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  • 1. Bauer, Friederike U.
    et al.
    Glasmacher, Ulrich A.
    Ring, Uwe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Karl, Markus
    Schumann, Andreas
    Nagudi, Betty
    Tracing the exhumation history of the Rwenzori Mountains, Albertine Rift, Uganda, using low-temperature thermochronology2013In: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 599, p. 8-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rwenzori Mtns form a striking feature within the Albertine Rift of the East African Rift System. They are made up of a dissected Precambrian metamorphic basement block reaching heights of more than 5 km. Applying low-temperature therrnochronology a complex exhumation history becomes evident, where rock and surface uplift can be traced from Palaeozoic to Neogene times. Fission-track and (U-Th-Sm)/He cooling ages and derived cooling histories allow distinguishing different blocks in the Rwenzori Mtns. In the central part a northern and a southern block are separated by a putative NW-SE trending fault; with the northern block showing distinctly younger apatite fission-track ages (similar to 130 Ma) than the southern block (similar to 300 Ma). Cooling ages in both blocks do not vary significantly with elevation, despite considerable differences in elevation. Thermal history modelling reflects protracted cooling histories. Modelled t-T paths show decoupled blocks that were relocated separately along distinct fault planes, which reactivated pre-existing structures, inherited from Palaeozoic folding and thrusting. Initial cooling affected the Rwenzori area in Silurian to Devonian times, followed by Mesozoic and Cainozoic cooling events. Pre-Neogene evolution seems to be triggered by tectonic processes like the opening of the Indian Ocean and the south Atlantic. From thermochronological data the formation of a Mesozoic Albertine high is conceivable. In Cainozoic times the area was affected by rifting, resulting in differentiated surface uplift. Along the western flank of the Rwenzori Mtns, surface uplift was more pronounced. This is also reflected in their recent topography, formed by accelerated rock uplift in the near past (Pliocene to Pleistocene). Erosion could not compensate for this most recent uplift, resulting in apatite He ages of Oligocene to Miocene age or even older.

  • 2. Mamtani, M.
    et al.
    Piazolo, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology and Geochemistry.
    Greiling, R. O.
    Kontny, A.
    Hrouda, F.
    Magnetite fabric in a syntectonic granite – inferences from AARM and SEM-EBSD analysisIn: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Pease, Victoria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Drachev, S.
    Stephenson, R.
    Zhang, Xiaojing
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Arctic lithosphere - A review2014In: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 628, p. 1-25Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews the characteristics of Arctic lithosphere and the principal tectonic events which have shaped it. The current state-of-knowledge associated with the crust, crustal-scale discontinuities, and their ages, as well as knowledge of the lithosphere as a whole from geophysical data, permits the division of Arctic lithosphere into discrete domains. Arctic continental lithosphere is diverse in age, composition, and structure. It has been affected by at least two periods of thermal overprinting associated with large volumes of magmatism, once in the Permo-Triassic and again in the Aptian. In addition, it was attenuated as the result of at least five phases of rifting (in the late Devonian-early Carboniferous, Permo-Triassic, Jurassic, Early Cretaceous, and Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic). Older phases of consolidation are associated with continental lithosphere and occurred through a series of continent-continent collisions in the Paleozoic. Jurassic and Cretaceous extensional phases are related to the dismembering of Pangea and Eurasia, and were concentrated in the Norway-Greenland and Canadian-Alaskan Arctic regions. Large areas of submarine, hyperextended continental (?) lithosphere developed in parts of the Amerasia Basin. After continental breakup and the accretion of new oceanic lithosphere, the Eurasia and Canada basins were formed.

  • 4.
    Pease, Victoria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Scarrow, J. H.
    Nobre Silva, Ines G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada.
    Cambeses, A.
    Devonian magmatism in the Timan Range, Arctic Russia - subduction, post-orogenic extension, or rifting?2016In: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 691, p. 185-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Devonian mafic magmatism of the northern East European Craton (EEC) has been variously linked to Uralian subduction, post-orogenic extension associated with Caledonian collision, and rifting. New elemental and isotopic analyses of Devonian basalts from the Timan Range and Kanin Peninsula, Russia, in the northern EEC constrain magma genesis, mantle source(s) and the tectonic process(es) associated with this Devonian volcanism to a rift-related context. Two compositional groups of low-K2O tholeiitic basalts are recognized. On the basis of Th concentrations, LREE concentrations, and (LREE/HREE)(N), the data suggest two distinct magma batches. Incompatible trace elements ratios (e.g., Th/Yb, Nb/Th, Nb/La) together with Nd and Pb isotopes indicate involvement of an NMORB to EMORB 'transitional' mantle component mixed with variable amounts of a continental component. The magmas were derived from a source that developed high (U,Th)/Pb, U/Th and Sm/Nd over time. The geochemistry of Timan-Kanin basalts supports the hypothesis that the genesis of Devonian basaltic magmatism in the region resulted from local melting of transitional mantle and lower crust during rifting of a mainly non volcanic continental rifted margin.

