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  • 1. Abernethy, K. E.
    et al.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hilly, Z.
    Schwarz, A.
    Two steps forward, two steps back: The role of innovation in transforming towards community-based marine resource management in Solomon Islands2014In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 28, p. 309-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many coastal nations, community-based arrangements for marine resource management (CBRM) are promoted by government, advocated for by non-government actors, and are seen by both as one of the most promising options to achieve sustainable use and secure inshore fisheries and aquatic resources. Although there is an abundant literature on what makes CBRM effective, is it less clear how CBRM is introduced or develops as an idea in a community, and the process of how the idea leads to the adoption of a new resource management approach with supporting institutions. Here we aim to address this gap by applying an explicit process-based approach drawing on innovation history methodology by mapping and analysing the initiation and emergence of CBRM in five fishing-dependent communities in Solomon Islands. We use insights from the literatures on diffusion of innovation and transformability to define phases of the process and help guide the inductive analysis of qualitative data. We show the CBRM institutionalisation processes were non-linear, required specific strategies to move from one phase to the next, and key elements facilitated or hindered movement. Building active support for CBRM within communities depended on the types of events that happened at the beginning of the process and actions taken to sustain this. Matching CBRM to known resource management ideas or other social problems in the community, developing legitimate institutions and decision-making processes, strong continual interactions between key actors and the rest of the community (not necessarily NGO actors), and community members witnessing benefits of CBRM, all contributed to the emergence and diffusion of CBRM in the communities, and helped to overcome barriers to transformative change.

  • 2. Bai, Xuemei
    et al.
    van der Leeuw, Sander
    O'Brien, Karen
    Berkhout, Frans
    Biermann, Frank
    Brondizio, Eduardo S.
    Cudennec, Christophe
    Dearing, John
    Duraiappah, Anantha
    Glaser, Marion
    Revkin, Andrew
    Steffen, Will
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Syvitski, James
    Plausible and desirable futures in the Anthropocene: A new research agenda2016In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 39, p. 351-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the concept of the Anthropocene reflects the past and present nature, scale and magnitude of human impacts on the Earth System, its true significance lies in how it can be used to guide attitudes, choices, policies and actions that influence the future. Yet, to date much of the research on the Anthropocene has focused on interpreting past and present changes, while saying little about the future. Likewise, many futures studies have been insufficiently rooted in an understanding of past changes, in particular the long-term co-evolution of bio-physical and human systems. The Anthropocene perspective is one that encapsulates a world of intertwined drivers, complex dynamic structures, emergent phenomena and unintended consequences, manifest across different scales and within interlinked biophysical constraints and social conditions. In this paper we discuss the changing role of science and the theoretical, methodological and analytical challenges in considering futures of the Anthropocene. We present three broad groups of research questions on: (1) societal goals for the future; (2) major trends and dynamics that might favor or hinder them; (3) and factors that might propel or impede transformations towards desirable futures. Tackling these questions requires the development of novel approaches integrating natural and social sciences as well as the humanities beyond what is current today. We present three examples, one from each group of questions, illustrating how science might contribute to the identification of desirable and plausible futures and pave the way for transformations towards them. We argue that it is time for debates on the sustainability of the Anthropocene to focus on opportunities for realizing desirable and plausible futures.

  • 3. Baird, Julia
    et al.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Haug, Constanze
    Huitema, Dave
    Learning effects of interactive decision-making processes for climate change adaptation2014In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 27, p. 51-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning is gaining attention in relation to governance processes for contemporary environmental challenges; however, scholarship at the nexus of learning and environmental governance lacks clarity and understanding about how to define and measure learning, and the linkages between learning, social interactions, and environment. In response, this study aimed to advance and operationalize a typology of learning in an environmental governance context, and examined if a participatory decision-making process (adaptive co-management) for climate change adaptation fostered learning. Three types of learning were identified: cognitive learning, related to the acquisition of new or the structuring of existing knowledge; normative learning, which concerns a shift in viewpoints, values or paradigms, and relational learning, referring to an improved understanding of others' mindsets, enhanced trust and ability to cooperate. A robust mixed methods approach with a focus on quantitative measures including concept map analysis, social network analysis, and self-reflective questions, was designed to gauge indicators for each learning type. A participatory decision-making process for climate change adaptation was initiated with stakeholders in the Niagara region, Canada. A pseudo-control group was used to minimize external contextual influences on results. Clear empirical evidence of cognitive and relational learning was gained; however, the results from normative learning measures were inconclusive. The learning typology and measurement method operationalized in this research advances previous treatments of learning in relation to participatory decision-making processes, and supports adaptive co-management as a governance strategy that fosters learning and adaptive capacity.

  • 4.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crumley, Carole
    Svedin, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bio-cultural refugia: Safeguarding diversity of practices for food security and biodiversity2013In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 1142-1152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food security for a growing world population is high on the list of grand sustainability challenges, as is reducing the pace of biodiversity loss in landscapes of food production. Here we shed new insights on areas that harbor place specific social memories related to food security and stewardship of biodiversity. We call them bio-cultural refugia. Our goals are to illuminate how bio-cultural refugia store, revive and transmit memory of agricultural biodiversity and ecosystem services, and how such social memories are carried forward between people and across cohorts. We discuss the functions of such refugia for addressing the twin goals of food security and biodiversity conservation in landscapes of food production. The methodological approach is first of its kind in combining the discourses on food security, social memory and biodiversity management. We find that the rich biodiversity of many regionally distinct cultural landscapes has been maintained through a mosaic of management practices that have co-evolved in relation to local environmental fluctuations, and that such practices are carried forward by both biophysical and social features in bio-cultural refugia including; genotypes, artifacts, written accounts, as well as embodied rituals, art, oral traditions and self-organized systems of rules. Combined these structure a diverse portfolio of practices that result in genetic reservoirs—source areas—for the wide array of species, which in interplay produce vital ecosystem services, needed for future food security related to environmental uncertainties, volatile financial markets and large scale conflicts. In Europe, processes related to the large-scale industrialization of agriculture threaten such bio-cultural refugia. The paper highlights that the dual goals to reduce pressures from modern agriculture on biodiversity, while maintaining food security, entails more extensive collaboration with farmers oriented toward ecologically sound practices.

  • 5.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social-ecological memory in urban gardens-Retaining the capacity for management of ecosystem services2010In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 255-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many ecosystem services are in decline. Local ecological knowledge and associated practice are essential to sustain and enhance ecosystem services on the ground. Here, we focus on social or collective memory in relation to management practice that sustains ecosystem services, and investigate where and how ecological practices, knowledge and experience are retained and transmitted. We analyze such social-ecological memory of allotment gardens in the Stockholm urban area, Sweden. Allotment gardens support ecosystem services such as pollination, seed dispersal and pest regulation in the broader urban landscape. Surveys and interviews were preformed over a four-year period with several hundreds of gardeners. We found that the allotment gardens function as communities-of-practice, where participation and reification interact and social-ecological memory is a shared source of resilience of the community by being both emergent and persistent. Ecological practices and knowledge in allotment gardens are retained and transmitted by imitation of practices, oral communication and collective rituals and habits, as well as by the physical gardens, artifacts, metaphors and rules-in-use (institutions). Finally, a wider social context provides external support through various forms of media, markets, social networks, collaborative organizations, and legal structures. We exemplify the role of urban gardens in generating ecosystem services in times of crisis and change and conclude that stewards of urban green areas and the social memory that they carry may help counteract further decline of critical ecosystem services. .

  • 6.
    Bodin, Ö
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, B
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
     The role of social networks in natural resource governance:: What relational patterns make a difference?2009In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 19, p. 366-374Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Duke University, USA.
    Nohrstedt, D.
    Formation and performance of collaborative disaster management networks: Evidence from a Swedish wildfire response2016In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 41, p. 183-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural disasters present a multitude of entangled societal challenges beyond the realms and capacities of single actors. Prior research confirms that effective collaboration is of critical significance to address such complex collective action problems. Yet, studies rarely investigate if patterns of collaboration are appropriately aligned ('fit') with how different challenges (tasks) are interdependent, or how levels of fit influence collective action performance. We develop a set of hypotheses specifying what constitutes a good fit between collaborative networks and task interdependency. Using unique empirical data from the response to a major wildfire in Sweden, we examine how individual actors select collaboration partners and tasks during the formation the collaborative crisis response network. Then we test if levels of fit in the established network influence performance. We show that patterns of actor and task interdependency influence the formation of collaborative networks and that a good fit seems to be associated with more effective collaboration. Our data even suggest that a good fit is more important for performance than actors' prior crisis management experience and level of professionalization. Further, we show that actors only partially engage in actor-task configurations conducive to high performance. Our study probes the limitations of simplified accounts of collaborative disaster management by enabling more precise and theoretically informed empirical inquiries regarding the mechanisms that shape the structure and performance of collaborative networks.

