculture economies worldwide, but has remained a footnote in environmental policy at all governance levels. However, existing legal jurisdictions do account for some aspects of the system relating to ocean acidification and these may be leveraged to support adapting to and mitigating ocean acidification. We refine and apply a methodological framework that helps objectively evaluate governance, from a social-ecological systems perspective. We assess how well a set of extant US institutions fits with the social-ecological interactions pertinent to ocean acidification. The assessment points to measured legal gaps, for which we evaluate the government authorities most appropriate to help fill these gaps. The analysis is conducted on United State federal statutes and regulations. Results show quantitative improvement of institutional fit over time (2006 to 2013); but a substantial number of measured legal gaps persist especially around acknowledging local sources of acidification and adaptation strategies to deal with or avoid impacts. We demonstrate the utility of this framework to evaluate the governance surrounding any emerging environmental threat as a first step to guiding the development of jurisdictionally realistic solutions.

  • 43. Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah
    et al.
    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Qamar, Sehrish
    Shah, Syed Tahir Abbas
    Sohail, Muhammad
    Mulla, Sikandar I.
    Fasola, Mauro
    Shen, Heqing
    Mercury contamination in deposited dust and its bioaccumulation patterns throughout Pakistan2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 569, p. 585-593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of environment is a major threat to human health in developing countries like Pakistan. Human populations, particularly children, are continuously exposed to Hg contamination via dust particles due to the arid and semi-arid climate. However, a country wide Hg contamination data for dust particles is lacking for Pakistan and hence, human populations potentially at risk is largely unknown. We provide the first baseline data for total mercury (THg) contamination into dust particles and its bioaccumulation trends, using scalp human hair samples as biomarker, at 22 sites across five altitudinal zones of Pakistan. The human health risk of THg exposure via dust particles as well as the proportion of human population that are potentially at risk from Hg contamination were calculated. Our results indicated higher concentration of THg in dust particles and its bioaccumulation in the lower Indus-plain agricultural and industrial areas than the other areas of Pakistan. The highest THg contamination of dust particles (3000 ppb) and its bioaccumulation (2480 ppb) were observed for the Lahore district, while the highest proportion (>40%) of human population was identified to be potentially at risk from Hg contamination from these areas. In general, children were at higher risk of Hg exposure via dust particles than adults. Regression analysis identified the anthropogenic activities, such as industrial and hospital discharges, as the major source of Hg contamination of dust particles. Our results inform environmental management for Hg control and remediation as well as the disease mitigation on potential hotspots.

  • 44. Fang, Shuhong
    et al.
    Li, Cheng
    Zhu, Lingyan
    Yin, Hongling
    Yang, Yingchun
    Ye, Zhixiang
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Spatiotemporal distribution and isomer profiles of perfluoroalkyl acids in airborne particulate matter in Chengdu City, China2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 689, p. 1235-1243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Airborne particulate matter (APM) was collected in four seasons at five different areas of the city of Chengdu, China to study the spatial and seasonal contamination pattern of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). The results showed that Sigma PFAA concentrations in Downtown Chengdu (mean value: 297 +/- 238 pg/m(3)) were higher than concentrations in suburban areas. The highest concentrations of PFAAs occurred during spring (97.5-709 pg/L; arithmetic mean concentration: 297 +/- 191 pg/L) while the lowest concentration occurred during autumn (9.27-105 pg/L; arithmetic mean concentration 41.1 +/- 24.8 pg/L). Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the main PFAA quantified during winter, summer and autumn, and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) was the predominant PFAA in spring. Relative humidity (RH) and average daily precipitation (PRE) showed significant negative correlations with PFAA concentrations in winter and summer, suggesting that they played an important role in controlling PFAA concentrations in APM. The linear structural isomer of PFOA (n-PFOA) was the most abundant isomer in APM in Chengdu, with the average proportion of 85.6% +/- 6.13%, higher than the proportion in ECF PFOA commercial products (74.3-77.6%). However, the consistent fingerprint of branched PFOA in the APM implies that ECF PFOA makes a significant contribution to the PFOA in APM. PEELS in the APM collected throughout the year had a mean proportion of 54.0 +/- 8.81% of n-PFOS. This proportion of n-PFOS is lower than commercial ECF products (62.9-78.2%), suggesting an additional proportion of branched PFOS isomers in APM in Chengdu.