  • 5.
    Ring, Uwe
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Gessner, Klaus
    Thomson, Stuart
    Variations in fault-slip data and cooling history reveal corridor of heterogeneous backarc extension in the eastern Aegean Sea region2017In: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 700, p. 108-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report fault-slip data across the boundary between the highly extended and largely submerged crust underlying the Aegean Sea from Samos in the north to eastern Crete in the south, and the much less extended and emergent crust of western Anatolia. We identify three brittle deformation increments, a late Miocene (mainly Pliocene) to Recent crustal stretching increment, an intermittent early to late Miocene shortening increment concurrent with extension and magmatism, and a Miocene extensional event. The youngest increment documents late Miocene to Recent NNE extension over large areas, but can locally also be oriented SE (Amorgos and Astipalea Islands), and ESE (eastern Crete) suggesting overall oblate strain geometry. The intermittent Miocene (similar to 245 Ma) fault-slip records suggest overall prolate strain geometry, where NNE stretching is accompanied by E-W shortening. The older extension event is mainly NNE directed but on Samos Island extension is E-W, probably reflecting local extension in a sinistral wrench corridor in the early/mid Miocene. Overall it seems that since the early Miocene NNE-trending extension is the dominant regime in the eastern Aegean with an intermittent component of short-lived E-W shortening. The existence of a corridor of heterogeneous crustal deformation which is spatially associated with uncharacteristically old fission track ages - and the apparent change in strain geometry in time challenge concepts that propose that the eastern Aegean Sea and western Anatolia have been deformed as a continuous tectonic domain since the Miocene. We propose that the regional variation in extensional strain geometry resulted from a sinistral wrench component that was superimposed on the regional 'background' NNE extension by translation across a diffuse plate boundary. We conclude that the eastern shoreline of the Aegean Sea is controlled by a Miocene to Recent sinistral wrench corridor that accommodated movement between different lithospheric domains.

  • 6.
    Ring, Uwe
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Gessner, Klaus
    Thomson, Stuart N.
    South Menderes Monocline: Low-temperature thermochronology constrains role of crustal extension in structural evolution of southwest Turkey2017In: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 712, p. 455-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report apatite and zircon fission-track data across the contact zones between the Menderes nappes, the Cycladic blueschist unit, and the Oren nappe, in the Anatolide belt of southwest Turkey. These data resolve previous debate on the deformation history of these Cretaceous to Eocene nappe contacts, including whether they were reactivated during late Oligocene to Miocene crustal extension. Apatite fission-track ages range from 18 to 28 Ma in the Menderes nappes, and 31 to 42 Ma in the Oren nappe. Zircon fission-track ages are 29 to 31 Ma in the Menderes nappes, 30 to 33 Ma in the Cycladic blueschist unit, and between 93 Ma and 129 Ma in the Oren nappe. The data reveal that the tectonic contacts within the Menderes nappes, and with the overlying Cycladic blueschist unit have been sealed since similar to 35-30 Ma. In the Oren nappe, zircon fission-track ages are distinctly older (with mixed single grain ages between similar to 300 and 75 Ma) reflecting partial to full resetting during late Cretaceous high-pressure metamorphism, The contact between the Cycladic blueschist unit and the Oren nappe shows no significant tectonic movement in the brittle crust after similar to 70 Ma. These data reveal that the nappe boundaries in the southern Menderes Massif have undergone no significant differential offset relative to the Earth's surface since the Oligocene and therefore were not reactivated during late Oligocene to Miocene continental extension. We interpret the steeply dipping portion of the nappe pile in the southern Menderes Massif as a tilted crustal section, which we name the 'South Menderes Monocline'. We speculate this monocline formed by differential uplift in the Miocene, either at the hinge zone of a plateau, or by unloading of the Simav detachment footwall.