  • 8.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Tengo, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Disentangling intangible social-ecological systems2012In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 430-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary environmental challenges call for new research approaches that include the human dimension when studying the natural environment. In spite of the recent development of several conceptual frameworks integrating human society with nature, there has been less methodological and theoretical progress on how to quantitatively study such social-ecological interdependencies. We propose a novel theoretical framework for addressing this gap that partly builds on the rapidly growing interdisciplinary research on complex networks. The framework makes it possible to unpack, define and formalize ways in which societies and nature are interdependent, and to empirically link this to specific governance challenges and opportunities using a range of theories from both the social and natural sciences in an integrated way. At the core of the framework is a set of basic building blocks (motifs) that each represents a simplified but non-trivial social-ecological systems (SES) consisting of two social actors and two ecological resources. The set represents all possible patterns of interdependency in a SES. Each unique motif is characterized in terms of social and ecological connectivity, resource sharing, and resource substitutability. By aligning theoretical insights related to the management of common-pool resources, metapopulation dynamics, and the problem of fit in SES with the set of motifs, we demonstrate the multi-theoretical ability of the framework in a case study of a rural agricultural landscape in southern Madagascar. Several mechanisms explaining the inhabitants' demonstrated ability to preserve their scattered forest patches in spite of strong pressures on land and forest resources are presented.

  • 9.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    International fisheries regime effectiveness: Activities and resources of key actors in the Southern Ocean2013In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 948-956Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many contemporary environmental challenges are truly global and span several organizational and geographical borders. Research on international environmental regimes has, over the last couple of decades, identified several important factors that contribute to a more effective governance of global ecological resources, but few studies have addressed the different roles certain influential individual organizations play in determining regime effectiveness. Here we address this question by studying a relatively successful fishery governance system in the Southern Ocean. By drawing on insights from the research fields of common-pool resource management and international environmental regimes, we demonstrate that organizations engaged in certain combinations of activities, and that have access to certain combinations of resources stand out as important for regime effectiveness. In particular, collaboration with other flag states and being politically well-connected stand out as important explanatory factors. However, access to advanced technology, engagement in public campaigns, and being active in the field are other factors that, in different combinations, also seem to explain organizational importance. Furthermore, governmental and non-governmental organizations tend to perform different sets of activities and possess different resources, thereby complementing each other. Also, organizations doing similar things are often of different types with different mandates and objectives. This could contribute to improved adaptability and responsiveness to change at the larger regime level. Finally, we discuss some potential implications of our results for capacity-building in international environmental governance.

  • 10.
    Boyd, Emily
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Reading, United Kingdom.
    Ensor, Jonathan
    Broto, Vanesa Castan
    Juhola, Sirkku
    Environmentalities of urban climate governance in Maputo, Mozambique2014In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 26, p. 140-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest in the role that cities can play in climate change as sites of transformation has increased but research has been limited in its practical applications and there has been limited consideration of how policies and technologies play out. These challenges necessitate a re-thinking of existing notions of urban governance in order to account for the practices that emerge from governments and a plethora of other actors in the context of uncertainty. We understand these practices to constitute adaptive governance, underpinned by social learning guiding the actions of the multiplicity of actors. The aim here is to unpack how social learning for adaptive governance requires attention to competing understandings of risk and identity, and the multiplicity of mechanisms in which change occurs or is blocked in urban climate governance. We adopt a novel lens of 'environmentalities' which allows us to assess the historical and institutional context and power relations in the informal settlements of Maputo, Mozambique. Our findings highlight how environmental identities around urban adaptation to climate change are constituted in the social and physical divisions between the formal and informal settlements, whilst existing knowledge models prioritise dominant economic and political interests and lead to the construction of new environmental subjects. While the findings of this study are contextually distinct, the generalizable lessons are that governance of urban adaptation occurs and is solidified within a complex multiplicity of socio-ecological relations.

  • 11. Brondizio, Eduardo S.
    et al.
    O'Brien, Karen
    Bai, Xuemei
    Biermann, Frank
    Steffen, Will
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Australian National University, Australia.
    Berkhout, Frans
    Cudennec, Christophe
    Lemos, Maria Carmen
    Wolfe, Alexander
    Palma-Oliveira, Jose
    Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur
    Re-conceptualizing the Anthropocene: A call for collaboration2016In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 39, p. 318-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since it was first proposed in 2000, the concept of the Anthropocene has evolved in breadth and diversely. The concept encapsulates the new and unprecedented planetary-scale changes resulting from societal transformations and has brought to the fore the social drivers of global change. The concept has revealed tensions between generalized interpretations of humanity's contribution to global change, and interpretations that are historically, politically and culturally situated. It motivates deep ethical questions about the politics and economics of global change, including diverse interpretations of past causes and future possibilities. As such, more than other concepts, the Anthropocene concept has brought front-and center epistemological divides between and within the natural and social sciences, and the humanities. It has also brought new opportunities for collaboration. Here we explore the potential and challenges of the concept to encourage integrative understandings of global change and sustainability. Based on bibliometric analysis and literature review, we discuss the now wide acceptance of the term, its interpretive flexibility, the emerging narratives as well as the debates the concept has inspired. We argue that without truly collaborative and integrative research, many of the critical exchanges around the concept are likely to perpetuate fragmented research agendas and to reinforce disciplinary boundaries. This means appreciating the strengths and limitations of different knowledge domains, approaches and perspectives, with the concept of the Anthropocene serving as a bridge, which we encourage researchers and others to cross. This calls for institutional arrangements that facilitate collaborative research, training, and action, yet also depends on more robust and sustained funding for such activities. To illustrate, we briefly discuss three overarching global change problems where novel types of collaborative research could make a difference: (1) Emergent properties of socioecological systems; (2) Urbanization and resource nexus; and (3) Systemic risks and tipping points. Creative tensions around the Anthropocene concept can help the research community to move toward new conceptual syntheses and integrative action-oriented approaches that are needed to producing useful knowledge commensurable with the challenges of global change and sustainability.

  • 12. Cinner, J. E.
    et al.
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of East Anglia, UK.
    McClanahan, T. R.
    Muthiga, N.
    Abunge, C.
    Hamed, S.
    Mwaka, B.
    Rabearisoa, A.
    Wamukota, A.
    Fisher, E.
    Jiddawi, N.
    Transitions toward co-management: The process of marine resource management devolution in three east African countries2012In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 651-658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communities are increasingly empowered with the ability and responsibility of working with national governments to make decisions about marine resources in decentralized co-management arrangements. This transition toward decentralized management represents a changing governance landscape. This paper explores the transition to decentralisation in marine resource management systems in three East African countries. The paper draws upon expert opinion and literature from both political science and linked social-ecological systems fields to guide exploration of five key governance transition concepts in each country: (1) drivers of change; (2) institutional arrangements; (3) institutional fit; (4) actor interactions; and (5) adaptive management. Key findings are that decentralized management in the region was largely donor-driven and only partly transferred power to local stakeholders. However, increased accountability created a degree of democracy in regards to natural resource governance that was not previously present. Additionally, increased local-level adaptive management has emerged in most systems and, to date, this experimental management has helped to change resource user's views from metaphysical to more scientific cause-and-effect attribution of changes to resource conditions.