  • 45.
    Ferreira, Carla S. S.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Navarino Environmental Observatory, Greece.
    Seifollahi-Aghmiuni, Samaneh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Navarino Environmental Observatory, Greece.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Navarino Environmental Observatory, Greece.
    Ghajarnia, Navid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Navarino Environmental Observatory, Greece; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Soil degradation in the European Mediterranean region: Processes, status and consequences2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 805, article id 150106Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil, a non-renewable resource, sustains life on Earth by supporting around 95% of global food production and providing ecosystem services such as biomass production, filtration of contaminants and transfer of mass and energy between spheres. Unsustainable management practices and climate change are threatening the natural capital of soils, particularly in the Mediterranean region, where increasing population, rapid land-use changes, associated socio-economic activities and climate change are imposing high pressures on the region's shallow soils. Despite evidence of high soil susceptibility to degradation and desertification, the true extent of soil degradation in the region is unknown. This paper reviews and summarises the scientific literature and relevant official reports, with the aim to advance this knowledge by synthesizing, mapping, and identifying gaps regarding the status, causes, and consequences of soil degradation processes in the European Mediterranean region. This is needed as scientific underpinning of efforts to counteract soil degradation in the region. Three main degradation categories are then considered: physical (soil sealing, compaction, erosion), chemical (soil organic matter, contamination, salinisation), and biological. We find some degradation processes to be relatively well documented (e.g. soil erosion), while others, such as loss of biodiversity, remain poorly addressed, with limited data availability. We suggest establishment of a continuous, harmonised soil monitoring system at national and regional scale in the Mediterranean region to provide comparable datasets and chart the spatial extent and temporal changes in soil degradation, and corresponding economic implications. This is critical to support decision making and fulfilment of related sustainable development goals.

  • 46. Ferrero, L.
    et al.
    Losi, N.
    Rigler, M.
    Gregorič, A.
    Colombi, C.
    D'Angelo, L.
    Cuccia, E.
    Cefalì, A. M.
    Gini, I.
    Doldi, A.
    Cerri, S.
    Maroni, P.
    Cipriano, D.
    Markuszewski, Piotr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI). Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Bolzacchini, E.
    Determining the Aethalometer multiple scattering enhancement factor C from the filter loading parameter2024In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 917, article id 170221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light-absorbing aerosols heat the atmosphere; an accurate quantification of their absorption coefficient is mandatory. However, standard reference instruments (CAPS, MAAP, PAX, PTAAM) are not always available at each measuring site around the world.

    By integrating all previous published studies concerning the Aethalometers, the AE33 filter loading parameter, provided by the dual-spot algorithm, were used to determine the multiple scattering enhancement factor from the Aethalometer itself (hereinafter CAE) on an yearly and a monthly basis. The method was developed in Milan, where Aethalometer measurements were compared with MAAP data; the comparison showed a good agreement in terms of equivalent black carbon (R2 = 0.93; slope = 1.02 and a negligible intercept = 0.12 μg m−3) leading to a yearly experimental multiple scattering enhancement factor of 2.51 ± 0.04 (hereinafter CMAAP). On a yearly time base the CAE values obtained using the new approach was 2.52 ± 0.01, corresponding to the experimental one (CMAAP). Considering the seasonal behavior, higher experimental CMAAP and computed CAE values were found in summer (2.83 ± 0.12) whereas, the lower ones in winter/early-spring (2.37 ± 0.03), in agreement with the single scattering albedo behavior in the Po Valley.

    Overall, the agreement between the experimental CMAAP and CAE showed a root mean squared error (RMSE) of just 0.038 on the CMAAP prediction, characterized by a slope close to 1 (1.001 ± 0.178), a negligible intercept (−0.002 ± 0.455) and a high degree of correlation (R2 = 0.955). From an environmental point of view, the application of a dynamic (space/time) determination of CAE increases the accuracy of the aerosol heating rate (compared to applying a fixed C value) up to 16 % solely in Milan, and to 114 % when applied in the Arctic at 80°N.