  • 7.
    Ring, Uwe
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Glodny, Johannes
    Peillod, Alexandre
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Skelton, Alasdair
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    The timing of high-temperature conditions and ductile shearing in the footwall of the Naxos extensional fault system, Aegean Sea, Greece2018In: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 745, p. 366-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present eight Rb-Sr multi-mineral isochron ages showing that high-temperature metamorphic conditions and partial melting during top-to-the-NNE extensional shearing in the footwall of the Naxos extensional fault system (i.e. Naxos metamorphic core complex) lasted until about 14-12 Ma. One migmatite sample yielded an age of 14.34 +/- 0.2 Ma (2 sigma uncertainty) for crystallization of migmatization-related melt pockets. Four pegmatite samples, which are in part associated with partial melting of their host rocks, provided overlapping ages ranging from 13.81 to 12.23 Ma (age range includes 2 sigma uncertainty). Additional three samples of amphibolite-facies schist supplied Rb-Sr ages of around 14 Ma. Samples showing fluid- and/or deformation-assisted white mica and biotite reworking gave Rb-Sr mineral apparent ages of 11.1 +/- 2.7, 10.16 +/- 0.24, 9.7 +/- 0.7 and 9.6 +/- 0.15 Ma. These ages are interpreted to be associated with late stages of extensional shearing under greenschist-facies metamorphic conditions. Together with published U-Pb zircon ages of migmatite, and S- and I-type granite crystallization, the data indicate that the presence of melt in the footwall of the Naxos extensional fault system lasted for at least 7 Ma (from similar to 18 to similar to 11 Ma). This demonstrates that high temperatures and crustal melting resulting from and aiding extensional deformation was a long-lived and not a transient event. We conclude that melt-assisted deformation facilitated large-scale displacement on the Naxos extensional fault system by drastically weakening the extending crust for long periods of time.

  • 8.
    Ring, Uwe
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Uysal, I. Tongue
    Glodny, Johannes
    Cox, Simon C.
    Littl, Tim
    Thomson, Stuart N.
    Stübner, Konstanze
    Bozkaya, Ömer
    Fault-gouge dating in the Southern Alps, New Zealand2017In: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 717, p. 321-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report two Ar-40/Ar-39 illite ages from fault gouge directly above the current trace of the Alpine Fault in New Zealand at Gaunt Creek (1.36 +/- 0.27 Ma) and Harold Creek (1.18 +/- 0.47 Ma), and one Ar-40/Ar-39 illite age from fault gouge from the Two Thumbs Fault on the east side of the Southern Alps. Metamorphic muscovite clasts inherited into the Alpine Fault gouge yielded Ar-40/Ar-39 ages of 2.04 +/- 0.3 Ma at Gaunt Creek and 11.46 +/- 0.47 Ma at Harold Creek. We also report Rb-Sr muscovite-based multimineral ages of Alpine Schist mylonite adjacent to the dated fault gouge at Harold Creek (13.1 +/- 43 Ma) and Gaunt Creek (8.9 +/- 3.2 Ma). Ar-40/Ar-39 muscovite ages from the Gaunt Creek mylonite yielded plateau ages of 1.47 +/- 0.08 Ma and 1.57 +/- 0.15 Ma. Finally, we report zircon fission track (0.79 +/- 0.11 and 0.81 +/- 0.17 Ma) and zircon (U-Th)/He ages (0.35 +/- 0.03 and 0.4 +/- 0.06 Ma) from Harold Creek.& para;& para;We interpret the fault gouge ages to date growth of newly formed illite during gouge formation at temperatures of similar to 300-350 degrees C towards the base of the seismogenic zone. Simple backcalculation using current uplift/exhumation and convergence rates, and dip angles of 45-60 degrees at the Alpine Fault support that interpretation. We infer that the fault gouge ages record faulting and gouge formation as the rocks passed very rapidly through the brittle-ductile transition zone on their way to the surface. Rb-Sr and Ar-40/Ar-39 ages on muscovite from Alpine Schist mylonite date muscovite growth at similar to 11 Ma together with a younger phase of cooling/shearing at similar to 1.5-2 Ma. Our ages from the Alpine Schist indicate extremely rapid cooling exceeding 200 degrees C/Ma. The fault gouge age from the Two Thumbs Fault is significantly too old to have formed as part of the late Neogene/Quaternary Southern Alps evolution.

  • 9.
    Zhang, Wen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, China.
    Roberts, D.
    Pease, Victoria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Provenance of sandstones from Caledonian nappes in Finnmark, Norway: Implications for Neoproterozoic-Cambrian palaeogeography2016In: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 691, p. 198-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    U–Pb detrital zircon age spectra from four formations in the Laksefjord and Kalak nappe complexes, Finnmark Caledonides, northern Norway, show peaks ranging from Neoarchaean through Late Palaeoproterozoic to Late Mesoproterozoic. Together with an extensive database of palaeocurrent flow measurements indicating derivation of the sediments from source regions to the S-SE on the Fennoscandian Shield, the successions in the lower thrust sheets of the Kalak Nappe Complex and the entire Laksefjord Nappe Complex are inferred to be of Baltican origin. These results are contrary to a previous suggestion that the sandstone-dominated Middle Allochthon is exotic to Baltica.

    The lithostratigraphical successions in these two nappe complexes show a south to north progression from alluvial-fan conglomerates through extensive fluvial to shallow-marine facies into deeper-marine turbiditic sequences. This pattern reflects the palaeogeographic transition from the shallow platform to deep-basinal oceanic development recorded along the c. 2000 km pre-Timanian passive margin of the northeastern Fennoscandian Shield.

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