  • 13. Cinner, J. E.
    et al.
    Mcclanahan, T. R.
    Graham, N. A. J.
    Daw, Tim
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Maina, J.
    Stead, S. M.
    Wamukota, A.
    Brown, A.
    Vulnerability of coastal communities to key impacts of climate change on coral reef fisheries2012In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 12-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coral reefs support the livelihood of millions of people especially those engaged in marine fisheries activities. Coral reefs are highly vulnerable to climate change induced stresses that have led to substantial coral mortality over large spatial scales. Such climate change impacts have the potential to lead to declines in marine fish production and compromise the livelihoods of fisheries dependent communities. Yet few studies have examined social vulnerability in the context of changes specific to coral reef ecosystems. In this paper, we examine three dimensions of vulnerability (exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity) of 29 coastal communities across five western Indian Ocean countries to the impacts of coral bleaching on fishery returns. A key contribution is the development of a novel, network-based approach to examining sensitivity to changes in the fishery that incorporates linkages between fishery and non-fishery occupations. We find that key sources of vulnerability differ considerably within and between the five countries. Our approach allows the visualization of how these dimensions of vulnerability differ from site to site, providing important insights into the types of nuanced policy interventions that may help to reduce vulnerability at a specific location. To complement this, we develop framework of policy actions thought to reduce different aspects of vulnerability at varying spatial and temporal scales. Although our results are specific to reef fisheries impacts from coral bleaching, this approach provides a framework for other types of threats and different social-ecological systems more broadly.

  • 14.
    Cinner, Joshua.E.
    et al.
    ARC Center of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Daw, Tim
    School of Development Studies, University of East Anglia, Norwich.
    Hicks, Christina.C.
    ARC Center of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University.
    Responding to change: Using scenarios to understand how socioeconomic factors may influence amplifying or dampening exploitation feedbacks among Tanzanian fishers2010In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental change often requires societies to adapt. In some instances, these adaptations can create feedbacks that amplify the change. Alternatively, other adaptations may dampen the change. We used semi-structured interviews with 240 fishers from nine Tanzanian coastal communities to explore responses to four hypothetical scenarios of increasingly severe declines in their average catch (10%, 20%, 30% and 50%). Overall, a higher proportion of fishers said they would respond to decline using amplifying adaptations (such as fishing harder) than dampening adaptations (such as reducing effort), particularly in the scenarios with lower levels of decline. We used a redundancy analysis to explore whether certain types of responses were related to the fishers’ socioeconomic characteristics. Fishers that would employ amplifying responses had greater economic wealth but lacked options. Fishers who would adopt dampening responses possessed characteristics associated with having livelihood options. Fishers who would adopt neither amplifying nor dampening responses were less likely to belong to community groups and sold the largest proportion of their catch. This study provides novel contributions by differentiating aspects of adaptive capacity that will amplify versus dampen environmental change and by highlighting what the resource users’ themselves say regarding responding to environmental change. Although direct policy application is limited by the study's hypothetical scenario nature, it provides a good beginning to incorporating resource users’ voices into such policy discussions.

  • 15.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academt of Science, Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academt of Science, Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Urban green commons: Insights on urban common property systems2013In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 1039-1051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to shed new light on urban common property systems. We deal with urban commons in relation to urban green-space management, referring to them as urban green commons. Applying a property-rights analytic perspective, we synthesize information on urban green commons from three case-study regions in Sweden, Germany, and South Africa, and elaborate on their role for biodiversity conservation in urban settings, with a focus on business sites. Cases cover both formally established types of urban green commons and bottom-up emerged community-managed habitats. As our review demonstrates, the right to actively manage urban green space is a key characteristic of urban green commons whether ownership to land is in the private, public, the club realm domain, or constitutes a hybrid of these. We discuss the important linkages among urban common property systems, social–ecological learning, and management of ecosystem services and biodiversity. Several benefits can be associated with urban green commons, such as a reduction of costs for ecosystem management and as designs for reconnecting city-inhabitants to the biosphere. The emergence of urban green commons appears closely linked to dealing with societal crises and for reorganizing cities; hence, they play a key role in transforming cities toward more socially and ecologically benign environments. While a range of political questions circumscribe the feasibility of urban green commons, we discuss their usefulness in management of different types of urban habitats, their political justification and limitation, their potential for improved biodiversity conservation, and conditions for their emergence. We conclude by postulating some general policy advice.

  • 16.
    Crona, B
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    et al.,
    Murky water:: Analyzing risk perception and stakeholder vulnerability related to sewage impacts in mangroves of East Africa2009In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 227-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal cities in East Africa are growing rapidly and consequently there is a rapid increase in urban sewage production, putting added pressure on already strained treatment systems. As a result, peri-urban mangroves are receiving extensive amounts of sewage but very little is know as to the ecological and societal consequences of this. However, UNEP among others advocate the use of low-cost, natural sewage treatment technology whenever possible and mangroves have been suggested as useful second stage biofilters. Because of the high resource dependency in many peri-urban coastal communities in East Africa, it is imperative to investigate potential societal impacts on local communities using sewage impacted peri-urban mangroves. Consequently this paper aims to characterize stakeholder groups currently affected by sewage impacted mangroves and thus also map vulnerabilities across local users in relation to future initiatives to use mangroves as biofilters along the East African coast. As risk perception is an important part of vulnerability, and risk perception related to sewage and pollution in an African setting has been little studied, we also aim to contribute baseline data on risk perception related to pollution across peri-urban populations in Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique.Article Outline

  • 17.
    Crona, Beatrice I.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Van Holt, T.
    Petersson, M.
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Buchary, Eny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Using social-ecological syndromes to understand impacts of international seafood trade on small-scale fisheries2015In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 35, p. 162-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization has increased the speed and flow of people, information, and commodities across space, integrating markets and increasing interdependence of geographically dispersed places worldwide. Places historically driven by largely local forces and market demands are now increasingly affected by drivers at multiple scales. Trade is particularly important in driving these changes and more fish is now exported to international markets than ever before. When small-scale fisheries are integrated into global markets, local social-ecological systems change with potentially both positive and negative impacts on livelihoods, economics and ecology, but few studies systematically investigate how and why the outcomes of market integration vary from case to case. This paper systematically assesses multiple (social, ecological, economic and institutional) local effects of market integration in cases around the world by drawing on the global environmental change syndromes approach. Furthermore, we examine the factors contributing to the syndromes observed. Our analysis identifies three distinct social-ecological syndromes associated with international seafood trade. Results suggest that the presence of strong and well-enforced institutions is the principal factor behind the syndrome characterized by sustained fish stocks, while a combination of weak institutions, patron-client relationships, high demand from China and highly vulnerable target species explain the other two syndromes distinguished by declining stocks, conflict and debt among fishers. A key finding is that the factors emerging as important for explaining the different syndromes derive from different scales (e.g. local market structures vs distant market characteristics), indicating a need for multi-level governance approaches to deal with the effects of market integration. Furthermore, the meta-analysis shows that each syndrome encompasses fisheries from multiple continents. This suggests that the increasingly global nature of the seafood trade appears to be driving local dynamics by creating similar conditions for vulnerabilities in localities around the world, lending support to the notion of teleconnectivity across geographic space.

  • 18. Dearing, John A.
    et al.
    Wang, Rong
    Zhang, Ke
    Dyke, James G.
    Haberl, Helmut
    Hossain, Md Sarwar
    Langdon, Peter G.
    Lenton, Timothy M.
    Raworth, Kate
    Brown, Sally
    Carstensen, Jacob
    Cole, Megan J.
    Cornell, Sarah E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Dawson, Terence P.
    Doncaster, C. Patrick
    Eigenbrod, Felix
    Floerke, Martina
    Jeffers, Elizabeth
    Mackay, Anson W.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Poppy, Guy M.
    Safe and just operating spaces for regional social-ecological systems2014In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 28, p. 227-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humanity faces a major global challenge in achieving wellbeing for all, while simultaneously ensuring that the biophysical processes and ecosystem services that underpin wellbeing are exploited within scientifically informed boundaries of sustainability. We propose a framework for defining the safe and just operating space for humanity that integrates social wellbeing into the original planetary boundaries concept (Rockstrom et al., 2009a,b) for application at regional scales. We argue that such a framework can: (1) increase the policy impact of the boundaries concept as most governance takes place at the regional rather than planetary scale; (2) contribute to the understanding and dissemination of complexity thinking throughout governance and policy-making; (3) act as a powerful metaphor and communication tool for regional equity and sustainability. We demonstrate the approach in two rural Chinese localities where we define the safe and just operating space that lies between an environmental ceiling and a social foundation from analysis of time series drawn from monitored and palaeoecological data, and from social survey statistics respectively. Agricultural intensification has led to poverty reduction, though not eradicated it, but at the expense of environmental degradation. Currently, the environmental ceiling is exceeded for degraded water quality at both localities even though the least well-met social standards are for available piped water and sanitation. The conjunction of these social needs and environmental constraints around the issue of water access and quality illustrates the broader value of the safe and just operating space approach for sustainable development.