  • 47. Ferrero, Luca
    et al.
    Scibetta, Lorenzo
    Markuszewski, Piotr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Mazurkiewicz, Mikolaj
    Drozdowska, Violetta
    Makuch, Przemysław
    Jutrzenka-Trzebiatowska, Patrycja
    Zaleska-Medynska, Adriana
    Andò, Sergio
    Saliu, Francesco
    Nilsson, E. Douglas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Bolzacchini, E.
    Airborne and marine microplastics from an oceanographic survey at the Baltic Sea: An emerging role of air-sea interaction?2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 824, article id 153709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microplastics (MPs) pollution is one of the most important problems of the Earth. They have been found in all the natural environments, including oceans and the atmosphere. In this study, the concentrations of both atmospheric and marine MPs were measured over the Baltic along a research cruise that started in the Gdansk harbour, till the Gotland island, and the way back. A deposition box (based on a combination of active/passive sampling) was used to collect airborne MPs while, marine MPs concentrations were investigated during the cruise using a dedicated net. Ancillary data were obtained using a combination of particle counters (OPC, LAS and CPC), Aethalometer (AE33 Magee Scientific), spectrofluorometer (sea surface samples, Varian Cary Eclipse), and meteorological sensors. Results showed airborne microplastics average concentrations higher in the Gdansk harbour (161 ± 75 m−3) compared to the open Baltic Sea and to the Gotland island (24 ± 9 and 45 ± 20 m−3). These latter values are closer to the ones measured in the sea (79 ± 18 m−3). The MPs composition was investigated using μ-Raman (for the airborne ones) and FTIR (for marine ones); similar results (e.g. polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalates, polyurethane) were found in the two environmental compartments. The concentrations and similar composition in air and sea suggested a linkage between the two compartments. For this purpose, the atmospheric MPs' equivalent aerodynamic diameter was calculated (28 ± 3 μm) first showing the capability of atmospheric MPs to remain suspended in the air. At the same time, the computed turnover times (0.3–90 h; depending on MPs size) limited the transport distance range. The estimated MPs sea emission fluxes (4–18 ∗ 106 μm3 m−2 s−1 range) finally showed the contemporary presence of atmospheric transport together with a continuous emission from the sea surface enabling a grasshopper long-range transport of microplastics across the sea.

  • 48. Fielding, J. James
    et al.
    Croudace, Ian W.
    Kemp, Alan E. S.
    Pearce, Richard B.
    Cotterill, Carol J.
    Langdon, Peter
    Avery, Rachael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. University of Southampton, United Kingdom.
    Tracing lake pollution, eutrophication and partial recovery from the sediments of Windermere, UK, using geochemistry and sediment microfabrics2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 722, article id 137745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many lakes undergo anthropogenically driven eutrophication and pollution leading to decreasedwater and sediment quality. These effects can enhance seasonally changing lake redox conditions that may concentrate potentially toxic elements. Here we report the results of a multi-method geochemical and sediment microfabric analysis applied to reconstruct the history of cultural eutrophication and pollution of the North and South Basins of Windermere, UK. Eutrophication developed from the mid-19th to the earliest 20th centuries. Enhanced lake productivity is indicated by increased sedimentary delta C-13, and increased pollution by a higher concentration of metals (Pb, Hg, and As) in the sediment, likely enhanced by incorporation and adsorption to settling diatom aggregates, preserved as sedimentary laminae. In the South Basin, increasing sediment delta N-15 values occur in step with Zn, Hg, and Cu, linking metal enrichment to isotopically heavy nitrate (N) from anthropogenic sources. From around 1930, decreases in Mn and Fe-rich laminae indicate reduced deep-water ventilation, whereas periods of sediment anoxia increased, being most severe in the deeper North Basin. Strongly reducing sediment conditions promoted Fe and Mn reduction and Pb-bearing barite formation, hitherto only described from toxic minewastes and contaminated soils. From 1980 there was an increase in indicators of bottomwater oxygenation, although not to before 1930. But in the South Basin, the continued impacts of sewage are indicated by elevated sediment delta N-15. Imaging and X-ray microanalysis using scanning electron microscopy has shown seasonal-scale redoxmineralisation of Mn, Fe, and Ba related to intermittent sediment anoxia. Elevated concentrations of these metals and As also occur in the surficial sediment and provide evidence for dynamic redox mobilisation of potentially toxic elements to the lake water. Concentrations of As (up to 80 ppm), exceed international Sediment Quality Standards. This process may become more prevalent in the future with climate change driving lengthened summer stratification.