  • 19.
    Duit, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Galaz, Victor
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Ebbesson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Governance, complexity, and resilience2010In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 363-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue brings together prominent scholars to explore novel multilevel governance challenges posed by the behavior of dynamic and complex social-ecological systems. Here we expand and investigate the emerging notion of “resilience” as a perspective for understanding how societies can cope with, and develop from, disturbances and change. As the contributions to the special issue illustrate, resilience thinking in its current form contains substantial normative and conceptual difficulties for the analysis of social systems. However, a resilience approach to governance issues also shows a great deal of promise as it enables a more refined understanding of the dynamics of rapid, interlinked and multiscale change. This potential should not be underestimated as institutions and decision-makers try to deal with converging trends of global interconnectedness and increasing pressure on social-ecological systems.

  • 20.
    Dzebo, Adis
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Stripple, Johannes
    Transnational adaptation governance: an emerging fourth era of adaptation2015In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 35, p. 423-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change adaptation, which has previously been seen as a national and local matter, is today systematically addressed by international institutions such as the UNFCCC, the FAO and the WTO. Research has focused on the overarching institutional architecture of global adaptation, particularly how it relates to development, political economy, efficiency and equity. In contrast to the transnational dimension of climate mitigation, the transnationalization of adaptation governance has received scant attention. By creating a dataset of adaptation projects, we examine transnational adaptation governance in terms of its scope, institutionalization and main functions. We find transnational adaptation governance to be firmly anchored within the UNFCCC, but a recent change towards adaptation governed by a transnational constituency can be identified. When non-state actors become integral to the project of governing adaptation, a ‘fourth era’ of adaption seems to be emerging. This new era is not replacing other forms of governing, but is emerging alongside and in a complementary fashion. In the ‘fourth era’, adaptation is increasingly governed globally and transnationally, and the attention is turned toward ‘softer’ forms of governance such as agenda setting, information sharing and capacity building.

  • 21.
    Ebbesson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The rule of law in governance of complex socio-ecological changes2010In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 414-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the impact of the rule of law on the resilience of societies for governing complex socio-ecological changes. It concludes that the notions of the rule of law and legal certainty have changed, and that they can be compatible with the use of framework laws of a rather open-textured character, provided certain legal safeguards, such as the right to a legal review, are at hand. While legal certainty is an important virtue of law, it does not as such necessarily prevent adequate flexibility in administrative decision-making concerning health, the environment or the use of natural resources. The article also considers to what extent certain established administrative means of control in the field of environment protection and the use of natural resources match the findings and proposals, e.g. on flexibility and adaptability, provided by resilience research. Finally the article discusses the impact of state sovereignty on governance of large-scale socio-ecological changes, with reach across state borders. It concludes that, despite some attempts of softening the impact of state borders in transboundary environmental decision-making and management, state sovereignty still hampers multilevel governance and management of resources in such contexts.

  • 22.
    Enfors, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social-ecological traps and transformations in dryland agro-ecosystems: Using water system innovations to change the trajectory of development2013In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 51-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent efforts to achieve a much needed productivity increase in farming systems across semi-arid and dry sub-humid sub-Saharan Africa have highlighted the potential of small-scale water system innovations (SWSIs). This paper takes a social-ecological resilience approach to investigate how this type of water management technology would influence agro-ecosystem dynamics, using a catchment in northeastern Tanzania as an example. The analysis finds that three external drivers (increasing dryspell frequency, population growth, and institutional changes) have interacted with a set of key variables in the studied system to shape a development trajectory over the past half-century where off-farm ecosystem services are being degraded while agricultural yields remain low and people remain poor. The analysis further finds that the evaluated SWSIs have the potential to destabilize feedbacks maintaining this social-ecological trap through several different mechanisms, and thereby open up for new development trajectories. A concluding discussion identifies a number of challenges to this type of transformation in sub-Saharan Africa, and outlines the type of investment approaches that would be needed to go from potential to reality.

  • 23. Eriksson, Hampus
    et al.
    Adhuri, Dedi S.
    Adrianto, Luky
    Andrew, Neil L.
    Apriliani, Tenny
    Daw, Tim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Evans, Louisa
    Garces, Len
    Kamanyi, Egidius
    Mwaipopo, Rosemarie
    Purnomo, Agus H.
    Sulu, Reuben J.
    Beare, Doug J.
    An ecosystem approach to small-scale fisheries through participatory diagnosis in four tropical countries2016In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 36, p. 56-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participatory diagnosis is an approach to identify, prioritize and mobilise around factors that constrain or enable effective governance and management in small-scale fisheries. Diagnostic frameworks are mostly designed and used for systematic scientific analysis or impact evaluation. Through participation they also have potential to guide contextually informed improvements to management in practice, including transitions to contemporary forms of governance like the ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF) the focus of our study. We document and critically reflect on participatory diagnosis processes and outcomes at sites in Indonesia, Philippines, Solomon Islands and Tanzania. These sites were part of an international project on the implementation of the EAF and differed widely in institutional and operational contexts. The Participatory Diagnosis and Adaptive Management framework and the issue radar diagnosis map were used to identify, evaluate and address factors associated with navigating management transitions towards the EAF. We found that many challenges and priority actions identified by participants were similar across the four study countries. Participants emphasized habitat restoration, particularly mangrove rehabilitation, and livelihood enhancement. The importance of strengthening governance entities, networks and processes (e.g., harmonization of policies, education and awareness of policies) was also a prominent outcome of the diagnosis. Site-specific factors were also explored together with the differing views among stakeholders. We conclude that diagnosis frameworks are indeed useful tools for guiding management transitions in fisheries, particularly where they enable flexibility in approaches to diagnosing problems and applying solutions to local contexts.

  • 24.
    Galaz, Victor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Dauriach, Alice
    Scholtens, Bert
    Steffen, Will
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Australian National University, Australia.
    Finance and the Earth system – Exploring the links between financial actors and non-linear changes in the climate system2018In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 53, p. 296-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Financial actors and capital play a key role in extractive economic activities around the world, as well as in current efforts to avoid dangerous climate change. Here, in contrast to standard approaches in finance, sustainability and climate change, we elaborate in what ways financial actors affect key biomes around the world, and through this known “tipping elements” in the Earth system. We combine Earth system and sustainability sciences with corporate finance to develop a methodology that allows us to link financial actors to economic activities modifying biomes of key importance for stabilizing Earth's climate system. Our analysis of key owners of companies operating in the Amazon rainforest (Brazil) and boreal forests (Russia and Canada) identifies a small set of international financial actors with considerable, but as of yet unrealized, globally spanning influence. We denote these “Financial Giants” and elaborate how incentives and disincentives currently influence their potential to bolster or undermine the stability of the Earth's climate system.

  • 25.
    García, María Mancilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Participatory Water Basin Councils in Peru and Brazil: Expert discourses as means and barriers to inclusion2019In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 55, p. 139-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last twenty years, participatory forums have been increasingly used to manage water basins around the world. The implementation of participatory forums has sought to prevent and overcome conflicts by bringing together a multiplicity of stakeholders in joint efforts to deliberate, achieve mutually agreed upon decisions, and distribute limited water resources. Different literature streams have evaluated the benefits and challenges of participatory forums in practice, such as the difficulties some forums have had when confronting existing power structures. Separately, research on water governance has paid particular attention to the ways in which expert discourses are used by traditionally powerful actors to exclude less powerful others. This paper draws from the literatures on participation and discourses in environmental governance to empirically investigate how expert discourses may empower or disempower certain actors in four basin councils - two in Peru and two in Brazil. Through qualitative thematic analysis of 116 interviews and observation notes, we specifically investigate the extent to which expert discourses in these basin councils help empower previously excluded actors. Our findings indicate stakeholder interests that are not, or cannot, be expressed within the frame of expert discourses are often marginalized. This suggests participation has made it possible for some previously excluded actors to have a voice, yet their potential influence is seemingly confined to a restricted space beyond which their voices will have little effect.

  • 26. Gephart, Jessica A.
    et al.
    Deutsch, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Pace, Michael L.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Seekell, David A.
    Shocks to fish production: Identification, trends, and consequences2017In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 42, p. 24-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sudden disruptions, or shocks, to food production can adversely impact access to and trade of food commodities. Seafood is the most traded food commodity and is globally important to human nutrition. The seafood production and trade system is exposed to a variety of disruptions including fishery collapses, natural disasters, oil spills, policy changes, and aquaculture disease outbreaks, aquafeed resource access and price spikes. The patterns and trends of these shocks to fisheries and aquaculture are poorly characterized and this limits the ability to generalize or predict responses to political, economic, and environmental changes. We applied a statistical shock detection approach to historic fisheries and aquaculture data to identify shocks over the period 1976-2011. A complementary case study approach was used to identify possible key social and political dynamics related to these shocks. The lack of a trend in the frequency or magnitude of the identified shocks and the range of identified causes suggest shocks are a common feature of these systems which occur due to a variety, and often multiple and simultaneous, causes. Shocks occurred most frequently in the Caribbean and Central America, the Middle East and North Africa, and South America, while the largest magnitude shocks occurred in Asia, Europe, and Africa. Shocks also occurred more frequently in aquaculture systems than in capture systems, particularly in recent years. In response to shocks, countries tend to increase imports and experience decreases in supply. The specific combination of changes in trade and supply are context specific, which is highlighted through four case studies. Historical examples of shocks considered in this study can inform policy for responding to shocks and identify potential risks and opportunities to build resilience in the global food system.

  • 27. Gomez-Baggethun, Erik
    et al.
    Reyes-Garcia, Victoria
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Montes, Carlos
    Traditional ecological knowledge and community resilience to environmental extremes: a case study in Donana, SW Spain2012In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 640-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research in the last decade has emphasised the potential contribution of traditional ecological knowledge to cope with challenges from global environmental change. This research examines the role of traditional ecological knowledge and shared systems of beliefs in building long-term social-ecological resilience to environmental extremes. Data were collected from 13 villages of the Donana region, southwestern Spain, through interviews, focus groups, and systematic reviews of historical archives. First, we assess adaptive practices to cope with environmental change. Then, we use historical records of religious ceremonies (1577-1956) to reconstruct collective responses to environmental extremes. Our results (1) show how environmental extremes could induce social and economic crises through declines in ecosystem services and (2) identify practices to cope with recurrent disturbance and institutional devices developed in response to environmental extremes. We conclude that traditional ecological knowledge and shared systems of beliefs can facilitate collective responses to crises and contribute to the maintenance of long-term resilience of social-ecological systems.

  • 28.
    Hamann, Maike
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Reyers, Belinda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa.
    Mapping social-ecological systems: Identifying 'green-loop' and 'red-loop' dynamics based on characteristic bundles of ecosystem service use2015In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 34, p. 218-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an approach to identify and map social-ecological systems based on the direct use of ecosystem services by households. This approach builds on the premise that characteristic bundles of ecosystem service use represent integrated expressions of different underlying social-ecological systems. We test the approach in South Africa using national census data on the direct use of six provisioning services (freshwater from a natural source, firewood for cooking, firewood for heating, natural building materials, animal production, and crop production) at two different scales. Based on a cluster analysis, we identify three distinct ecosystem service bundles that represent social-ecological systems characterized by low, medium and high levels of direct ecosystem service use among households. We argue that these correspond to 'green-loop', 'transition' and 'red-loop' systems as defined by Cumming et al. (2014). When mapped, these systems form coherent spatial units that differ from systems identified by additive combinations of separate social and biophysical datasets, the most common method of mapping social-ecological systems to date. The distribution of the systems we identified is mainly determined by social factors, such as household income, gender of the household head, and land tenure, and only partly determined by the supply of natural resources. An understanding of the location and characteristic resource use dynamics of different social-ecological systems allows for policies to be better targeted at the particular sustainability challenges faced in different areas.

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    fulltext
  • 29.
    Hedlund, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Fick, Stephen
    Carlsen, Henrik
    Benzie, Magnus
    Quantifying transnational climate impact exposure: New perspectives on the global distribution of climate risk2018In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 52, p. 75-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indicators used in climate change adaptation planning are largely based on estimates of national or local climate vulnerability. However, classic vulnerability indices do not consider cross-border effects and global interconnections. We attempt to reconcile this need for a broader perspective by developing a global index of exposure to transnational climate impacts, which we define as impacts that are transferred via flows between countries. The index integrates traditional climate vulnerability indicators with spatially-explicit teleconnections between specific countries and constitutes a first approximation of the distribution of such exposure globally. Our results indicate that even though climate risks emerging from within a country's borders are highly correlated with economic development and geography, the distribution of exposure to transnational climate impacts provides a much more complex picture of global vulnerabilities, which neither geography, nor economic development alone can explain sufficiently. This highlights the need to take a cross-scale and multidimensional perspective of climate risk. In order to support more robust adaptation planning, risk assessments should consider both transboundary and far-reaching teleconnected interdependencies between countries.

  • 30. Hinkel, J.
    et al.
    Klein, Richard J.T.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Integrating knowledge to assess coastal vulnerability to sea-level rise: the development of the DIVA tool2009In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 384-395Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Häyhä, Tiina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, The Netherlands.
    Lucas, Paul L.
    van Vuuren, Detlef P.
    Cornell, Sarah E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hoff, Holger
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany.
    From Planetary Boundaries to national fair shares of the global safe operating space - How can the scales be bridged?2016In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 40, p. 60-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The planetary boundaries framework proposes quantitative global limits to the anthropogenic perturbation of crucial Earth system processes, and thus marks out a planetary safe operating space for human activities. Yet, decisions regarding resource use and emissions are mostly made at less aggregated scales, by national and sub-national governments, businesses, and other local actors. To operationalize the planetary boundaries concept, the boundaries need to be translated into and aligned with targets that are relevant at these decision-making scales. In this paper, we develop a framework that addresses the biophysical, socio-economic, and ethical dimensions of bridging across scales, to provide a consistently applicable approach for translating the planetary boundaries into national-level fair shares of Earth's safe operating space. We discuss our findings in the context of previous studies and their implications for future analyses and, policymaking. In this way, we link the planetary boundaries framework to widely-applied operational and policy concepts for more robust strong sustainability decision-making.

  • 32.
    Johannessen, Åse
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social learning towards a more adaptive paradigm? Reducing flood risk in Kristianstad municipality, Sweden2013In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 372-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social learning is often treated as an intervention, a designed process facilitated or even initiated by a third party. We investigated how a social learning process emerged spontaneously from inside Kristianstad, one of the most flood-prone municipalities in Sweden. Twenty key persons were interviewed over 8 years, many of them several times, to assess the process. A small action oriented group of technical professionals perceived the flood risk and were key drivers providing strategic innovative capacity. We identified the process attributes that fostered the learning, the knowledge generated and other learning outcomes adapting a model by Schusler et al. (2003). Despite some elements of double loop learning, this process was not able to change the prevailing stationary principle/paradigm, feeling safe behind the embankments and continuing building on low lying land. We argue that building resilience and adaptive capacity would require a mind shift to a paradigm of flood proofing/living with floods and preparing for the unexpected, acknowledging that water cannot be controlled at a certain level. We conclude that knowledge development is inhibited by the Swedish decentralisation approach and we call for a multilevel learning strategy including learning from international experience and emphasising more active coordination at the national level

  • 33.
    Keys, Patrick W.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Colorado State University, USA.
    Wang-Erlandsson, Lan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Gordon, Line J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Galaz, Victor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ebbesson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Approaching moisture recycling governance2017In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 45, p. 15-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spatial and temporal dynamics of water resources are a continuous challenge for effective and sustainable national and international governance. The watershed is the most common spatial unit in water resources governance, which typically includes only surface and groundwater. However, recent advances in hydrology have revealed 'atmospheric watersheds' - otherwise known as precipitationsheds. Water flowing within a precipitationshed may be modified by land-use change in one location, while the effect of this modification could be felt in a different province, country, or continent. Despite an upwind country's ability to change a downwind country's rainfall through changes in land-use or land management, the major legal and institutional implications of changes in atmospheric moisture flows have remained unexplored. Here we explore potential ways to approach what we denote as moisture recycling governance. We first identify a set of international study regions, and then develop a typology of moisture recycling relationships within these regions ranging from bilateral moisture exchange to more complex networks. This enables us to classify different types of possible governance principles and relate those to existing land and water governance frameworks and management practices. The complexity of moisture recycling means institutional fit will be difficult to generalize for all moisture recycling relationships, but our typology allows the identification of characteristics that make effective governance of these normally ignored water flows more tenable.