  • 49.
    Fischer, Benjamin M. C.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Manzoni, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Morillas, Laura
    Garcia, Monica
    Johnson, Mark S.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. The Nature Conservancy, USA.
    Improving agricultural water use efficiency with biochar - A synthesis of biochar effects on water storage and fluxes across scales2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 657, p. 853-862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an urgent need to develop agricultural methods that balance water supply and demand while at the same time improve resilience to climate variability. A promising instrument to address this need is biochar - a charcoal made from pyrolyzed organic material. However, it is often unclear how, if at all, biochar improves soil water availability, plant water consumption rates and crop yields. To address this question, we synthesized literature-derived observational data and evaluated the effects of biochar on evapotranspiration using a minimal soil water balance model. Results from the model were interpreted in the Budyko framework to assess how climatic conditions mediate the impacts of biochar on water fluxes. Our analysis of literature-derived observational data showed that while biochar addition generally increases the soil water holding capacity, it can have variable impacts on soil water retention relative to control conditions. Our modelling demonstrated that biochar increases long-term evapotranspiration rates, and therefore plant water availability, by increasing soil water retention capacity - especially in water-limited regions. Biochar amendments generally increased crop yields (75% of the compiled studies) and, in several cases (35% of the compiled studies), biochar amendments simultaneously increased crop yield and water use efficiencies. Hence, while biochar amendments are promising, the potential for variable impact highlights the need for targeted research on how biochar affects the soil-plant-water cycle.

  • 50.
    Fischer, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Rosqvist, Gunhild C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Giesler, Reiner
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bolin Centre for Climate Research (together with KTH & SMHI).
    Wide-spread microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) in northern European freshwater systems: Drivers, magnitudes and seasonality2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 889, article id 163764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microbial sulfate reduction (MSR), which transforms sulfate into sulfide through the consumption of organic matter, is an integral part of sulfur and carbon cycling. Yet, the knowledge on MSR magnitudes is limited and mostly restricted to snap-shot conditions in specific surface water bodies. Potential impacts of MSR have consequently been unaccounted for, e.g., in regional or global weathering budgets. Here, we synthesize results from previous studies on sulfur isotope dynamics in stream water samples and apply a sulfur isotopic fractionation and mixing scheme combined with Monte Carlo simulations to derive MSR in entire hydrological catchments. This allowed comparison of magnitudes both within and between five study areas located between southern Sweden and the Kola Peninsula, Russia. Our results showed that the freshwater MSR ranged from 0 to 79 % (interquartile range of 19 percentage units) locally within the catchments, with average values from 2 to 28 % between the catchments, displaying a non-negligible catchment-average value of 13 %. The combined abundance or deficiency of several landscape elements (e.g., the areal percentage of forest and lakes/wetlands) were found to indicate relatively well whether or not catchment-scale MSR would be high. A regression analysis showed specifically that average slope was the individual element that best reflected the MSR magnitude, both at sub-catchment scale and between the different study areas. However, the regression results of individual parameters were generally weak. The MSR-values additionally showed differences between seasons, in particular in wetland/lake dominated catchments. Here MSR was high during the spring flood, which is consistent with the mobilization of water that under low-flow winter periods have developed the needed anoxic conditions for sulfate-reducing microorganisms. This study presents for the first time compelling evidence from multiple catchments of wide-spread MSR at levels slightly above 10 %, implying that the terrestrial pyrite oxidation may be underestimated in global weathering budgets.

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