  • 34.
    Larsen, Rasmus Klocker
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Calgaro, Emma
    Thomalla, Frank
    Governing resilience building in Thailand’s dependent coastal communities: conceptualising stakeholder agency in social-ecological systems2011In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 481-491Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35. Mace, Georgina M.
    et al.
    Reyers, Belinda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Council for Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR), South Africa .
    Alkemade, Rob
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Chapin, F. Stuart, III
    Cornell, Sarah E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Diaz, Sandra
    Jennings, Simon
    Leadley, Paul
    Mumby, Peter J.
    Purvis, Andy
    Scholes, Robert J.
    Seddon, Alistair W. R.
    Solan, Martin
    Steffen, Will
    Woodward, Guy
    Approaches to defining a planetary boundary for biodiversity2014In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 28, p. 289-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea that there is an identifiable set of boundaries, beyond which anthropogenic change will put the Earth system outside a safe operating space for humanity, is attracting interest in the scientific community and gaining support in the environmental policy world. Rockstrom et al. (2009) identify nine such boundaries and highlight biodiversity loss as being the single boundary where current rates of extinction put the Earth system furthest outside the safe operating space. Here we review the evidence to support a boundary based on extinction rates and identify weaknesses with this metric and its bearing on humanity's needs. While changes to biodiversity are of undisputed importance, we show that both extinction rate and species richness are weak metrics for this purpose, and they do not scale well from local to regional or global levels. We develop alternative approaches to determine biodiversity loss boundaries and extend our analysis to consider large-scale responses in the Earth system that could affect its suitability for complex human societies which in turn are mediated by the biosphere. We suggest three facets of biodiversity on which a boundary could be based: the genetic library of life; functional type diversity; and biome condition and extent. For each of these we explore the science needed to indicate how it might be measured and how changes would affect human societies. In addition to these three facets, we show how biodiversity's role in supporting a safe operating space for humanity may lie primarily in its interactions with other boundaries, suggesting an immediate area of focus for scientists and policymakers.

  • 36.
    Marín, Andrés
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo Local y Regional, Universidad de Los Lagos, Chile.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gelcich, Stefan
    Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Global Economic Dynamics and the Biosphere, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Social capital in post-disaster recovery trajectories: insights from a longitudinal study of tsunami-impacted small-scale fisher organizations in Chile2015In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 35, p. 450-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased likelihood and severity of coastal disasters in the 21st century represent major threats for coastal communities’ resource management capacity and livelihoods. Disaster research has frequently looked for singular factors explaining why some communities are more resilient and better equipped to cope with and recover from disasters. This study draws on Chile’s 2010 tsunami to evaluate the effects of both internal (social capital) and external (level of damage and isolation) factors on fishing communities’ recovery trajectories. Using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) we assess how the concurrency of conditions explains fisher organization responses. By operationalizing social capital as the social networks developed for co-management, we also evaluate whether social capital developed for natural resource management can help communities overcome post-disaster challenges. Results show that the level of linking social capital is critical in determining post-disaster trajectories. While maintained or increasing levels of social capital are indispensable for positive trajectories to occur, a common denominator for less desirable post-disaster recovery trajectories is a low or reduced level of social capital. However, external factors, such as the amount of damage and geographical isolation, are also important in determining recovery trajectories, indicating the limits of relying solely on social relations for recovery. These concurrent factors can amplify or reduce the importance of supportive relationships. Understanding the implications of complex interplay between social capital and external factors for community recovery in response to coastal disasters can inform the design of more effective and efficient responses and policies in Chile and more broadly. Furthermore, social capital developed for the purpose of co-management of natural resources can actually promote desirable post-disaster trajectories.

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    trajectories post-print
  • 37. Maury, O.
    et al.
    Campling, L.
    Arrizabalaga, H.
    Aumont, O.
    Bopp, L.
    Merino, G.
    Squires, D.
    Cheung, W.
    Goujon, M.
    Guivarch, C.
    Lefort, S.
    Marsac, F.
    Monteagudo, P.
    Murtugudde, R.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Pulvenis, J. F.
    Ye, Y.
    van Ruijven, B. J.
    From shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs) to oceanic system pathways (OSPs): Building policy-relevant scenarios for global oceanic ecosystems and fisheries2017In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 45, p. 203-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an urgent need for developing policy-relevant future scenarios of biodiversity and ecosystem services. This paper is a milestone toward this aim focusing on open ocean fisheries. We develop five contrasting Oceanic System Pathways (OSPs), based on the existing five archetypal worlds of Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) developed for climate change research (e.g., Nakicenovic et al., 2014 and Riahi et al., 2016). First, we specify the boundaries of the oceanic social-ecological system under focus. Second, the two major driving forces of oceanic social-ecological systems are identified in each of three domains, viz., economy, management and governance. For each OSP (OSP1 sustainability first, OSP2 conventional trends, OSP3 dislocation, OSP4 global elite and inequality, OSP5 high tech and market), a storyline is outlined describing the evolution of the driving forces with the corresponding SSP. Finally, we compare the different pathways of oceanic social-ecological systems by projecting them in the two-dimensional spaces defined by the driving forces, in each of the economy, management and governance domains. We expect that the OSPs will serve as a common basis for future model based scenario studies in the context of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES).

  • 38.
    Merrie, Andrew
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Dunn, Daniel C.
    Metian, Marc
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Boustany, Andre M.
    Takei, Yoshinobu
    Elferink, Alex Oude
    Ota, Yoshitaka
    Christensen, Villy
    Halpin, Patrick N.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    An ocean of surprises - Trends in human use, unexpected dynamics and governance challenges in areas beyond national jurisdiction2014In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 27, p. 19-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expanse of ocean which makes up all marine areas beyond national jurisdiction has been characterized as the last frontier of exploitation on the planet, a figurative final Wild West. Existing users of areas beyond national jurisdiction, with the exception of fisheries, currently have a limited footprint there as a consequence, in part, of substantial hurdles in technological development that need to be overcome before many resources can be extracted at a commercially viable scale. However, we argue surprise shifts perpetuated by both established and emerging users could lead to an expansion in actors taking opportunities to chase lucrative resources that they are currently constrained from exploiting. Rapid development could also lead to a crowded ocean due to the multiplication of users which could present a problem given the current lack of a unified institutional framework for governance connecting the different user groups. Here, we have collated trends in human use of areas beyond national jurisdiction and offer a framework for, and examples of, unexpected dynamics relevant to living and non-living marine resources. Such an approach is necessary in order to begin to mobilize an adequate governance response to changing conditions and uses of areas beyond national jurisdiction. This governance response must be able to govern established or potential users, be flexible and adaptive in response to unexpected and unpredictable dynamics and be able to transform in the face of unpredictable future uses of this vast area. Here we present a set of institutional design principles as a first tentative step in this direction.

  • 39. Meyfroid, P.
    et al.
    Chowdhury, R. Roy
    de Bremond, A.
    Ellis, E. C.
    Erb, K-H.
    Filatova, T.
    Garrett, R. D.
    Grove, J. M.
    Heinimann, A.
    Kuemmerle, T.
    Kull, C. A.
    Lambin, E. F.
    Landon, Y.
    de Warow, Y. le Polain
    Messerli, P.
    Mueller, D.
    Nielsen, J. O.
    Peterson, Gary D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Garcia, V. Rodriguez
    Schlüter, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Turner, B. L.
    Verburg, P. H.
    Middle-range theories of land system change2018In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 53, p. 52-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in land systems generate many sustainability challenges. Identifying more sustainable land-use alternatives requires solid theoretical foundations on the causes of land-use/cover changes. Land system science is a maturing field that has produced a wealth of methodological innovations and empirical observations on land cover and land-use change, from patterns and processes to causes. We take stock of this knowledge by reviewing and synthesizing the theories that explain the causal mechanisms of land-use change, including systemic linkages between distant land-use changes, with a focus on agriculture and forestry processes. We first review theories explaining changes in land-use extent, such as agricultural expansion, deforestation, frontier development, and land abandonment, and changes in land-use intensity, such as agricultural intensification and disintensification. We then synthesize theories of higher-level land system change processes, focusing on: (i) land-use spillovers, including land sparing and rebound effects with intensification, leakage, indirect land-use change, and land-use displacement, and (ii) land-use transitions, defined as structural non-linear changes in land systems, including forest transitions. Theories focusing on the causes of land system changes span theoretically and epistemologically disparate knowledge domains and build from deductive, abductive, and inductive approaches. A grand, integrated theory of land system change remains elusive. Yet, we show that middle-range theories - defined here as contextual generalizations that describe chains of causal mechanisms explaining a well-bounded range of phenomena, as well as the conditions that trigger, enable, or prevent these causal chains -, provide a path towards generalized knowledge of land systems. This knowledge can support progress towards sustainable social-ecological systems.

  • 40. O’Neill, Brian C.
    et al.
    Kemp-Benedict, Eric
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Solecki, William
    The roads ahead: Narratives for shared socioeconomic pathways describing world futures in the 21st century2017In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 42, p. 169-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term scenarios play an important role in research on global environmental change. The climate change research community is developing new scenarios integrating future changes in climate and society to investigate climate impacts as well as options for mitigation and adaptation. One component of these new scenarios is a set of alternative futures of societal development known as the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). The conceptual framework for the design and use of the SSPs calls for the development of global pathways describing the future evolution of key aspects of society that would together imply a range of challenges for mitigating and adapting to climate change. Here we present one component of these pathways: the SSP narratives, a set of five qualitative descriptions of future changes in demographics, human development, economy and lifestyle, policies and institutions, technology, and environment and natural resources. We describe the methods used to develop the narratives as well as how these pathways are hypothesized to produce particular combinations of challenges to mitigation and adaptation. Development of the narratives drew on expert opinion to (1) identify key determinants of these challenges that were essential to incorporate in the narratives and (2) combine these elements in the narratives in a manner consistent with scholarship on their inter-relationships. The narratives are intended as a description of plausible future conditions at the level of large world regions that can serve as a basis for integrated scenarios of emissions and land use, as well as climate impact, adaptation and vulnerability analyses.

  • 41.
    Orach, Kirill
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schlüter, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Uncovering the political dimension of social-ecological systems: Contributions from policy process frameworks2016In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 40, p. 13-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the governance of social-ecological systems often emphasizes the need for self-organized, flexible and adaptive arrangements to deal with uncertainty, abrupt change and surprises that are characteristic of social-ecological systems. However, adaptive governance as well as transitions toward alternative forms of governance are embedded in politics and it is often the political processes that determine change and stability in governance systems and policy. This paper analyses five established theoretical frameworks of the policy process originating in political science and public policy research with respect to their potential to enhance understanding of governance and complex policy dynamics in social-ecological systems. The frameworks are found to be divergent in their conceptualization of policy change (focusing on incremental or large-scale, major changes), highlighting different aspects of bounded rationality in their model of individual behavior and focusing their attention on different aspects of the policy process (role of information, attention, beliefs, institutional structure, particular actors, etc.). We discuss the application of these frameworks and their potential contribution, to unravelling the political dimension in adaptive governance and transformations.

  • 42.
    Plummer, Ryan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada .
    de Grosbois, Danuta
    Armitage, Derek
    de Loe, Rob C.
    An integrative assessment of water vulnerability in First Nation communities in Southern Ontario, Canada2013In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 749-763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing vulnerability related to water is a global concern and especially important to populations experiencing multiple exposures and sensitivities. Approaches are required that span social and physical concerns, and that bridge multiple types and forms of knowledge. This research investigates the water vulnerability of three First Nation communities in Ontario, Canada. A collaborative process was used to build an integrative understanding of water vulnerability, develop an associated instrument, and undertake the community scale assessments. Results from the assessment provided communities with a comprehensive overview of water vulnerability, and pointed to gaps in knowledge and specific areas where attention was needed. Conducting assessments at a community scale following the methodology employed in this research responds to the need for integration and context sensitivity when engaging in water vulnerability assessments and introduces innovations to existing assessment tools. A holistic approach to water vulnerability assessment provided decision-makers with the context-specific details and empirical insights they require to prioritize issues and allocate resources.

  • 43.
    Schultz, Lisen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    West, Simon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bourke, Alba Juarez
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The James Hutton Institute, UK.
    d'Armengol, Laia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain.
    Torrents, Pau
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hardardottir, Hildur
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jansson, Annie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Roldan, Alba Mohedano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Learning to live with social-ecological complexity: An interpretive analysis of learning in 11 UNESCO Biosphere Reserves2018In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 50, p. 75-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning is considered a means to achieve sustainability in practice and has become a prominent goal of sustainability interventions. In this paper we explore how learning for sustainability is shaped by meaning, interpretation and experience, in the context of UNESCO Biosphere Reserves (BRs). The World Network of Biosphere Reserves brings environmental conservation, socio-economic development and research together in 'learning sites for sustainable development.' The World Network is globally significant, with 669 BRs in 120 countries, but as with many paradigmatic sustainability interventions BRs are perceived to suffer from a 'concept-reality gap.' We explore this gap from an interpretive perspective, focusing on participant interpretations of the meaning of BRs and their experiences of working with the concept - with the aim of painting a richer picture of learning for sustainability and the ways in which BRs might fulfil their role as learning sites. We provide a cross-case analysis of learning in 11 BRs around the world, drawing on interviews with 177 participants, and ask: How is the BR concept interpreted and enacted by people involved with BR work? What learning emerges through BR work, as described by those involved? We find that the BR concept is interpreted differently in each location, producing distinct expectations, practices and institutional designs. Learning occurs around common themes - human environment relationships, actors and governance arrangements, and skills to navigate BR work - but is expressed very differently in each BR. The position of BRs 'in between' social, ecological and economic goals; local places and global networks; and government, private and civil society sectors, provides a valuable space for participants to learn to live with social-ecological complexity. We discuss our results in terms of their contribution to three pressing concerns in sustainability science: (i) power and politics in learning for sustainability, (ii) intermediaries and bridging organizations in multi-level governance, and (iii) reflexivity and knowledge action relationships. Our comparative hermeneutic approach makes a novel methodological contribution to interpretive studies of sustainability policy and governance.

  • 44. Spake, Rebecca
    et al.
    Lasseur, Remy
    Crouzat, Emilie
    Bullock, James M.
    Lavorel, Sandra
    Parks, Katherine E.
    Schaafsma, Marije
    Bennett, Elena M.
    Maes, Joachim
    Mulligan, Mark
    Mouchet, Maud
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schulp, Catharina J. E.
    Thuiller, Wilfried
    Turner, Monica G.
    Verburg, Peter H.
    Eigenbrod, Felix
    Unpacking ecosystem service bundles: Towards predictive mapping of synergies and trade-offs between ecosystem services2017In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 47, p. 37-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple ecosystem services (ES) can respond similarly to social and ecological factors to form bundles. Identifying key social-ecological variables and understanding how they co-vary to produce these consistent sets of ES may ultimately allow the prediction and modelling of ES bundles, and thus, help us understand critical synergies and trade-offs across landscapes. Such an understanding is essential for informing better management of multi-functional landscapes and minimising costly trade-offs. However, the relative importance of different social and biophysiCal drivers of ES bundles in different types of social-ecological systems remains unclear. As such, a bottom-up understanding of the determinants of ES bundles is a critical research gap in ES and sustainability science. Here, we evaluate the current methods used in ES bundle science and synthesize these into four steps that capture the plurality of methods used to examine predictors of ES bundles. We then apply these four steps to a cross-study comparison (North and South French Alps) of relationships between social-ecological variables and ES bundles, as it is widely advocated that cross-study comparisons are necessary for achieving a general understanding of predictors of ES associations. We use the results of this case study to assess the strengths and limitations of current approaches for understanding distributions of ES bundles. We conclude that inconsistency of spatial scale remains the primary barrier for understanding and predicting ES bundles. We suggest a hypothesis-driven approach is required to predict relationships between ES, and we outline the research required for such an understanding to emerge.

  • 45.
    Spijkers, Jessica
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. James Cook University, Australia.
    Singh, Gerald
    Blasiak, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Morrison, Tiffany H.
    Le Billon, Philippe
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Global patterns of fisheries conflict: Forty years of data2019In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 57, article id 101921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International fisheries conflict can cause crises by threatening maritime security, ecosystems and livelihoods. In a highly connected world, the possibility for localized fisheries conflict to escalate into 'systemic risks', where risk in one domain such as food supply can increase risk in another domain such as maritime security and international relations, is growing. However, countries often choose hard-line actions rather than strategies initiating or repairing fisheries cooperation. To design, prioritize and implement more effective responses, a deeper understanding of the temporal and regional patterns of fisheries conflict is needed. Here, we present novel findings from the first global and longitudinal database of international fisheries conflict between 1974-2016. We explore the characteristics of conflict over time and develop a typology of eight distinct types of conflict. Fisheries conflict increased between 1974 and 2016, with substantial variation in both the type of conflict and the countries involved. Before 2000, fisheries conflict involved mostly North American and European countries fighting over specific species. Since then, conflict primarily involved Asian countries clashing over multiple and nonspecified species linked to illegal fishing practices. We use this empirical data to consider potential response strategies that can foster maritime security and thereby contribute to broader societal stability.

  • 46. Tlusty, Michael F.
    et al.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Bailey, Megan
    Ziegler, Friederike
    Henriksson, Patrik J. G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. WorldFish, Malaysia; Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Béné, Christophe
    Bush, Simon
    Newton, Richard
    Asche, Frank
    Little, David C.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Jonell, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Reframing the sustainable seafood narrative2019In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 59, article id 101991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dominant sustainable seafood narrative is one where developed world markets catalyze practice improvements by fisheries and aquaculture producers that enhance ocean health. The narrow framing of seafood sustainability in terms of aquaculture or fisheries management and ocean health has contributed to the omission of these important food production systems from the discussion on global food system sustainability. This omission is problematic. Seafood makes critical contributions to food and nutrition security, particularly in low income countries, and is often a more sustainable and nutrient rich source of animal sourced-food than terrestrial meat production. We argue that to maximize the positive contributions that seafood can make to sustainable food systems, the conventional narratives that prioritize seafood's role in promoting 'ocean health' need to be reframed and cover a broader set of environmental and social dimensions of sustainability. The focus of the narrative also needs to move from a producer-centric to a 'whole chain' perspective that includes greater inclusion of the later stages with a focus on food waste, by-product utilization and consumption. Moreover, seafood should not be treated as a single aggregated item in sustainability assessments. Rather, it should be recognized as a highly diverse set of foods, with variable environmental impacts, edible yield rates and nutritional profiles. Clarifying discussions around seafood will help to deepen the integration of fisheries and aquaculture into the global agenda on sustainable food production, trade and consumption, and assist governments, private sector actors, NGOs and academics alike in identifying where improvements can be made.

  • 47. Treml, Eric A.
    et al.
    Fidelman, Pedro I. J.
    Kininmonth, Stuart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ekström, Julia A.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Analyzing the (mis)fit between the institutional and ecological networks of the Indo-West Pacific2015In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 31, p. 263-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical to improving environmental governance is understanding the fit (alignment) between institutional arrangements and key ecological processes. This is particularly true for biodiversity hotpots and ecologically sensitive areas that are subject to significant impacts from human activities. Here, we have developed an innovative approach to quantify ecological-institutional alignment across an environmentally and politically complex large-scale marine social-ecological system. We mapped the trans-boundary networks of marine population dispersal corridors, and intersected these with estimates of cross-country institutional linkages related to marine management and conservation. In integrating large-scale ecological-institutional networks, we identify geopolitical fit and misfit between a region's ecological processes and its governance. We have demonstrated this approach in the Indo-West Pacific region, a global marine biodiversity hotpot in the Indo-West Pacific. We present region-specific institutional and ecological networks, highlight current challenges, and suggest future directions to refine the proposed approach to quantify alignment between ecological processes and governance arrangements. Ultimately, our method has the potential to assist management efforts in prioritizing and strengthening governance to effectively safeguard ecological processes across multiple jurisdictions.

  • 48. Tzanopoulos, J.
    et al.
    Mouttet, R.
    Letourneau, A.
    Vogiatzakis, I. N.
    Potts, S. G.
    Henle, K.
    Mathevet, Raphael
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Marty, P.
    Scale sensitivity of drivers of environmental change across Europe2013In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 167-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of effective environmental management plans and policies requires a sound understanding of the driving forces involved in shaping and altering the structure and function of ecosystems. However, driving forces, especially anthropogenic ones, are defined and operate at multiple administrative levels, which do not always match ecological scales. This paper presents an innovative methodology of analysing drivers of change by developing a typology of scale sensitivity of drivers that classifies and describes the way they operate across multiple administrative levels. Scale sensitivity varies considerably among drivers, which can be classified into five broad categories depending on the response of 'evenness' and Intensity change' when moving across administrative levels. Indirect drivers tend to show low scale sensitivity, whereas direct drivers show high scale sensitivity, as they operate in a non-linear way across the administrative scale. Thus policies addressing direct drivers of change, in particular, need to take scale into consideration during their formulation. Moreover, such policies must have a strong spatial focus, which can be achieved either by encouraging local-regional policy making or by introducing high flexibility in (inter)national policies to accommodate increased differentiation at lower administrative levels. High quality data is available for several drivers, however, the availability of consistent data at all levels for non-anthropogenic drivers is a major constraint to mapping and assessing their scale sensitivity. This lack of data may hinder effective policy making for environmental management, since it restricts the ability to fully account for scale sensitivity of natural drivers in policy design.

  • 49.
    Valman, Matilda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Duit, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    HELCOM, we have a problem: gradually unfolding crises and problem detection in international organisationsIn: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50. Verburg, Peter H.
    et al.
    Dearing, John A.
    Dyke, James G.
    van der Leeuw, Sander
    Seitzinger, Sybil
    Steffen, Will
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Australian National University, Australia.
    Syvitski, James
    Methods and approaches to modelling the Anthropocene2016In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 39, p. 328-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 'Anthropocene' concept provides a conceptual framework that encapsulates the current global situation in which society has an ever-greater dominating influence on Earth System functioning. Simulation models used to understand earth system dynamics provide early warning, scenario analysis and evaluation of environmental management and policies. This paper aims to assess the extent to which current models represent the Anthropocene and suggest ways forward. Current models do not fully reflect the typical characteristics of the Anthropocene, such as societal influences and interactions with natural processes, feedbacks and system dynamics, tele-connections, tipping points, thresholds and regime shifts. Based on an analysis of current model representations of Anthropocene dynamics, we identify ways to enhance the role of modeling tools to better help us understand Anthropocene dynamics and address sustainability issues arising from them. To explore sustainable futures ('safe and operating spaces'), social processes and anthropogenic drivers of biophysical processes must be incorporated, to allow for a spectrum of potential impacts and responses at different societal levels. In this context, model development can play a major role in reconciling the different epistemologies of the disciplines that need to collaborate to capture changes in the functioning of socio-ecological systems. Feedbacks between system functioning and underlying endogenous drivers should be represented, rather than assuming the drivers to be exogenous to the modelled system or stationary in time and space. While global scale assessments are important, the global scale dynamics need to be connected to local realities and vice versa. The diversity of stakeholders and potential questions requires a diversification of models, avoiding the convergence towards single models that are able to answer a wide range of questions, but without sufficient specificity. The novel concept of the Anthropocene can help to develop innovative model representations and model architectures that are better suited to assist in designing sustainable solutions targeted at the users of the models and model results.

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